Muhajirun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرونThe Emigrants) were the early, initial Muslims who followed the Islamic prophet Muhammad on his Hijra (withdrawal from Mecca to Medina). The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar ("helpers").

During Muhammad's era[edit]

About a month after Hamzah's unsuccessful attack in the first caravan raid, Muhammad entrusted a party of sixty Muhajirun led by Ubaydah to conduct another operation at a Quraysh caravan that was returning from Syria and protected by two hundred armed men. The leader of this caravan was Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. The Muslim party went as far as Thanyatul-Murra, a watering place in Hejaz. No fighting took place, as the Quraysh were quite far from the place where Muslims were in the offing to attack the caravan. Nevertheless, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas shot an arrow at the Quraysh. This is known as the first arrow of Islam.[1] Despite this surprise attack, no fighting took place and the Muslims returned empty-handed. It is believed that Ubaydah was the first to carry the banner of Islam; others say Hamzah was the first to carry the first banner .[2][3][4]

Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas was ordered to lead the third raid. His group consisted of about twenty Muhajirs. This raid was done about a month after the previous. Sa'd, with his soldiers, set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria. But the caravan had already passed and the Muslims returned to Medina without a fight.[2][3][5][6] [7]

The fourth raid, known as the invasion of Waddan, was the first offensive in which Muhammad took part personally with 70, mostly Muhajir,troops.[2] It is said that twelve months after moving to Medina, Muhammad himself led a caravan raid to Waddan (Al-Abwa). The aim was to intercept the caravans of the Quraysh. The raid party did not meet any Quraysh during the raid.[3][6]

The fifth raid, known as the invasion of Buwat, was also commanded by Muhammad.[3] A month after the raid at al-Abwa, he personally led 200 men including Muhajirs and Ansars to Bawat, a place on the caravan route of the Quraysh merchants. A herd of 1,500 camels, accompanied by 100 riders under the leadership of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh. The purpose of the raid was to plunder this rich Quraysh caravan.[4][6][8] The caravan was led by 100 Quraysh and 2,500 camels were with them.[9]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:57:74
  2. ^ a b c Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar p. 127
  3. ^ a b c d Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7 
  4. ^ a b Witness Pioneer "Pre-Badr Missions and Invasions"
  5. ^ Mubarakpuri, Sealed Nectar, P 147
  6. ^ a b c Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (in Arabic). Islamic Book Trust.  Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic. English version here
  7. ^ Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 345.
  8. ^ Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 346.
  9. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 128
  10. ^ De historische Mohammed, De Mekkaanse verhalen, H. Jansen, BV Uitgeverij De Arbeiderspers, 2005, blz. 209, ISBN 90-295-6282-X
  11. ^ Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet By Karen Armstrong, pg. 151
  12. ^ a b c d e f Peshawar Nights on Al-Islam.org
  13. ^ IslamWeb