Muhammad Taqi Usmani
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|Shaikhul Islam, Mufti
Muhammad Taqi Usmani
|Title||Mufti, Shaikhul Islam|
|Born||5 October 1943 (age 69)
Deoband, British India
|Main interest(s)||Shari'a, Hadith, Islamic finance, Tafsir, Sufism|
|Notable idea(s)||Evolution of Islamic economics, Islamic banking|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Karachi
Darul Uloom Deoband, India
Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی, Muḥammad Taqī ‘Usmāni, Arabic: ‘Uthmāni; born 1943) (also spelled Uthmani) is a Hanafi Islamic scholar from Pakistan. He served as a judge on the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from 1981 to 1982 and the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan between 1982 and 2002. He is an expert in the fields of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh), economics and hadith. He also held a number of positions on the Shariah Boards of prestigious Islamic institutions, and is one of the most influential Islamic authors outside the Middle East. He is the brother of Islamic scholars Muhammad Rafi Usmani, Muhammad Wali Razi, and the late Muhammad Razi Usmani, as well as of the late Urdu poet Muhammad Zaki Kaifi.
In 1958, Usmani passed the Fazil-e-Arabi (Arabic language examination) with distinction, administered by the Punjab Board. In 1959 he graduated from the `Alim course at Darul Uloom Karachi. He then specialised in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) under the guidance of his father, the Grand Mufti of Pakistan and of Darul Uloom Karachi, Muhammad Shafi, receiving his Takhassus degree (equivalent to a PhD) in fiqh and ifta (issuance of Islamic legal opinions) from Darul Uloom Karachi in 1961, earning the title of Mufti. He graduated from the University of Karachi with a Bachelor of Arts in 1964, then received a Bachelor of Laws with distinction from the University of Karachi in 1967. He received a Master of Arts in Arabic literature, with distinction, from the University of Punjab in 1970.
Usmani received ijaza to teach hadith from Islamic scholars including Muhammad Shafi, Idris Kandhalvi, Muhammad Tayyib, Saleemullah Khan, Rashid Ahmad Ludhianvi, Sahban Mahmud, Zafar Ahmad Usmani, Muhammad Zakariya Kandhalvi, Hasan al-Mahshat, and others.
Usmani pioneered the concept of Islamic banking in Pakistan when he established the Meezan Bank. Usmani has authored a number of books in Arabic, Urdu, and English on Islamic topics in addition to a large number of articles on Islamic banking and finance published in a number of journals and magazines.
In March 2004, United Arab Emirates Vice President and Prime Minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum presented an award to Taqi Usmani in recognition of his lifetime service and achievement in Islamic finance during the annual International Islamic Finance Forum (IIFF) in Dubai.
In accordance with the tradition of the scholars of Deoband and recognising the importance of tasawwuf, Usmani's bay'ah was accepted by Abdul Hayy Arifi and Maseehullah Khan. Usmani is currently a mentor to numerous spiritual aspirants all over the world and delivers weekly lectures on self-improvement at Darul Uloom Karachi on Sundays between Asr Salaah and Maghrib Salaah. 
He currently teaches Sahih al-Bukhari, fiqh, and Islamic economics at Darul Uloom Karachi and is known for his Islahi Khutbat. He was a key member of a team of scholars which helped declare Ahmadis (Qadianis), as non-Muslims by Pakistan's National Assembly during the era of former Pakistani president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in the 1970s. During the presidency of General Zia ul Haq, he was instrumental in drafting laws pertaining to Hudood, Qisas, and Dayiat. He strongly opposed the Women's Protection Bill. According to him, it was designed to distract attention from issues such as flaws in the law enforcement system.
According to a comment piece in The Times, Usmani "believes that aggressive military jihad should be waged by Muslims 'to establish the supremacy of Islam' worldwide." and "Muslims should live peacefully in countries such as Britain, where they have the freedom to practise Islam, only until they gain enough power to engage in battle". On 23 October 2009, he published a response to alleged misrepresentations of his views on Jihad. To a question whether he had issued any fatwas saying “Muslims living in the West conduct violent jihad against the infidels at every opportunity.” he declared: "I never made any such statement either in writing or verbally nor issued any so-called fatwa. Nor is there any sentence to that effect in any of my writings, including “Islam and Modernism”. If this statement is attributed to me in Mr. Norfolk’s interview with me, it is not but a blatant lie, because I never said this during the interview." In Norfolk's piece in The Times this quote was not made. Usmani did write in his book “Islam and Modernism” about aggressive jihad that: “The question is whether aggressive battle is by itself commendable or not. If it is, why should the Muslims stop simply because territorial expansion in these days is regarded as bad? And if it is not commendable, but deplorable, why did Islam not stop it in the past?” and that peace agreements with non-Muslims in power is acceptable if: "If Muslims do not possess the capability of "Jihad with power" agreement may be made till the power is attained."
Positions currently holding
- Vice President and Shaykh al-Hadith, Jamia Darul Uloom Karachi
- Chairman, International Shariah Standard Council, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, Bahrain
- Permanent Member, Vice Chairman, International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, organ of the OIC
- Member, Islamic Fiqh Academy of Muslim World League, Makkah
- Chairman, Centre for Islamic Economics, Pakistan (since 1991)
Positions held in the past
- Judge, Shariat Appellate Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan (1982 to May 2002)
- Judge, Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan (1980 to 1982)
- Member, Syndicate University of Karachi (1985 to 1988)
- Member, Board of Governors, International Islamic University Islamabad (1985 to 1989)
- Member, International Institute of Islamic Economics (1985 to 1988)
- Member, Council of Islamic Ideology (1977 to 1981)
- Member, Board of Trustees, International Islamic University, Islamabad (2004 to 2007)
- Member, Commission for Islamisation of Economy of Pakistan
Currently affiliated institutions
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Central Bank of Bahrain
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, U.A.E.
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Meezan Bank Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Dubai Bank, Dubai
- Chairman, Shariah Board, International Islamic Rating Agency, Bahrain
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Swiss Re-Takaful, Switzerland
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Pak-Kuwait Takaful, Karachi
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Pak-Qatar Takaful, Karachi
- Chairman, Shariah Board, JS Investments Islamic Fund, Karachi
- Chairman, Shariah Board, JS Islamic Pension Savings Fund
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Arif Habib Investments – Pakistan International Element Islamic Fund, Karachi
- Chairman, Independent Sharia Supervisory Council, Amana Bank, Sri Lanka
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Maldives Islamic Bank
- Member, Shariah Board, Arcapita Bank, Bahrain
- Member, Shariah Board, Islamic Corporation for the Development of the Private Sector (ICD), an organ of IDB Jeddah
Previously affiliated institutions
- Member, Shariah Board, Bank of Khyber, Peshawar
- Chairman, Shariah Board, European Islamic Investment Bank, UK (affiliation ended Dec 2008)
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Dow Jones Islamic Index, New York
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Saudi American Bank, Jeddah.
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Islamic House of Britain plc, UK
- Chairman, Shariah Board, HSBC Amanah Finance, Dubai
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Robert Fleming Oasis Fund, Luxemburg.
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Citi Islamic Investment Bank, Bahrain.
- Chairman, Shariah Board, Bank Islami, Karachi
- Member, Higher Shariah Board, Al-Baraka Group, Jeddah.
- Member, Shariah Board, Faysal Bank Ltd, Pakistan.
- Member, Shariah Board, ABC Investment Bank, Bahrain.
- Member, Shariah Board, Islamic Unit of United Bank of Kuwait, UK and USA
- Takmila Fathul Mulhim. An Arabic commentary on Sahih Muslim in six volumes.
- Ulum ul Qur'an. An Urdu work on the sciences related to the revelation and exegesis of the Qur'an. It has been translated into English under the title An Approach to the Qur'anic Sciences.
- Ma'ariful Qur'an. An eight-volume English edition of the famous commentary of the Qur'an compiled in Urdu by his father Mufti Muhammad Shafi.
- The Meanings of the Noble Qur'an. A two-volume English translation of the Qur'an with explanatory notes.
- Islamic Laws of Animal Slaughter.
- An Introduction to Islamic Finance.
- Islam and Modernism, Adam Publishers & Distributors, India, 4 May 2005.
1. The Authority of Sunnah
2. The Rules of I'tikaf
3. What is Christianity?
4. Easy Good Deeds
5. Perform Salaah Correctly
6. The Language of the Friday Khutba
7. Discourse on the Islamic Way of Life
8. Sayings of Prophet Muhammad
9. The Legal Status of Following a Madhhab
10. Spiritual Discourses
11. Islamic Months
12. Radiant Prayers
13. Qur'anic Sciences
14. Islam and Modernism
15. Contemporary Fatawa
1. Ma Hia An Nasraniyya?
2. Nathrat Abarah Haul At Ta'limi Al Islami
3. Ahkamu Al Auraq An Naqdiyya
4. Buhooth Fi Qadaya Fiqhiyya Mu'asira
5. Ahkam uz Zibai’h
6. Takmila Fath al-Mulhim (6 volumes)
1. Tozeeh-ul-Quran (Aasan Tarjuma e Quran) (Urdu Translation of Quran e Majeed)
2. In'aamul Bari (Explanation/Commentary of Sahih ul Bukhari) (9 volumes, 3 published)
3. Asan Nakian (Easy Good Deeds)
4. Undulus Mein Chand Roz (A Few Days in Andalus)
5. Islam Aur Seasat-e-Hazra (Islam and Contemporary Politics)
6. Islam Aur Jidat Pasandi (Islam and Modernism)
7. Islahe Ma'ashara (Perfecting Society)
8. Islahi Mawa’iz (Discourses for Spiritual Perfection) (3 volumes)
9. Islahi Majalis (Discourses on Tasawwuf) (5 volumes)
10. Islahi Khutbat (Discourses on Individual Spiritual Perfection) (13 volumes)
11. Ihkami I'tikaf (The Rules of I'tikaf)
12. Islam Aur Jadeed Ma'eeshat Wa Tijarat (Islam and Modern Economics & Commerce)
13. Akabir Deoband Kya The? (The Significant Character of Scholars of Deoband)
14. Bible Se Qur'aan Tak (3 volumes)
15. Bible Kya Heh? (What is the Bible?)
16. Purnoor Dua'en (Radiant Prayers) (a collection of prayers for all occasions)
17. Tarashe (Excerpts from Islamic Works)
18. Taqleed Ki Shari'i Hasiat (The Legal Status of Following a Madhhab)
19. Jahan-e-Deda (Travelogue I)
20. Duniya Mere Aagaye (Travelogue II)
21. Hazrat Mu'awiyah (RA) Aur Tarikhi Haqa'iq (Hazrat Mu'awiyah (RA) and the Historical Facts)
22. Hujjiat Hadith (Authority of Hadith)
23. Huzur Ne Farmaya (Sayings of Prophet)
24. Hakimul Ummat Ke Siasi Afkar (Political Thoughts of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi)
25. Dars-e-Tirmidhi (an explanation of the famous hadith collection, Sunan At Tirmidhi)
26. Deeni Madaris Ka Nisab Wa Nitham
27. Zikr-o-Fikr (a collection of articles written for Jang, a daily newspaper)
28. Zabat-e-Wiladat (Birth Control: Islamic Rulings)
29. Isayat Kya Hai? (What is Christianity?)
30. Ulum ul Qur'an (Qur'anic Sciences)
31. Idalat-e-Faisle (Court Rulings)
32. Fard Ke Islah (Individual Reform)
33. Fiqhi Maqalaat (Collection of Articles on Islamic Jurisprudence)
34. Ma'aasir Hadhrat Arifi (Sayings and Memories of Hadhrat Arifi)
35. Mere Walid, Mere Shaikh (My Father, My Shaikh)
36. Milkiat-e-Zamion Aur Uske Tahdid (Land Ownership and Its Limitations)
37. Nashri Taqreerain (Speeches Aired on Radio Pakistan)
38. Nuqoosh-e-Raftigan (Obituaries of Islamic Scholars and Other Dignitaries)
39. Nifaz-e-Shari'a Aur Uske Masaa'il (Establishment of Shari'a and Its Problems)
40. Namazein Sunnah Ke Mutabiq Parhe (Pray Salaah According to the Sunnah)
41. Hamare A'eli Masaa'il (Our Family Issues)
42. Hamara Ta'limi Nizam (Our Educational System)
43. Hamara Ma'ashi Nizam (Our Economic System)
44. Dastoor ul A'maal Baer-e-Talibeen-e-Islah (Instructions for Aspirants of Spiritual Improvement)
45. Murawwaja islami bankari
46. Gher soodi bankari
- Darul Uloom Karachi
- Muhammad Rafi Usmani
- Islamic Banking
- Meezan Bank
- Islamic Scholars
- Contemporary Islamic philosophy
- "Shaykh Taqi Usmani Profile". TheMuslim500.com. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- "Mr. Justice Maulana Muhammad Taqi Usmani". Federal Shariat Court, Pakistan.
- "Islamic Finance Scholars". IjaraLoans.com. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Andrew Norfolk (8 September 2007), "Our followers 'must live in peace until strong enough to wage jihad'", The Times (London), retrieved 2009-09-12
- Muhammad Taqi Usmani (2009), Answer to an important question (refutation of erroneous claims and misquotations), retrieved 24 July 2012
- M. T. Usmani, Islam and Modernism (Adam Publishers & Distributors, 2005), p. 90-91. 
4. "Profile". Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Maariful Quran in English revised by Muhammad Taqi Usman
- Official website Darul Uloom Karachi
-  Bio of Mufti Taqi Usmani
-  Mufti Taqi Usmani's Profile
- An Introduction to Islamic Finance
- Auto generated Youtube channel of Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
- Complete HD video lectures by Mufti Taqi Usmani