Muhammad al-Yaqoubi

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Not to be confused with Mohammad Yaqoobi. ‹See Tfd›
Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi.JPG
Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
Born (1963-05-07) May 7, 1963 (age 51)
Damascus, Syria
Era Modern
Region Levant
School/tradition Sunni, Maliki, Shadhili (Sufi)
Main interests Aqidah, Hadith, Tafsir, Tasawwuf, Fiqh, Usul, Mustalah, Nahw

Muhammad Abul Huda al-Yaqoubi (born May 7, 1963) is a Syrian Islamic scholar and murshid. In April 2011, he became one of the first Ulama (Islamic scholars) to support the Syrian uprising and condemn the Syrian government’s response to peaceful demonstrations.

Background[edit]

Al-Yaqoubi was born in Damascus, Syria.[1] He comes from a family of Islamic scholars who have taught the Islamic sciences for centuries. His father, Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi (d. 1985) was a scholar. His paternal grandfather Ismail al-Yaqoubi (d. 1960) was a scholar and Sufi master. His father’s maternal uncle was Arabi al-Yaqoubi (d. 1965), and his paternal uncle was the Gnostic Sharif al-Yaqoubi (d. 1943).[2] Amongst al-Yaqoubi’s predecessors three have held the post of Maliki Imam at the Grand Umayyad Mosque of Damascus.[1]

He is a descendant of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, tracing his lineage through Mawlay Idris al-Anwar, (founder of the city of Fès), who was a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad.[1]

Education[edit]

Al-Yaqoubi’s father took care of his upbringing, and he was both his teacher and spiritual master. His father gave him several ijazah, or certificates of authority to teach, narrate and issue legal rulings under Islamic law.[2][3]

Al-Yaqoubi also received training from his father in Sufism, until he attained qualification as a murshid and the rank of a spiritual master in the Sufi tradition.[2][3]

Al-Yaqoubi has also received ijazat from prominent scholars of Syria including: the Maliki Mufti of Syria, Makki al-Kittani; the Hanafi Mufti of Syria, Muhammad Abul Yusr Abidin; Ali al-Boudaylimi of Tlemcen, Abdul Aziz Uyun al-Sud, Salih al-Khatib,[1] Zayn al-'Abideen at-Tounisi, Muhammad Wafa al-Qassaaband and Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri of Damascus.[4]

In 1987, al-Yaqoubi completed a degree in Arabic Literature at the University of Damascus within the Faculty of Islamic Law.[5] He then studied philosophy for two years at the Beirut Arab University.[6]

In 1991, he joined the PhD program of linguistics in the Oriental Studies Department of the University of Gothenburg.[6] In Sweden, he worked as a researcher and teacher of Arabic literature.[6] In 1999, the Swedish Islamic Society appointed him mufti of Sweden.[5] In 1992, he moved to England and completed the FCE, CAE, CCS, and CPE Cambridge courses in English within a year, before returning to Sweden where he continued his studies in Swedish.[4] Al-Yaqoubi has studied seven languages.[1]

Career[edit]

Al-Yaqoubi started teaching Qur'an studies and recitation at the Darwishiyya Mosque at the age of 11. He delivered his first Friday sermon at the age of 14 at al-Saadaat Mosque, was appointed as Friday Imam and speaker (Khatib) at the age of 17 and was appointed as a teacher of Islamic studies at the age of 20.[1]

In the mid-2000s, al-Yaqoubi returned to Syria and began preaching been teaching the Islamic sciences such as Aqidah (Islamic theology), Tafsir (Qur'anic exegesis), Hadith (Prophetic tradition), Tasawwuf (Sciences of the heart), Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Usul (origins and fundamentals), Mustalah (hadith terminology), and Nahw (Arabic grammar).[3]

Al-Yaqoubi previously resided in Damascus and was a public teacher at institutions there. He taught Islamic theology at the Umayyad Mosque; and he held the position of Jumu'ah Khatib (Friday speaker) at the Jami' al-Hasan Mosque; at the Mosque of Ibn Arabi, he taught from al-Risalah of Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri and Shamaail Tirmidhi of Tirmidhi. He was a public speaker in both Arabic and English.[1] In June 2011, al-Yaqoubi was forced into exile by the Assad regime and moved to Morocco.[5]

Involvement in the Syrian Revolution 2011–present[edit]

Despite other leading scholars initially calling for minor reforms, al-Yaqoubi was early to demand the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad.[7]

Al-Yaqoubi initially fully supported Kofi Annan’s “Six-point plan” urging for “international pressure on Russia and China” to force the end of the conflict in Syria.[8]

He advocates the establishment of a democratic free state in Syria alongside championing the “vital role” of the Islamic scholar in preventing the break-up of Syrian society after the fall of Assad.[9]

As the conflict has protracted, al-Yaqoubi publicly urged Jordan and Turkey to intervene militarily in Syria “to save the Syrian people,” voicing frustration at the failure of the international community to intervene.[8] In addition, he believes that any intervention will be undertaken by the United Nations, NATO, or the United States because it's “more realistic”.[10]

Al-Yaqoubi has been an active participant in the political process to form a credible political alternative to the Assad regime. However, due to political intrigue, his appointment to be a full member of the National Council was blocked almost as soon as it was to be formally confirmed.[11]

Since the start of the Syrian uprising, al-Yaqoubi has campaigned internationally to provide humanitarian aid for Syrian refugees. In December 2012, he led a convoy for the delivery of “vast quantities of food, baby food and blankets” to displaced Syrians in Turkey.[12]

After his exile from Syria, he has taken part in a sustained international effort to provide aid for the Syrian people. He has publically urged the international community to “implement help immediately”[13] and to “lift the siege” on Syria in an interview with Sky News.[8]

Views[edit]

On January 22, 2010, al-Yaqoubi refuted the comments made by Mufti of Syria Ahmad Bader Hassoun on January 19, 2010 about the Prophet Muhammad.[14] Al-Ya’qoubi explained the necessity to obey the Messenger in every command including the news about the Qur'an and the names of the prophets. Al-Ya’qoubi asserted, “we know that Moses and Jesus are prophets only because our Prophet Muhammad told us so. Had he told us otherwise, we would have had to believe him...believing in Moses and Jesus does not imply the validity of Judaism and Christianity of today.” He also asked Mufti Hassoun to resign his job out of embarrassment and to protect the dignity of Islam and the integrity of the Islamic scholars of Syria. The following day al-Yaqoubi was dismissed as Friday public speaker of al-Hasan Masjid in Abu Rummaneh, Damascus[15] by the government. Six months later he was re-instated.[16]

On June 21, 2010, al-Yaqoubi declared on Takbeer TV’s programme Sunni Talk that the Mujaddid of the Indian subcontinent was Ahmed Raza Khan, and said that a follower of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah can be identified by his love of Khan, and that those outside of that those outside the Ahlus Sunnah are identified by their attacks on him.[17]

In April 2011, al-Yaqoubi was one the first Sunni cleric to express his support for the Syrian uprising and condemn the Syrian government’s response to peaceful demonstrations.[5][18] In August 2011, the BBC reported that al-Yaqoubi had called for more international pressure on the government of Syria after Government forces renewed their crackdown on protesters.[19]

On August 18, 2011, al-Yaqoubi led prayers from a stage in Summerfield Park, Winson Green, Birmingham to some 20,000 people who gathered to remember three men killed while attempting to protect their neighbourhood from rioters and looters during the England riots. At the ceremony he said that “they made themselves an example of what a Muslim should be and what Islam is”[20] and that “these three people are martyrs and the best we can do for them is to pray for them and for ourselves - to pray for our community.”[21][22][23][24] He asked for 18 August to be made a “day not of mourning and sadness but a day of bravery.”[25][26]

Al-Yaqoubi had been a critic of Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti’s stance of supporting the Syrian regime. However after Al-Bouti’s assassination on March 21, 2013, al-Yaqoubi claimed that Al-Bouti was a martyr and that he had been privately readying to defect from the Syrian regime.[5]

Recognition[edit]

In 2012, al-Yaqoubi was listed in The 500 Most Influential Muslims by Georgetown University’s Prince Alwaleed Bin-Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding and the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre of Jordan.[27]

Personal life[edit]

In 1985, al-Yaqoubi’s father died.[2]

Al-Yaqoubi has three children from his first wife Khala Farida Umm Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi Aal Rabbat who, whilst she five months pregnant, died at the age of 37 in a car accident on April 10, 2006.[28] On December 14, 2007, his second wife, Umm al-Huda, died.[29][30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Muhammad al-Yaqoubi". Sacred Knowledge. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Bio: Sheikh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi". Bahnhof. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Muhammad al-Yaqoubi". Gateway To Divine Mercy. Retrieved October 30, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Muhammad al-Yaqoubi". Academic. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Profiles of Syrian Sunni Clerics in the Uprising". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. May 25, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2013.  Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
  6. ^ a b c "Teachers". Deen Intensive Foundation. Retrieved November 25, 2011. 
  7. ^ Qureshi, Line; Lefèvre, Jawad (2012). State and Islam in Baathist Syria: Confrontation or Co-optation?. St Andrews Papers on Contemporary Syria. ISBN 978-0-9568732-0-0. 
  8. ^ a b c "Syrian Revolution: Sky News interviews Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi 19-06-12". sacredknowledgemedia. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Shaykh Al-Yaqoubi calls for a military intervention in Syria". Syria.nur.nu. April 21, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  10. ^ Landis, Joshua (June 3, 2013). "Syria’s Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi Interviewed". Eurasia Review. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  11. ^ Barber, Matthew (May 27, 2013). "Brotherhood Figures Block Yaqoubi’s Appointment, Post-Confirmation". Syria Comment. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  12. ^ Barber, Matthew (May 27, 2013). "Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi Visits Syrian Refugee Camp". SKT Welfare. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Syrian Revolution: Channel 4 News (UK) interviews Sh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi 06-07-12". sacredknowledgemedia. July 7, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  14. ^ Gelfond Feldinger, Lauren (January 21, 2010). "The lonely man of peace". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved October 30, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Shaykh Sayyid Muhammad al Yaqubi Dismissed....". Qatar Living. February 3, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2011. 
  16. ^ "‫الرد على مفتي سورية أحمد حسون للشيخ محمد اليعقوبي". Khaadimone Fakename. February 16, 201. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Shaykh Yaqoubi Advocates Imam Ahmed Raza as a Mujaddid from Indian Subcontinent !!!!". Sunni Talk. Takbeer TV. June 21, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2011. 
  18. ^ "أحداث سورية خطبة الجمعة للشيخ محمد اليعقوبي من دمشق". sacredknowledgemedia. April 10, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  19. ^ "Cleric calls for international pressure on Assad regime". Birmingham: BBC World News. August 12, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  20. ^ Dawkins, Andrew (August 18, 2011). "Birmingham riots: Crowds mourn riot death 'martyrs'". BBC News. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Man, 29, Charged With Birmingham Riot Murders". Sky News. September 1, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  22. ^ Britten, Nick (August 18, 2011). "Birmingham riots: thousands gather for funerals of three men killed protecting community". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  23. ^ Caroe, Laura (August 18, 2011). "Final farewell to riot heroes". The Sun. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  24. ^ Rajeev, Syal (August 18, 2011). "Birmingham riots: funeral held for hit-and-run victims". The Guardian. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Tribute to the 'riot martyrs': 20,000 gather to remember three Asian men mown down while protecting community from looters". Daily Mail. August 19, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ Menon, Lakshan (August 21, 2011). "Thousands flock to funeral of Birmingham riot victims". London: The Sunday Guardian. Retrieved May 4, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Sheikh Muhammad Al Yaqoubi". The Muslim 500. November 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Obituary: 'Wife of our teacher'". MPACUK :: Muslim Discussion Forum. September 2005. Retrieved October 30, 2011. 
  29. ^ "DIVINE BREEZES: Al-Hajjah Farizah Rabbat Umm Ibrahim Al-Yaqoubi Al-Hasani ...". jafaralam. September 9, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2011. 
  30. ^ "An Eid Love Story: Sheikh Muhammad and Mariam". Ummah Forum. September 9, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 

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