Muhammad in the Bible

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Muhammad

Claimed prophecies of Muhammad in the Bible have formed part of Muslim tradition from its early history. Subsequent Muslim writers have expanded on these arguments and have argued to identify other references to Muhammad in the text of the Bible, both in the Jewish Tanakh and in the Christian New Testament. Several verses in the Qur'an, as well as several Hadiths, state that Muhammad is described in the Bible. The Gospel of Barnabas, which explicitly mentions Muhammad, has also been identified as an ancient prediction about the prophet, but is widely seen by scholars as a fabrication from the Early Modern Age.

Some Muslim writers argue that expectations of forthcoming prophets existed within the Jewish community from before the lifetime of Jesus through to that of Muhammad, and that Muhammad was the final fulfillment of these expectations. Various Christian writers have also interpreted Muhammad in Bible prophecy as being either the False Prophet or the Antichrist.

Muhammad as a promised prophet[edit]

Qur'an[edit]

Several Qur'anic verses state that the coming of Muhammad was preached by the previous prophets, and foretold in the original Jewish and the original Christian Scriptures.

Qur'an 3:81 says that the prophets of God bore witness of the Messenger Muhammad and believed in him:

Qur'an 3:81 And [recall, O People of the Scripture], when Allah took the covenant of the prophets, [saying], "Whatever I give you of the Scripture and wisdom and then there comes to you a Messenger confirming what is with you, you [must] believe in him and support him." [Allah] said, "Have you acknowledged and taken upon that My commitment?" They said, "We have acknowledged it." He said, "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses."

Qur'an 46:10 was interpreted by some Muslim scholars to be a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18. The witness from among the Children of Israel is thought to be Moses, and the one like him is believed to be Muhammad:[1]

Qur'an 46:10 Say: Have you considered if it is from Allah, and you disbelieve in it, and a witness from among the Children of Israel has borne witness of one like him, so he believed, while you are big with pride? Surely Allah doesn't guide the wrongdoing people.[2]

Qur'an 7:157 says that the mention of Muhammad can still be found in the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures[3][4] in spite of the Tahrif which is referred to in other verses in the Qur'an:

Qur'an 7:157 Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel, who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them. So they who have believed in him, honored him, supported him and followed the light which was sent down with him - it is those who will be the successful.[5][6]

Qur'an 61:6 says that Jesus brought Good News of a Messenger to come after him whose name is Ahmad, or whose name is "More Praised", or "whose name Jesus praises":

Qur'an 61:6 And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing Good Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, "whose name is Ahmad" [the same phrase can mean: "whose name Jesus praises" or "whose name is More Praised"]." But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, "This is obvious magic."

Qur'an 2:127-129 tells that Abraham and Ishmael supplicated to God, when they were raising the foundations of the Ka'aba, to send a Messenger from the children of Ishmael:

Qur'an 2:127 And [mention] when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House [the Ka'aba] and [with him] Ishmael, [saying], "Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing. 128 Our Lord, and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and from our descendants a Muslim nation [in submission] to You. And show us our rites and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful. 129 Our Lord, and send among them a Messenger from themselves who will recite to them Your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify them. Indeed, You are the Exalted in Might, the Wise."

Hadith[edit]

It is narrated that a small group of Muhammad's companions said to him: "O Apostle of Allah, tell us about yourself." He answered them that he is the Servant of God, the Seal of the prophets, the Prayer of his forefather Abraham, and the Good News of Jesus."[7][8]

The books of Hadiths narrate the stories of many Jews and Christians who embraced Islam. Those converts like Ka'ab al-Ahbar, Abdullah ibn Salam, Salman the Persian, Waraka ibn Nawfal, Bahira the monk, Aṣḥama ibn Abjar, Safiyya bint Huyayy and others, reported that Muhammad was foretold in both the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures as a promised Prophet to come. Isaiah 42, where the Chosen Servant of God "the Light of the Gentiles" is being discussed, was the most common chapter referred to by those converts as a prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad.

In Tanakh[edit]

Deuteronomy 18:18

Deuteronomy 18:18 "I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him.19 And it shall be that whoever will not hear My words, which He speaks in My name, I will require it of him.20 But the prophet who presumes to speak a word in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die."

Samau'al al-Maghribi, a Jewish mathematician who converted to Islam, pointed to Deuteronomy 18:18 in his book Convincing the Jews as a prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad.[9] Samau'al argued in his book that since the children of Esau are described in Deuteronomy 2:4-6 [and in Numbers 20:14 as well] as the brethren of the children of Israel, the children of Ishmael can also be described the same way.[10]

The comparison between Moses and Muhammad is quite common in the Qur'an and the Islamic tradition. Ka'ab al-Ahbar said: "Verily God Most High divided His vision and His conversation between Muhammad and Moses. He spoke to Moses twice, and Muhammad saw Him twice."[11][12][note 1]

It is also reported in the books of hadiths that Muhammad declared before his companions that he and Ali are like Moses and Aaron.[17][18][19][20]

John 1:20-21 was also cited by Muslims as a proof from the canonical gospels that Deuteronomy 18:18 is not a prophecy of the Christ:[21]

John 1:19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou?20 And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that Prophet? And he answered, No.

Qur'an 46:10 was interpreted by some Muslim scholars to be a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18. The witness from among the Children of Israel is thought to be Moses, and the one like him is believed to be Muhammad:[22]

Qur'an 46:10 Say: Have you considered if it is from Allah, and you disbelieve in it, and a witness from among the Children of Israel has borne witness of one like him, so he believed, while you are big with pride? Surely Allah doesn't guide the wrongdoing people.[23]

Fethullah Gülen and Muhammad Ali considered Qur'an 73:15 also to be a reference to Deuteronomy 18:18.[24][25]

Deuteronomy 33:2

Jabal An-Nur (literally means: the Mount of Light) in Mecca. It was on this mountain that Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an; which is Verse 96:1: "Read: In the Name of your Lord who created".

Deuteronomy 33:2 "He said,

“The Lord came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand."

Samau'al al-Maghribi referred to this verse also in his book as a prophecy of Muhammad. He said that Mount Sinai refers to Moses, Mount Seir refers to Jesus, and Mount Paran refers to Muhammad.[26]

some contemporary Muslim scholars have also pointed to the similarity between Deuteronomy 33:2 and Qur'an 95:1-3 where "the Fig and the Olive" refers to Jesus, "Mount Sinai" refers to Moses, and "Mecca" refers to Muhammad.[27]

Isaiah 42

This chapter is among the earliest and the most common chapters cited by Muslims as a prophecy fulfilled by Muhammad. It was cited by Ayeshah bint Abī Bakr "the wife of Muhammad",[28] 'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As,[29] Ka'ab al-Ahbar, and Abdullah ibn Salam.

The Chapter begins with:

Isaiah 42:1 “Behold! My Servant, whom I uphold; My Elect One, in whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. 2 He shall not cry out, nor raise His voice, nor cause His voice to be heard in the street. 3 A bruised reed shall He not break, and smoking flax shall He not quench. In truth He shall bring forth justice. 4 He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till He has established justice in the earth; and the islands shall wait for His law.”

Muslim scholars argued that the Chosen Servant of God in Verse 1 is Muhammad. They pointed that Muhammad is believed by Muslims to be the Chosen Servant of God, while Christians believe that Jesus is the God the son of God. Some of them argued that if Christians would like to consider this chapter as a prophecy of Jesus, then they should admit as a result that Jesus is a Servant not a God.

Muslims believe that Muhammad fulfilled the description given in Verses 2 and 3 of the Chosen One. Ayeshah "the wife of Muhammad" said that Muhammad fulfilled this prophecy in the Christian Scripture.[30] She also narrated that the Jews came to him and said to him: "Death be upon you [O Muhammad]." However, the answer of Muhammad, according to ‘Ā’ishah, was merely "The same on you." ‘Ā’ishah at that moment got angry and shouted at the Jews saying: "Death be upon you, and may Allah curse you and shower His wrath upon you!" According to ‘Ā’ishah, the Prophet turned to her and said: "Be gentle and calm, O ‘Ā’ishah! Be gentle and beware of being harsh and of saying evil things." She said, "Didn't you hear what they said?" He said, "Didn't you hear what I replied (to them)? I have returned their statement to them, and my invocation against them will be accepted but theirs against me will not be accepted."[31]

A map of the Battle of the Trench shows "Mount Sela" (in Arabic: جبل سلع, Hebrew: הר סלע) which is located in the middle of Medina

The Qur'an also testifies that Muhammad fulfilled the description in the prophecy:

Qur'an 3:159 Thus it is by Allah's grace that you are gentle to them. And if you had been harsh and hard-hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you. So pardon them and pray for forgiveness for them..."

Qur'an 31:19 also teaches Muslims to be modest in their bearing, and to lower their voices.[32]

On the other hand, John 2:13-17 tells how Jesus made a whip of cords to drive the sellers and money changers out of the temple, and how he poured out the changers’ money and overturned the tables.[33]

Isaiah 42:10 Sing unto the Lord a new song, and His praise from the ends of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and all that is therein, the islands, and the inhabitants thereof!

11 Let the wilderness and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits. Let the inhabitants of Sela sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. 12 Let them give glory to the Lord, and declare His praise in the islands. 13 The Lord shall go forth like a mighty man; He shall stir up jealousy like a man of war: He shall cry, yea, roar; He shall prevail against His enemies.

The mention of Mount Sela (Arabic: جبل سلع, Hebrew: הר סלע) "the mountain of Medina" and the mention of Kedar "the forefather of Muhammad", in verse 11, was also considered by Muslims to be a proof.[34]

"Sing unto the Lord a new song" seems to be a reference to a new Message "the Arabic Qur'an", or to the Adhan "the Islamic call to prayer".[35] The Islands could be a reference to Indonesia and Malaysia.[36]

Verse 13 is believed to be a prophecy of the Muslim conquests.[37]

In canonical gospels[edit]

Paraclete

John 15:26 "But when "the Comforter" [the Greek word is: Παράκλητος/Paraklētos] is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me."

Muslims consider Qur'an 16:102 to be the fulfillment of John 15:26:

Qur'an 16:102 "Say, the Holy Spirit [note 2] has brought the Revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe, and as a Guide and Glad Tidings to Muslims."

The earliest Muslim scholar to identify the Paraclete with Muhammad is probably Ibn Ishaq (died 767). Others who interpreted the Paraclete as a reference to Muhammad include Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Kathir, Al-Qurtubi, Rahmatullah Kairanawi (1818-1891), and contemporary Muslim scholars such as Martin Lings.[38]

A variation on this argument is the suggestion that the word Paraclete (παρακλητος paraklētos) in the text of the Greek New Testament was a corruption or alteration of the original Greek word Periclyte (περικλυτος periklytos), meaning "widely famed". This meaning is very similar to the literal translations of the names Ahmad or Muhammad in Arabic ("one who is highly praised"). George Sale refers to this view in his 1734 translation of the Qur'an, pointing out that Muslim scholars connect this to the Qur'anic passage in the Sura As-Saff in which it is stated that Jesus spoke of a messenger to come after him, "whose name shall be Ahmad". Since there is no such prediction from Jesus in the Gospels, according to Sale.

Muslim writers who take this view suggest that the original word was erroneously or intentionally altered by Christian transcribers of John's gospel. David Benjamin Keldani, an early-20th-century Christian convert to Islam, developed this argument in his book Muhammad in the Bible (1928). Keldani suggested that this might have arisen from a hypothetical Hebrew or Aramaic original version of the Gospel of John translated into Greek. Keldani claimed that the word for Comforter found in the Greek text of John was originally written without vowel letters PRCLT, which could be read or understood both as Periclyte or Paraclete. Paraclete (advocate or comforter), according to Keldani, was used instead of the original word. He claimed that the Hebrew/Aramaic word in the original lost Hebrew/Aramaic master copy (or verbal dictation) was thus "Ahmed", which should have been interpreted as a person's name. However, in his theory, "Ahmed" was translated into "Periclyte", which was written "Prclt" and which later was vocalized as "Paraclete" (comforter).

The Parable of the Tenants

Matthew 21:33-46 “Listen to another parable: There was a landowner who planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a winepress in it and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and moved to another place.34 When the harvest time approached, he sent his servants to the tenants to collect his fruit.35 “The tenants seized his servants; they beat one, killed another, and stoned a third.36 Then he sent other servants to them, more than the first time, and the tenants treated them the same way.37 Last of all, he sent his son to them. ‘They will respect my son,’ he said.38 “But when the tenants saw the son, they said to each other, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him and take his inheritance.’39 So they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.40 “Therefore, when the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?” 41 “He will bring those wretches to a wretched end,” they replied, “and he will rent the vineyard to other tenants, who will give him his share of the crop at harvest time.”

42 Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the Scriptures:

“‘The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; the Lord has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?

43 “Therefore I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruit. 44 Anyone who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; anyone on whom it falls will be crushed. 45 When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard Jesus’ parables, they knew he was talking about them. 46 They looked for a way to arrest him, but they were afraid of the crowd because the people held that he was a prophet.”

Matthew 21:33-46 has been interpreted by Muslim authors as follows:
The vineyard refers to the kingdom of God. The tenant farmers portray the people of Israel. The servants represent the prophets of God who were sent by him to them. However, the children of Israel used to reject many prophets and to kill many others, and when God sent to them his beloved servant Jesus, they intended to kill him too. For this reason, Jesus said to them that: "the kingdom of God will be taken away from them and given to a people who will produce its fruit [i.e. the nation of Muhammad]".[39]

Matthew 21:42 was interpreted by Muslims in the light of the following hadith:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
Muhammad said, "My similitude in comparison with the other prophets before me, is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: 'Would that this brick be put in its place!' So I am that brick, and I am the Seal of the Prophets."[40]

The Qur'an addresses the Jews in many verses and blames them for killing the Prophets of God:

Qur'an 2:91 And when it is said to them, "Believe in what Allah has revealed," they say, "We believe [only] in what was revealed to us." And they disbelieve in what came after it, while it is the truth confirming that which is with them. Say, "Then why did you kill the prophets of Allah before, if you are [indeed] believers?"

Qur'an 2:87 And We did certainly give Moses the Torah and followed up after him with messengers. And We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear proofs and supported him with the Holy Spirit. But is it [not] that every time a messenger came to you, [O Children of Israel], with what your souls did not desire, you were arrogant? And a party [of messengers] you denied and another party you killed.

The Gospel of Barnabas[edit]

Muslims including Muhammad Abu Zahra claim that changes were made to the present-day canon of the Christian Bible, by excluding material that represented the authentic message of Jesus, claiming that the authentic tradition is represented in the Gospel of Barnabas, which contains predictions of Muhammad.[41] A later Muslim writer, Ata ur-Rahîm, claimed that ”The Gospel Barnabas was accepted as a Canonical Gospel in the churches of Alexandria up until 325”.[41] The Gospel of Barnabas is generally seen to be a fabrication made during the Renaissance.[42][43][44]

People "with Muhammad" in the Bible[edit]

Qur'an 48:29 tells what the example of "Those who are with Muhammad" in the Torah, and what their parable is in the Gospel:

Qur'an 48:29 Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and "those with him" are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking grace from Allah and [His] pleasure. The signs of Faith are apparent on their faces because of prostration. That is their example in the Torah. And their Parable in the Gospel is like a seed that puts forth its shoot, then strengthens it, so it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.

Muslims praying: Muslims believe that all the prophets of God prayed in a similar way to them.
The prayer of Muslims is similar to the prayer of the Samaritan Jews.[45]
  • According to this verse, the example of "those who are with Muhammad" in the Torah are those who are seen bowing, kneeling [in prayer], falling upon their faces [seeking grace from God and his pleasure] and the signs of their faith are apparent on their faces because of prostration.

This example can be traced in the many verses from the Torah, and other Biblical chapters as well, which were commonly referred to by Muslims to show that all the prophets of God including Abraham, Moses, Aaron, David, and even Jesus himself prayed like Muslims pray; by kneeling, bowing down, falling upon their faces before the World's Maker, and praising him:

Genesis 17:3-4 And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.

Numbers 20:6 And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they fell upon their faces: and the glory of the Lord appeared unto them.

Numbers 16:20-22 And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment. And they fell upon their faces, and said, O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt thou be wroth with all the congregation?

Psalm 95:6 Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the Lord our Maker;

1 Kings 18:42 So Ahab went up to eat and drink. And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; then he bowed down on the ground, and put his face between his knees,

2 Chronicles 7:3 And when all the children of Israel saw how the fire came down, and the glory of the Lord upon the house, they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and worshiped, and praised the Lord, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever.

Nehemiah 8:6 Ezra praised the Lord, the great God; and all the people lifted their hands and responded, “Amen! Amen!” Then they bowed down and worshiped the Lord with their faces to the ground.

Matthew 26:39 And he [Jesus] went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.

Luke 6:12 And it came to pass in those days, that he [Jesus] went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.

  • According to this verse also, the Parable of "those who are with Muhammad" in the Gospel is: "like a seed that puts forth its shoot, then strengthens it, so it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers":
"The Kingdom of Islam" expanded rapidly during the reign of Umar (634-644)

- The Parable of the Growing Seed

Mark 4:26-29
26 He also said, “This is what the kingdom of God is like. A man scatters seed on the ground. 27 Night and day, whether he sleeps or gets up, the seed sprouts and grows, though he does not know how. 28 All by itself the soil produces grain—first the stalk, then the head, then the full kernel in the head. 29 As soon as the grain is ripe, he puts the sickle to it, because the harvest has come.”

- The Parable of the Mustard Seed

Mark 4:30-32
30 Again he said, “What shall we say the kingdom of God is like, or what parable shall we use to describe it? 31 It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest of all seeds on earth. 32 Yet when planted, it grows and becomes the largest of all garden plants, with such big branches that the birds can perch in its shade.”

Umar and the Battle of Yarmouk[edit]

Zechariah 9:9-15 9 Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O Daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King comes to you; He is just, triumphant and victorious, humble, and riding on a donkey, upon a colt, the foal of a donkey. 10 And I will cut off and exterminate the war chariot from Ephraim and the war horse from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off; and He shall speak the word and peace shall come to the nations, and His dominion shall be from the Sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth!

Isaiah 26:1-6 1 In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah; We have a strong city; safety will God appoint for walls and bulwarks. 2 Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth the truth may enter in. 3 You, Lord, give true peace to those who depend on you, because they trust you. 4 So, trust the Lord always, because he is our Rock forever.

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where Sophronius invited Caliph Umar to offer salat.
Present-day building of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where Sophronius invited Caliph Umar to offer Salat.

The Just, Victorious, Humble King, who entered Jerusalem riding on a donkey, who declared peace for the nations in it, and whose dominion was from the [Mediterranean] Sea to the [Arabian] sea, and from the River [Euphrates] to the ends of the [Persian] earth; is seen by Muslims to be Umar ibn Al-Khattab "The Second Rightly-Guided Successor of Muhammad".[46][47] Isaiah 26:2 is also thought by Muslims to be a reference to the peaceful entrance of the Muslim nation to Jerusalem in 637. The righteous nation is believed to be the Muslim nation.[48]

Al-Waqidi (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 748 – 822 CE) mentioned in his book Futuh al-Sham ("Conquests of Levant") that Sophronius and the Churchmen in Jerusalem told Muslims that they have a prophecy in their Scripture which was fulfilled by Umar ibn Al-Khattab.[47]

It was for the first time [following the entrance of Muslims to Jerusalem] that the Jews, after almost 500 years of oppressive Roman-Christian rule, were once again allowed to live and worship inside Jerusalem.[49]

Zechariah 9:11-15

14 Then the Lord will appear over them, And His arrow will go forth like lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the trumpet, And will march forth in the windstorms of the south.

This passage is thought to be a prophecy of the Battle of Yarmouk. "The windstorms of the south" is a key point in this claim.

Muhammad as Antichrist[edit]

Christian writers have also claimed that Muhammad was predicted in the Bible, as a forthcoming Antichrist, false prophet, or false Messiah. According to Albert Hourani, initial interactions between Christian and Muslim peoples were characterized by hostility on the part of the Europeans because they interpreted Muhammad in a Biblical context as being the Antichrist.[50] The earliest known exponent of this view was John of Damascus in the 7th century.[51] In c. 850 CE about 50 Christians were killed in Muslim-ruled Córdoba, Andalusia after a Christian priest named Perfectus said that Muhammad was one of the "false Christs" prophesied in Matthew 24:16.42. The monk Eulogius of Córdoba justified the views of Perefectus and the other Martyrs of Córdoba, saying that they witnessed "against the angel of Satan and forerunner of Antichrist...Muhammed, the heresiarch."[52] John Calvin argued that “The name Antichrist does not designate a single individual, but a single kingdom which extends throughout many generations", saying that both Muhammad and the Catholic Popes were "antichrists".[52]

The prophecy of the "Four kingdoms of Daniel" in Chapter 7 of the Book of Daniel has also been interpreted by Christians as a prediction of Muhammad. Eulogius argued that Muhammad was the Fourth Beast in the prophesy.[53] Another medieval monk, Alvarus, argued that Muhammad was the "eleventh king" that emerged from the Fourth Beast. According to historian John Tolan,

In Daniel's description of this beast, Alvarus sees the career of the Antichrist Muhammad and his disciples. This eleventh king who arises after the others, “diverse from the first,” who subdues three kings, is it not Muhammad, who vanquished the Greeks, the Romans, and the Goths? “And he shall speak great words against the most High”: did he not deny the divinity of Christ, thus, according to Saint John, showing himself to be an Antichrist? He “shall wear out the saints of the most High”: is this not a prediction of the persecutions inflicted by the Muslims, in particular of the martyrdoms of Córdoba? He will “think to change times and laws”: did he not introduce the Muslim calendar and the Koran? “[54]

Notes[edit]

Explanatory footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Qur'an 53:1-18 tells that Muhammad saw God - with his heart - twice during the Journey of al-Isra and al-Mi'raj.[13][14][15][16]
  2. ^ In Islam, The Holy Spirit (Arabic: الروح القدس, ar-Rūḥ al-Quds) is a reference to the Angel Gabriel.

Citation footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ English Translation of the Holy Quran: With Explanatory Notes, by Muhammad Ali and Zahid Aziz, Revised 2010 edition, ISBN 978-1-906109-07-3, p 627
  2. ^ http://books.google.ae/books?id=eRQ_4dHTWeIC&hl=ar&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  3. ^ David A. Cheetham, Ulrich Winkler, Interreligious Hermeneutics in Pluralistic Europe: Between Texts and People, Rodopi, 2011, p.372
  4. ^ R. G. Ghattas, Carol B. Ghattas, A Christian Guide to the Qur'an: Building Bridges in Muslim Evangelism, Kregel Academic, 2009, p.103
  5. ^ http://tanzil.net/#7:157
  6. ^ http://quran.com/7
  7. ^ Musnad Ahmad, Hadith number: 17150-17151
  8. ^ Al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahîhayn, Hadith number: 4174
  9. ^ al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Taweile, Abdulwahab. بذل المجهود في إفحام اليهود [Confuting the Jews] (in Arabic) (1th[clarification needed] 1989 ed.). Syria: Dar Al Qalam. p 75
  10. ^ al-Maghribi, Al-Samawal; Taweile, Abdulwahab. بذل المجهود في إفحام اليهود [Confuting the Jews] (in Arabic) (1th 1989 ed.). Syria: Dar Al Qalam. p 77
  11. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi » Chapters on Tafsir, English reference: Vol. 1, Book 44, Hadith 3278, Arabic reference: Book 47, Hadith 3589
  12. ^ Al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahîhayn, Hadith number: 4099
  13. ^ Dr. Abdel-Halim Mahmoud, الإسراء و المعراج (al-Isra and al-Mi'raj), in Arabic, 11th edition 2004, ISBN 977-02-6711-2
  14. ^ Abd Allah ibn Abbas reported that Muhammad saw God twice: http://sunnah.com/muslim/1/343
  15. ^ It was also reported that Imam Hasan Al-Basri would take an oath upon insisting that the Prophet saw his Lord. http://mauritianmuslim.co.uk/The%20Isra%20and%20Mi%27raaj%20completed.pdf
  16. ^ Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was asked if the Prophet saw his Lord. He said, ‘he saw him, he saw him’ until he became breathless. (p. 537 Ibid.) http://mauritianmuslim.co.uk/The%20Isra%20and%20Mi%27raaj%20completed.pdf
  17. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Companions of the Prophet
  18. ^ Sahih Muslim » The Book of the Merits of the Companions
  19. ^ Sunan Ibn Majah » The Book of the Sunnah
  20. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi » Chapters on Virtues
  21. ^ Kais, 2005, p 397
  22. ^ English Translation of the Holy Quran: With Explanatory Notes, by Muhammad Ali and Zahid Aziz, Revised 2010 edition, ISBN 978-1-906109-07-3, p 627
  23. ^ http://books.google.ae/books?id=eRQ_4dHTWeIC&hl=ar&source=gbs_navlinks_s
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