Muhammadiyah

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Muhammadiyah محمدية
Muhammad callighraphy
The logo of Muhammadiyah
World map
Zone of influence
Formation 18 November 1912
Type Organization
Purpose Religious Islamic
Headquarters Jakarta, Indonesia
Region served
Indonesia
Membership 29 Millions
Leader
Prof. Dr. HM Din Syamsuddin
Website Official website

Muhammadiyah (Arabic: محمدية, followers of Muhammad. full name: Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah) is an Islamic organization in Indonesia. The organization was founded in 1912 by Ahmad Dahlan in the city of Yogyakarta as a reformist socioreligious movement, advocating ijtihad - individual interpretation of Qur'an and sunnah, as opposed to taqlid - the acceptance of the traditional interpretations propounded by the ulama.[1]

At the moment, Muhammadiyah is the second largest Islamic organization in Indonesia with 29 million members.[1] Although Muhammadiyah leaders and members are often actively involved in shaping the politics in Indonesia, Muhammadiyah is not a political party. It has devoted itself to social and educational activities.

History[edit]

On November 18, 1912, Ahmad Dahlan— a court official of the kraton of Yogyakarta[2] and an educated Muslim scholar from Mecca—established Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta. There were a number of motives behind the establishment of this movement. Among the important ones are the backwardness of Muslim society and the penetration of Christianity. Ahmad Dahlan, much influenced by Egyptian reformist Muhammad 'Abduh, considered modernization and purification of religion from syncretic practices were very vital in reforming this religion. Therefore, since its beginning Muhammadiyah has been very concerned with maintaining tawhid, and refining monotheism in society.

From 1913 to 1918, Muhammadiyah established five Islamic Schools. In 1919 an Islamic high school, Hooge School Muhammadiyah was established.[3] In establishing schools, Muhammadiyah received significant help from the Boedi Oetomo, an important nationalist movement in Indonesia in the first half of the twentieth century, such as in the form of providing teachers.[4] Muhammadiyah has generally avoided politics. Unlike its traditionalist counterpart, the Nahdatul Ulama, it never formed a political party. Since its establishment, it has devoted itself to educational and social activities.

In 1925, two years after the death of Dahlan, Muhammadiyah only has 4,000 members, even has built 55 schools and two clinics in Surabaya and Yogyakarta.[5] After Abdul Karim Amrullah introduced the organisation to Minangkabau dynamic Moslem community, Muhammadiyah developed rapidly. In 1938, organisation claimed has 250,000 members, managed the 834 moques, 31 libraries, 1,774 schools, and 7,630 ulema. The Minangkabau Merchants spread organization to the entire of Indonesia.[6]

During the 1965-66 political turbulence and violence, Muhammadiyah declared the extermination of the "Gestapu/PKI" (the 30 September Movement and the Indonesian Communist Party) constituted Holy War, a view endorsed by other Islamic groups.[7] (see also: Indonesian killings of 1965-66). During the 1998 "Indonesian reformation", some parts of Muhammadiyah urged the leadership to form a party. Therefore, they - including Muhammadiyah chairman, Amien Rais, founded the National Mandate Party. Although gaining large support from Muhammadiyah members, this party has no official relationship with Muhammadiyah. The leader of Muhammadiyah says the members of his organisation are free to align themselves with political parties of their choosing provided such parties have shared values with Muhammadiyah.[8]

Today, with 29 million members Muhammadiyah is the second largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, after Nahdlatul Ulama.

Doctrine[edit]

The central doctrine of Muhammadiyah is Sunni Islam. However, the main focus of the Muhammadiyah movement is to heighten people's sense of moral responsibility, purifying their faith to true Islam. It emphasizes the authority of the Qur'an and the Hadiths as supreme Islamic law that serves as the legitimate basis of the interpretation of religious belief and practices, in contrast to traditional practices where shariah law invested in religious school by ulema.

Muhammadiyah strongly opposes syncretism, where Islam in Indonesia has coalesced with animism (spirit worship) and with Hindu-Buddhist values that were spread among the villagers, including the upper classes, from the pre-Islamic period. Furthermore, Muhammadiyah opposes the tradition of Sufism that allows Sufi leader (shaykh) as the formal authority of Muslims.

As of 2006, it is said to have "veered sharply toward a more conservative brand of Islam" under the leadership of Din Syamsuddin the head of the Indonesian Ulema Council. [9]

Activities[edit]

Muhammadiyah head office in Jakarta

Muhammadiyah is noted as a Muslim reformists organization. Its main activities are religion and education. It has built Islamic schools in modern forms, aside from traditional pesantren. Some of its schools are also open to non-Muslims.[10] Currently there are around 5,754 schools owned by Muhammadiyah.[11]

It has also functioned as a charitable organization. Today it owns several hundred medical clinics and hospitals in Indonesia. Recently it has been active in campaigning about the danger of bird flu in Indonesia.[12]

Organization[edit]

The national headquarters was originally in Yogyakarta. However, by 1970 the committees dealing with education, economics, health and social welfare had been relocated to the national capital, Jakarta.

Muhammadiyah is supported by several autonomous organizations:[13]

  • Aisyiyah ( Women )
  • Pemuda Muhammadiyah ( Youth )
  • Ikatan Pelajar Muhammadiyah ( Student association ) [1]


The central committee structure consists of five advisors, a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary general and some deputies, a treasurer and some deputies, as well as several deputies of chairman.[14]

List of Leaders[edit]

!Number Photo Name Term Start Term End Deliberation Place Description
1. K.H. Ahmad Dahlan 1 August 1912 23 February 1923 Yogyakarta Meetings 1st Year
2. K.H. Ibrahim 23 February 1923 13 October 1932 Yogyakarta Meetings 12th Year
3. K.H. Hisyam 10 November 1934 20 May 1936 Yogyakarta Meetings 23rd Year
4. K.H. Mas Mansur 25 June 1937 25 April 1942 Yogyakarta Meetings 26th Year
5. Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo 24 November 1944 4 November 1953 Yogyakarta Emergency Congress
6. Buya A.R. Sutan Mansur 4 November 1953 25 March 1959 Purwokerto The 32nd Congress
7. K.H. M. Yunus Anis 25 March 1959 3 June 1962 Palembang The 34th Congress
8. K.H. Ahmad Badawi 3 June 1962 25 April 1968 Jakarta The 35th Congress
9. Fakih Usman Suara Rakyat 2 Apr 1952 p1.jpg KH Faqih Usman 25 April 1968 3 October 1968 Palembang The 34th Congress
10. K.H. A.R. Fachruddin 3 October 1968 17 March 1971 Fait Accompli
17 March 1971 15 December 1990 Makasar The 38th Congress
11. K.H. Ahmad Azhar Basyir 15 December 1990 28 June 1995 Yogyakarta The 42nd Congress
12. Amien Rais and Abdurrahman Wahid, 1999.jpg
Amien Rais and Abdurrahman Wahid
Prof. Dr. H. Amien Rais 28 June 1995 26 April 1998 Banda Aceh The 43rd Congress
13. Prof. Dr. H. Ahmad Syafi'i Ma'arif 26 April 1998 31 May 2000 Tanwir & Meetings Plenary Session
31 May 2000 25 November 2005 Jakarta The 44th Congress
14. Prof. Dr. KH. Din Syamsuddin, M.A. 31 August 2005 8 July 2010 Malang The 45th Congress
8 July 2010 Incumbent Yogyakarta The 46th Congress

Muhammadiyah Universities[edit]

Muhammadiyah organisation has a number of universities which are spread out in several provinces of Indonesia, such as:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Muhammadiyah". Div. of Religion and Philosophy, St. Martin College, UK. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  2. ^ Burhani (2005), p. 101.
  3. ^ "Short History of Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah". Muhammadiyah. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]
  4. ^ Burhani (2010), pp. 65-66
  5. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia 1200-2004. London: MacMillan. p. 356. 
  6. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia 1200-2004. London: MacMillan. p. 357. 
  7. ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 288.
  8. ^ "Muhammadiyah Makes Overtures to Islamists". Indonesia Matters. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  9. ^ In Indonesia, Islam loves democracy
  10. ^ "USINDO Roundtable With the Muhammadiyah and Aisyiyah Delegation". The US-Indonesian Society. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Muhammadiyah urged Governot to Set Model School". Tribun Timur. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Muhammadiyah to help campaign on danger of avian flu". Antara. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  13. ^ "Autonomous Organizations". Muhammadiyah. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Central Organization". Muhammadiyah. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]

External links[edit]

  • Official website
  • Official magazine
  • Pacific Affairs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Sep., 1954), pp. 255-263 Modern Islam in Indonesia: The Muhammadiyah After Independence
  • Burhani, Ahmad Najib. 2005. "Revealing the Neglected Missions: Some Comments on the Javanese Elements of Muhammadiyah Reformism." Studia Islamika, 12 (1): 101-129.
  • Burhani, Ahmad Najib. 2010. Muhammadiyah Jawa. Jakarta: Al-Wasat.
  • Peacock, J.L. (1978). Purifying the Faith: The Muhammadijah Movement in Indonesian Islam. Cummings Press. 
  • "Muhammadiyah". Div. of Religion and Philosophy, St. Martin College, UK. Retrieved 2006-08-28. 
  • Ricklefs, M.C. 1991. A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300. 2nd Edition, Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-333-57690-X