International financial institutions
International financial institutions (IFIs) are financial institutions that have been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law. Their owners or shareholders are generally national governments, although other international institutions and other organizations occasionally figure as shareholders. The most prominent IFIs are creations of multiple nations, although some bilateral financial institutions (created by two countries) exist and are technically IFIs. Many of these are multilateral development banks (MDB).
Multilateral development bank 
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A multilateral development bank (MDB) is an institution, created by a group of countries, that provides financing and professional advising for the purpose of development. MDBs have large memberships including both developed donor countries and developing borrower countries. MDBs finance projects in the form of long-term loans at market rates, very-long-term loans (also known as credits) below market rates, and through grants.
The following are usually classified as the main MDBs:
- World Bank
- European Investment Bank(EIB)
- African Development Bank (AfDB)
- Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
- Asian Development Bank (AsDB)
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
- Inter-American Development Bank Group
There are also several "sub-regional" multilateral development banks. Their membership typically includes only borrowing nations. The banks lend to their members, borrowing from the international capital markets. Because there is effectively shared responsibility for repayment, the banks can often borrow more cheaply than could any one member nation. These banks include:
- Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF)
- Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
- Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI)
- East African Development Bank (EADB)
- West African Development Bank (BOAD)
- Black Sea Trade and Development Bank (BSTDB)
- Eurasian Development Bank (EDB)
There are also several multilateral financial institutions (MFIs). MFIs are similar to MDBs but they are sometimes separated since they have more limited memberships and often focus on financing certain types of projects.
- European Commission (EC)
- International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
- OPEC Fund for International Development (OPEC Fund)
- Nederlandse Financieringsmaatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden NV (FMO)
Bretton Woods institutions 
The best-known IFIs were established after World War II to assist in the reconstruction of Europe and provide mechanisms for international cooperation in managing the global financial system . They include the World Bank, the IMF, and the International Finance Corporation. Today the largest IFI in the world is the European Investment Bank which leant 61 billion euros to global projects in 2011.
Regional development banks 
The regional development banks consist of several regional institutions that have functions similar to the World Bank group's activities, but with particular focus on a specific region. Shareholders usually consist of the regional countries plus the major donor countries. The best-known of these regional banks cover regions that roughly correspond to United Nations regional groupings, including the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank; the African Development Bank; and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Bilateral development banks and agencies 
Bilateral development banks are financial institutions set up by individual countries to finance development projects in developing countries and emerging markets. Examples include:
- the Netherlands Development Finance Company FMO, headquarters in The Hague; one of the largest bilateral development banks worldwide.
- the DEG German Investment Corporation or Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, a development bank.
- the Agence Française de Développement, Caisse des dépôts.
Other regional financial institutions 
Several regional groupings of countries have established international financial institutions to finance various projects or activities in areas of mutual interest.
|1998||ECB European Central Bank||http://www.ecb.int||Frankfurt am Main|
|1958||EIB European Investment Bank||http://www.eib.org||Created by European Union member states to provide long-term finance, mainly in the EU||Luxembourg|
|17/5/1930||BRI Banque des règlements internationaux / BIS Bank of International Settlements||http://www.bis.org||The bank of central banks||Bâle|
|Central African Central Banks Association, Association des Banques Centrales Africaines (ABCA)|
|24/1/97||BSTDB Black Sea Trade and Development Bank||http://bstdb.com||Governed by United Nations registered treaty - Region covered corresponds to the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation|
|10/7/70||International Investment Bank of Comecon||established by the countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe||Moscow|
|1975||Islamic Development Bank||http://www.isdb.org||established in pursuance of the Declaration of Intent issued by the Conference of Finance Ministers of Muslim Countries held in Jeddah in December 1973||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia|
|NIB Nordic Investment Bank||http://www.nib.int||The NIB has lending operations in its member countries and in emerging markets on all continents.||Helsinki, Finland|
See also 
- National Development Bank
- Climate Investment Funds
- Development finance institution
- Financial Stability Board
- Global financial system
- http://www.fmo.nl/smartsite.dws?id=46 Official website
- http://www.deginvest.de/EN_Home/index.jsp Official website of DEG
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