A multi-vehicle collision (colloquially known as a pile-up or chain-reaction crash) is a road traffic accident involving many vehicles. Generally occurring on high-capacity and high-speed routes such as freeways, they are one of the deadliest forms of traffic accidents. The most disastrous pile-ups have involved more than a hundred vehicles.
Pile-ups generally occur in low-visibility conditions as drivers on freeways are sometimes caught out by driving too close to the vehicle in front and not adjusting to the road conditions.
Due to the high traffic speeds on the road, if one car develops a problem and suddenly halts, those behind it cannot stop in time and may hit it. Considering that these roads often have high traffic volumes, more cars are forced into braking and skidding, darting into other lanes and in front of oncoming traffic and so more vehicles become involved, creating a chain reaction effect.
Determining the cause of such accidents is difficult for investigators and it is often impossible to tell if negligence caused the crash. In spite of their frequency, little formal research has been done in the United States regarding their cause or causes.
Multiple-vehicle collisions are particularly deadly as the mass of crumpled vehicles makes escape for survivors difficult. Even if survivors are able to exit their vehicles, other cars may strike them. Individual vehicles in a multiple-vehicle collision are often hit multiple times at high speed, increasing the risk of injury to passengers who may have survived the first impact with the benefit of now-discharged protective airbags. Collisions after the initial collision may occur from the side of the vehicle, where the passenger compartment is more vulnerable.
A fire in one part of the accident can quickly spread via spilled gasoline and cover the entire crash area. Multiple-vehicle collisions can also overwhelm local firefighting, ambulance, and police services making speedy rescues more difficult. If the accident takes place in a remote area, getting medical help to the scene can be a daunting task.
The destruction and intense heat of fires can also damage roadways, particularly by melting and burning the asphalt or spalling concrete surfaces. The structural steel of bridges and overpasses can also be weakened by the heat. A fiery pileup inside a tunnel is the most serious, as there is little means to escape the poisonous fumes, and the confined heat may damage structural supports.
The large scale of these accidents can close important highway routes for several days, or even longer if highway support structures are damaged.
||It has been suggested that this article be merged into List of road accidents. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2014.|
|March 12, 1990||3||30||52||Interstate 43 in Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States, on the Tower Drive Bridge over the Fox River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 52 vehicles; 3 deaths and more than 30 injuries. A fog warning system was immediately installed, and bridge lighting was installed in the mid 2000s, after more fog related issues.|
|December 11, 1990||12||42||99||Interstate 75 in Calhoun, Tennessee, United States, between Chattanooga and Knoxville near the Hiwassee River, due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 99 vehicles; 12 deaths and 42 injuries. A fog warning system has since been installed, and the highway patrol enforces speed limits aggressively.|
|March 13, 1991||10||51||51||M4 in Hungerford, Berkshire, United Kingdom, between Membury and Hungerford due to very heavy fog; fiery crash involved 51 vehicles; 10 deaths. A van driver either fell asleep or swerved to miss a pigeon, in the outside lane. Huge pile-up ensued.|
|October 1991||1||64||150||A15 Motorway near Ochten, Netherlands, due to fog, 150 vehicles, 1 death, 64 injuries.|
|November 29, 1991||17||114||104||Interstate 5 in Coalinga, California, due to a dust storm, 104 vehicles, 17 deaths, 114 injuries.|
|April 1992||2||dozens||60||Interstate 64 in Virginia near Afton Mountain, due to fog, 60 vehicles, 2 deaths, dozens injured.|
|December 2, 1994||67||127||Interstate 35 in San Antonio, Texas, United States, 127 car pile-up caused by blinding glare and rain-slicked roads, 67 injuries.|
|March 20, 1995||1||90||200||Interstate 10 in Mobile, Alabama, United States, due to fog, 200 vehicles, 1 death, 90 injuries.|
|February 27, 1996||10||80||200||E17 motorway near Nazareth, Belgium, due to fog.|
|March 10, 1997||3||60||160||M42 motorway in the United Kingdom, due to fog – 160 vehicles involved, 3 deaths, 60 injuries.|
|December 31, 1998||1||39||114||114 cars crashed during whiteout conditions and  a snow-slicked section of N/B Interstate-75 in central Michigan, just north of Grayling, killing one and injuring 39.|
|September 3, 1999||8||33||87||Highway 401 in Essex County, Ontario, Canada, just east of Windsor. Very dense fog and tailgating causes an 87-vehicle pile-up, killing 8, and injuring 33 more.|
|November 22, 1999||2||29||83||Interstate 70 in Golden, Colorado, United States, when a car spun out in the westbound lanes in heavy snow and fog, then was hit by other vehicles as it attempted to resume westbound travel.|
|February 2001||131||Interstate 95 in Stafford County, Virginia, United States, 131 vehicles plus two others nearby totaling 80 more, due to a snowstorm whiteout.|
|March 2002||125||Interstate 75 in Catoosa County, Georgia, United States, due to one-time sudden fog, about 125 vehicles|
|October 11, 2002||10||36||50||Interstate 43 in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, United States, just nor th of the Ozaukee-Sheboygan county line. Involved 50 vehicles due to dense fog. Considered the worst multiple-vehicle collision in Wisconsin history.|
|November 3, 2002||0||41||216||Interstate 710 in Los Angeles County, California, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog.|
|February 7, 2003||1||47||80||Interstate 94 in Berrien County, Michigan, United States, 80 vehicles (initially reported as 75), due to lake-effect snow.|
|May 23, 2003||2||64||90||Interstate 68 in Garrett County, Maryland, United States, approximately 90 vehicles involved in accident near the I-68 cut on Big Savage Mountain. Heavy fog was blamed for the accident.|
|January 6, 2004||6||17||50||Interstate 80 in Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States, around 50 vehicles, due to poor visibility during a white out snow squall, leaving 6 dead and 17 injured.|
|January 12, 2005||2||35||200||Interstate 96 in Ingham County, Michigan, United States, around 200 vehicles, due to dense fog leaving 2 dead and 35 injured.|
|November 5, 2007||2||dozens||100||Highway 99 south of Fresno, California, United States, due to the tule fog that occurs frequently in fall and winter; involved more than 100 vehicles, killed at least 2 and injured dozens of others.|
|January 6, 2008||2||100||Two people are killed as 100 cars pile up on Interstate 90 near Madison, Wisconsin.|
|January 9, 2008||4||38||70||Four people were killed and as many as 38 injured in a major pileup on Interstate 4 in north central Florida involving 70 vehicles, as fog mixed with smoke from a controlled fire that reached out-of-control proportions combined to make it almost impossible for motorists to see.|
|January 20, 2008||100||More than 100 vehicles crashed into each other on Highway 400 near Toronto due to bad weather conditions.|
|March 11, 2008||3||277||60||Around 6.39 am UAE time a series of vehicle crashes occurred, involving cars, SUVs, buses and trucks, because of heavy fog on the Abu Dhabi-Dubai highway near Ghantoot, Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, leading to the worst ever crash and multi-vehicle pileup in the country’s history. According to Dubai-based Gulf News and Reuters, the incident killed 3 people and injured 277, involving 60 vehicles from which 25 caught fire according to Abu Dhabi Police.|
|March 20, 2008||0||33||231||231 vehicles crashed at highway D1 in Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. About 30 people were injured, 3 of them seriously. Nobody was killed.|
|March 25, 2008||1||6||60||A near 60 vehicle pile-up in heavy snow on Austria's main east-west highway causes one death with six injuries.|
|January 11, 2009||50+||"More than 50 cars..." in Derry, New Hampshire|
|January 19, 2009||35||A 35-car pileup occurs during a snowstorm on Interstate 70 in Myersville, Maryland.|
|July 19, 2009||Dozens||259||Dozens of people injured, 10 critically, when 259 vehicles were involved in a pile-up due to heavy rain on the German Autobahn A2 near Braunschweig in Lower Saxony.|
|December 13, 2009||52||56||56 cars involved in a pile-up on Route 110 in Shelton, Connecticut due to black ice resulting in 46 injuries and six hospitalizations, but no deaths or life-threatening injuries.|
|December 23, 2009||36||43||M27 motorway 20 vehicles involved in a pile up westbound at Rownhams services and another 23 eastbound between J7 for Hedge End and Botley and J8 for Bursledon and Netley due to severe black ice, freezing fog and deep snow. 36 people injured.|
|February 10, 2010||7||50||Near Williamsburg, Virginia, whiteout conditions during the morning around 9:00 am EST 10 February led to a fifty-car pileup on a stretch of westbound I-64. The accident took hours to clear, and seven people suffered minor injuries requiring hospitalization.|
|February 14, 2010||13||140||In the Kansas City area, several pileups involving 140 vehicles, including two Greyhound buses was caused by whiteout conditions. The largest pileup, involving 40 vehicles along I-70 and K-7 near the city of Bonner Springs, Kansas. No fatalities or critical injuries were reported. The accident closed I-70 for several hours so emergency workers and crews could clean up the area. The same day, also in the Kansas City metro area, a separate pileup caused by whiteout conditions, involving at least 20 vehicles closed parts of I-35 near 87th Street. No fatalities or serious injuries were reported there as well. The accident sent 13 people to area hospitals.|
|November 16, 2010||2||16||75||Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia-Virginia State Police determined that a total of 75 vehicles were involved in crashes in both the northbound and southbound lanes of I-77 between the 4 and 7 mile markers in the area of Fancy Gap, Virginia. Heavy fog resulting in zero visibility was determined to be the cause of the accidents.|
|April 8, 2011||8||131||80+||An 80-car pileup occurs during a sandstorm on Autobahn 19 near Rostock, Germany (both directions). 8 death and 131 injured people.|
|September 15, 2011||1||49||300||Rodovia dos Imigrantes at São Paulo, Brazil. around 300 vehicles involved in an accident due to heavy fog. Several injuries and one person dead.|
|November 4, 2011||7||51||34||Near Taunton, Somerset, England. 34 vehicles involved in an accident near Junction 25 on the M5 motorway near Taunton due to fog and heavy rain. 7 confirmed deaths reported and 51 injured.|
|December 1, 2011||1||16–18||176||Tennessee State Route 386 (Vietnam Veterans Boulevard) and Saundersville Road near Hendersonville in Sumner County, Tennessee, United States, north of Nashville, due to "heavy, heavy fog"; three separate chain-reaction crashes involving 176 vehicles; 1 death and 16–18 injuries. A fog advisory was not in effect for the area at the time of the crashes.|
|December 3, 2011||1||14||134||Istanbul Trans European Motorway 134 cars involved with 1 dead, 14 injured, due to heavy fog and slippery road.|
|December 29, 2011||2||59||40||I-10 in New Orleans, Louisiana; About 40 vehicles involved with at least 50 injuries (22 serious), due to heavy fog and smoke from a nearby ongoing marsh fire in New Orleans East.|
|January 29, 2012||11||18||25||I-75 in Gainesville, Florida; 25 cars involved with 11 fatalities and at least 18 injuries, due to low visibility from smoke and fog.|
|February 3, 2012||0||40+||100+||European route E75 Helsinki, Finland more than 100 cars involved with more than 40 injured (1 critically), due to heavy snow and slippery road.|
|October 5, 2012||0||52||47||Interstate I-75 Southbound Sarasota/Manatee County line, Florida. On University Blvd. overpass 47 vehicles in 12 separate crashes, due to white-out rain.|
|November 22, 2012||2||100||100+||Interstate I-10 – Both directions – Jefferson County line, Texas. 150-vehicle pileup on foggy Texas highway leaves 2 dead, 100 hurt.|
|January 15, 2013||1||46||100||European route E4 Klippan. On Tranarp bridge. One person died and more than 40 were injured on the E4 motorway near Helsingborg, southwestern Sweden, after up to 80 vehicles crashed into one another due to dense fog and slippery road conditions.|
|January 21, 2013||1||27||103||Interstate 275 – Cincinnati, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup with many injuries. A 12-year-old girl was killed.|
|January 21, 2013||0||9||52||Interstate 75 – Middletown, Ohio. Flash snowburst caused a large pileup. Same storm as Cincinnati 103-vehicle accident that killed a 12-year-old girl.|
|January 25, 2013||0||5||80||Highway 401 east of Oshawa – Ontario, Canada.|
|January 31, 2013||3||20+||35+||Interstate 75 - Detroit, Michigan. Flash snowburst caused a pile-up along an urbanized section of Interstate 75 in Detroit, killing a 46-year-old Allen Park man, and two children from nearby Windsor, Ontario.|
|March 31, 2013||3||25||95||Interstate 77 in Carroll County, Virginia approximately 95 vehicles were involved in an accident on the southbound lane of I-77 near the base of Fancy Gap Mountain near Fancy Gap, Virginia. Virginia State Police say that excessive fog could be to blame for the accident. Three people were killed.|
|September 5, 2013||0||60||130+||60 people were injured as more than 130 vehicles were involved in a series of crashes in thick fog on the A249 Sheppey crossing in Kent, UK.|
|December 3, 2013||2||67||132||One person was killed and 67 injured as 132 vehicles were involved in a triple chain collision in thick fog on the A19 in Zonnebeke, Belgium. A second person died four days later.|
|January 23, 2014||3||20+||~46||Interstate 94 in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States, more than 40 vehicles, due to lake-effect snow.|
|February 14, 2014||0||30||100||Up to 105 vehicles were involved in multiple accidents on the eastbound lanes of the Pennsylvania Turnpike between Willow Grove and Bensalem. One accident involved about 75 vehicles while another incident further east involved about 30 vehicles. There were a total of 30 injuries. The accidents were a result of icy conditions from a winter storm.|
|February 27, 2014||0||96||Ontario Highway 400 south of Barrie, 96 vehicles were involved in collisions at about 9am during a snow squall, reducing visibility to "a few feet". The incident resulted in the closure of Highway 400 between Highway 89 and Mapleview Drive. Both lanes on that stretch of highway were closed for most of the day until early evening.|
|March 1, 2014||1||30||104||Interstate 25 in Denver, Colorado, United States, 104 vehicles, due to heavy snow.|
|March 12, 2014||3||"numerous"||90||Ninety vehicles between two crashes on the Ohio Turnpike (Interstate 80/90) in Sandusky County, Ohio, United States, due to heavy snow.|
|October 14, 2014||4||54||47||A 47 vehicle pileup occurs during morning traffic N12 Freeway near Alberton, South Africa (heading east). 4 people confirmed dead and 9 people critically injured.|
|January 9, 2015||1||23||193||Nearly 200 vehicles, including 76 semi trucks, were involved in a pileup on Interstate 94 near Galesburg, Michigan, amidst a heavy snowstorm that brought nearly a foot of snow to the area. One of the trucks was carrying a load of fireworks, which caught fire and exploded, injuring two firefighters. The only fatality was a 57-year-old truck driver from Quebec, Canada.|
|January 17, 2015||0||12||26||26 vehicles, including more than a dozen tractor-trailers, were involved in a pileup on Interstate 84 near Baker City, Oregon. 12 people were injured, including 4 seriously injured.|
|January 18, 2015||1||30||60||60-car pileup on Interstate 76 in Upper Merion, Pennsylvania due to icy roads. 1 man was killed when he got out of his car after the accident and was hit by another car. 30 more people were injured.|
|January 18, 2015||2||5||15||15-car pileup on Interstate 476 in Delaware County, Pennsylvania due to icy roads. 2 men were killed and 5 injured (1 seriously). This pileup occurred shortly after, and nearby, the 60-car pileup in Upper Merion, Pennsylvania on the same day. The event caused the Emergency Alert System to activate.|
|January 26, 2015||2||18||100+||Motorway pile-up involving more than 100 vehicles on the M-40 in Lewknor, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. 2 men died and 18 people were injured, including several seriously injured.|
|February 11, 2015||2||65||106||106-car pileup on Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, South Korea. 2 men died and more than 65 people were injured. The event was caught on tape from a vehicle's dashcam.|
|February 25, 2015||0||17||75||75-car pileup on Interstate 95 in Penobscot County, Maine, United States. This was noted as possibly Maine's largest single traffic accident.|
Multiple vehicle collisions can occur in the restricted courses used in motorsports as well, most commonly after a green flag (on road courses) being waved following a warm-up lap during the start of the race. Reporters and fans apply subjective guidelines as to what threshold needs to be crossed before a simple on-track incident can be described as such. NASCAR fans, for example, talk about 'The Big One', where many cars can be involved in a wreck while running close together.
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