Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys

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The Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) are surveys run under the program developed by the United Nations Children's Fund to provide internationally comparable, statistically rigorous data on the situation of children and women. The first round of surveys (MICS1) was carried out in over 60 countries in 1995 in response to the World Summit for Children. A second round (MICS2) in 2000 increased the depth of the survey, allowing monitoring of multiple indicators. A third round (MICS3) started in 2006 and aimed at producing data measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), A World Fit for Children, and other major relevant international commitments. The fourth round, launched in 2009, aimed at most data collection conducted in 2010, but in reality most MICS4s were implemented in 2011 and even into 2012 and 2013. This represented a scale-up of frequency of MICS from UNICEF, now offering the survey programme on a three-year cycle.

The fifth round, launched in 2012, is currently being implemented by more than 40 countries.

The MICS is highly comparable to the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the technical teams developing and supporting the surveys are in close collaboration.[1][2][3]

Survey Tools[edit]

Questionnaires[edit]

The MICS questionnaires[4] are:

- Household, administered to any knowledgeable adult member of the household (in MICS1-MICS3 this was to the head of household)

- Women, administered to all eligible women of the household

- Under five year old children, administered to mothers of children.

- As of 2011, a questionnaire for men has also been developed and is included in the generic set of questionnaires.

In MICS, the generic questionnaires include all modules, such that implementers only should remove non-applicable or non-desired modules and questions, e.g. the ITN module in non-endemic countries.

The full set of generic modules include:
Household Questionnaire

Individual Questionnaire for Women

Questionnaire for Children Under Five

Individual Questionnaire for Men

Other Tools[edit]

The MICS package also includes data entry program (in CSPro), standard tabulation syntax (in SPSS), workshop training programmes, in-country capacity building and technical assistance, data dissemination templates, as well as various online resources, such as a survey data compiler (MICS Compiler).

Current Status[edit]

The 5th round of MICS officially commenced in September 2012 and is scheduled run to 2014, which is the last year were data collection for MDG indicator updating is possible, due to long preparatory phase leading up to the MDG Summit in September 2015.

A MICS5 Pilot Study of new or refined questionnaire modules and tools for data collection and processing was conducted in Bangladesh in May/June 2012.[5]

The MICS Programme is participating in methodological development of new data collection tools, such as on water quality testing, child discipline, external economic support, and impact of emergencies.[6] A methodological paper series was launched in 2012.[7]

After evaluations of the programme following rounds 1 and 3,[8] a third evaluation was commissioned of round 4.[9]

Countries[edit]

The following countries have conducted (or plan to conduct) a MICS survey.[10]

MICS1 MICS2 MICS3 MICS4 MICS5
 Afghanistan X SS X
 Albania X X
 Algeria X X X X
 Angola X X
 Argentina X
 Azerbaijan X
 Bangladesh XXX X X X
 Barbados X
 Belarus X X
 Belize X X X
 Benin X
 Bhutan X
 Bolivia X X
 Bosnia and Herzegovina X X X
 Botswana X
 Burkina Faso X X
 Burundi X X X
 Cambodia X
 Cameroon X X X
 Central African Republic X X X X X
 Chad X X
 China X
 Comoros X
 Democratic Republic of Congo X X X
 Congo X
 Costa Rica X X
 Cote d'Ivoire X X X X
 Croatia X
 Cuba X X X X
 North Korea X X X
 Djibouti X
 Dominican Republic X X
 Egypt X S
 El Salvador X
 Ethiopia X
 Equatorial Guinea X
 Gabon X
 Gambia X X X X
 Georgia X X X
 Ghana X XS XS
 Guinea X X
 Guinea-Bissau X X X X X
 Guyana X X X
 India X X
 Indonesia X X SS
 Iran XX X
 Iraq X X X X X
 Jamaica X X
 Kazakhstan X X X
 Kenya X S SS SSS
 Kosovo XS
 Kyrgyzstan X X X
 Laos X X X X
 Lebanon XS S S
 Lesotho X X
 Liberia X
 Macedonia X X XS
 Madagascar X X S
 Malawi X X X
 Malaysia X
 Maldives X X
 Mali X X X
 Mauritania X X X X
 Moldova X X S
 Mongolia X X X XSS X
 Montenegro X XS
 Mozambique X X
 Myanmar X X X
   Nepal X S X
 Niger X X
 Nigeria X X X X X
 Oman X X
 Pakistan X SS SSS
 Palestine X X X X
 Panama X X
 Philippines X X
 Qatar X
 Rwanda X
 Saint Lucia X
 São Tomé and Príncipe X X X X
 Senegal X X S
 Serbia X XS XS
 Sierra Leone X X X X X
 Somalia SS X X SS
 South Sudan X
 Sudan XS XS X X
 Suriname X X X X
 Swaziland X X X X
 Syria X XS XS
 Tajikistan X X
 Tanzania X
 Thailand X X XS
 Togo X X X X
 Trinidad and Tobago X X X
 Tunisia X X X
 Turkey X
 Turkmenistan X X X
 Ukraine X X X
 United Arab Emirates X
 Uruguay X
 Uzbekistan X X
 Vanuatu X
 Venezuela X
 Viet Nam X X X X X
 Yemen X X
 Yugoslavia X X
 Zambia X X
 Zimbabwe X X
Total (national surveys) 60 61 49 46 39

X = National Survey S = Sub-national Survey

Note: Only countries from UNICEF's official list are included. It appears that some surveys are based on the MICS tools, but not included in the list, e.g. Botswana 2007-08 Family Health Survey.[11]

The total number of countries having ever conducted a MICS (or plan to do so) is more than 100. In MICS5 five countries are new to the programme: Benin, Congo, El Salvador, Malaysia, and United Arab Emirates.

Use of survey data[edit]

Survey data are widely used, predominantly in multi-country analyses, but also often for simple trend analyses in single countries. An example of use of MICS data is provided by Monasch et al. (2004).[12]

Due to the near perfect comparability between MICS and DHS, much analysis draws on multiple data sets of both programmes. However, each survey programme have modules specific to their mandates and not often used in both programmes. For example, a recent compilation of evidence on child discipline makes use of surveys that included the Child Discipline Module; these were all MICS. UNICEF (2010).[13]

Most global statistics, such as on the indicators of the MDGs rely heavily on data collected through MICS (and other household surveys), particularly for countries where administrative reporting systems are not entirely adequate. Other global statistics rely on only household survey data, such as the Multidimensional Poverty Index developed by OPHI and reported by UNDP.

Examples of recent publications are listed under external links.

External links[edit]

Recent Examples of Use of MICS data[edit]

Household Survey Programme websites[edit]

Regional Programmes[edit]

Networks[edit]

Other related links[edit]

References[edit]