Theory of multiple intelligences

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The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence.[1] These were that the intelligences showed: potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history, presence of core operations, susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), a distinct developmental progression, the existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, and support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings.

Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria:[2] musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.[3] Although the distinction between intelligences has been set out in great detail, Gardner opposes the idea of labeling learners to a specific intelligence. Each individual possesses a unique blend of all the intelligences. Gardner firmly maintains that his theory of multiple intelligences should "empower learners", not restrict them to one modality of learning.[4]

Gardner argues intelligence is categorized into three primary or overarching categories, those of which are formulated by the abilities. According to Gardner, intelligence is: 1) The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture, 2) a set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life, and 3) the potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering new knowledge.[5]

The different abilities[edit]

Musical–rhythmic and harmonic[edit]

Main article: Musicality

This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.[6][7]

Visual–spatial[edit]

This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence.[7]

Verbal–linguistic[edit]

People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates.[7] Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.[8] This type of intelligence is measured with the Verbal IQ in WAIS-III.

Logical–mathematical[edit]

Further information: Reason

This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking.[7] This also has to do with having the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system.[6] Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general intelligence (g factor).[9]

Bodily–kinesthetic[edit]

Further information: Gross motor skill and Fine motor skill

The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully.[7] Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses.

People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things.

Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence include: athletes, dancers, musicians, actors, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.[10]

Interpersonal[edit]

Main article: Social skills

This area has to do with interaction with others.[7] In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people..."[11] Those with high interpersonal intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They often enjoy discussion and debate.

Gardner believes that careers that suit those with high interpersonal intelligence include sales persons, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers.[12]

Intrapersonal[edit]

Further information: Introspection

This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what one's strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes one unique, being able to predict one's own reactions/emotions.

Naturalistic[edit]

This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings.[7] Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.[6] This sort of ecological receptiveness is deeply rooted in a "sensitive, ethical, and holistic understanding" of the world and its complexities–including the role of humanity within the greater ecosphere.[13]

Existential[edit]

Further information: Spirituality

Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an "existential" intelligence may be a useful construct.[14] The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.[15]

Critical reception[edit]

Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, but that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level. Such a fundamental understanding can result in slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite possessing a shallower understanding of the process of multiplication.[citation needed].

Intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner's theory predicts, supporting the prevailing theory of general intelligence rather than multiple intelligences (MI). The theory has been widely criticized by mainstream psychology for its lack of empirical evidence, and its dependence on subjective judgement[citation needed]. Certain models of alternative education employ the approaches suggested by the theory[citation needed].

Definition of intelligence[edit]

One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word "intelligence", but rather denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood, and instead uses the word "intelligence" where other people have traditionally used words like "ability" and "aptitude". This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg,[16][17] Eysenck,[18] and Scarr.[19] White (2006) points out that Gardner's selection and application of criteria for his "intelligences" is subjective and arbitrary, and that a different researcher would likely have come up with different criteria.[20]

Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus a broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn.[21] They would state that the traditional interpretation of intelligence collapses under the weight of its own logic and definition, noting that intelligence is usually defined as the cognitive or mental capacity of an individual, which by logical necessity would include all forms of mental qualities, not just the ones most transparent to I.Q. tests.[citation needed]

Some criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in. He then added a disclaimer that he has no fixed definition, and his classification is more of an artistic judgment than fact:

Ultimately, it would certainly be desirable to have an algorithm for the selection of an intelligence, such that any trained researcher could determine whether a candidate's intelligence met the appropriate criteria. At present, however, it must be admitted that the selection (or rejection) of a candidate's intelligence is reminiscent more of an artistic judgment than of a scientific assessment.[22]

Gardner argues that by calling linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities intelligences, but not artistic, musical, athletic, etc. abilities, the former are needlessly aggrandized. Certain critics balk at this widening of the definition, saying that it ignores "the connotation of intelligence ... [which] has always connoted the kind of thinking skills that makes one successful in school."[23]

Gardner writes "I balk at the unwarranted assumption that certain human abilities can be arbitrarily singled out as intelligence while others cannot."[24] Critics hold that given this statement, any interest or ability can be redefined as "intelligence". Thus, studying intelligence becomes difficult, because it diffuses into the broader concept of ability or talent. Gardner's addition of the naturalistic intelligence and conceptions of the existential and moral intelligences are seen as fruits of this diffusion. Defenders of the MI theory would argue that this is simply a recognition of the broad scope of inherent mental abilities, and that such an exhaustive scope by nature defies a one-dimensional classification such as an IQ value.

The theory and definitions have been critiqued by Perry D. Klein as being so unclear as to be tautologous and thus unfalsifiable. Having a high musical ability means being good at music while at the same time being good at music is explained by having a high musical ability.[25]

Neo-Piagetian criticism[edit]

Andreas Demetriou suggests that theories which overemphasize the autonomy of the domains are as simplistic as the theories that overemphasize the role of general intelligence and ignore the domains. He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other.[26] Some of the domains, such as verbal, spatial, mathematical, and social intelligence are identified by most lines of research in psychology. In Demetriou's theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, Gardner is criticized for underestimating the effects exerted on the various domains of intelligences by processes that define general processing efficiency, such as speed of processing, executive functions, working memory, and meta-cognitive processes underlying self-awareness and self-regulation. All of these processes are integral components of general intelligence that regulate the functioning and development of different domains of intelligence.[27]

The domains are to a large extent expressions of the condition of the general processes, and may vary because of their constitutional differences but also differences in individual preferences and inclinations. Their functioning both channels and influences the operation of the general processes.[28][29] Thus, one cannot satisfactorily specify the intelligence of an individual or design effective intervention programs unless both the general processes and the domains of interest are evaluated.[30][31]

IQ tests[edit]

Gardner argues that IQ tests only measure linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities. He argues the importance of assessing in an "intelligence-fair" manner. While traditional paper-and-pen examinations favour linguistic and logical skills, there is a need for intelligence-fair measures that value the distinct modalities of thinking and learning that uniquely define each intelligence.[7]

Psychologist Alan S. Kaufman points out that IQ tests have measured spatial abilities for 70 years.[32] Modern IQ tests are greatly influenced by the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory which incorporates a general intelligence but also many more narrow abilities. While IQ tests do give an overall IQ score, they now also give scores for many more narrow abilities.[32]

Lack of empirical evidence[edit]

According to a 2006 study many of Gardner's "intelligences" correlate with the g factor, supporting the idea of a single dominant type of intelligence. According to the study, each of the domains proposed by Gardner involved a blend of g, of cognitive abilities other than g, and, in some cases, of non-cognitive abilities or of personality characteristics.[33]

Linda Gottfredson (2006) has argued that thousands of studies support the importance of intelligence quotient (IQ) in predicting school and job performance, and numerous other life outcomes. In contrast, empirical support for non-g intelligences is lacking or very poor. She argued that despite this the ideas of multiple non-g intelligences are very attractive to many due to the suggestion that everyone can be smart in some way.[34]

A critical review of MI theory argues that there is little empirical evidence to support it:

To date there have been no published studies that offer evidence of the validity of the multiple intelligences. In 1994 Sternberg reported finding no empirical studies. In 2000 Allix reported finding no empirical validating studies, and at that time Gardner and Connell conceded that there was "little hard evidence for MI theory" (2000, p. 292). In 2004 Sternberg and Grigerenko stated that there were no validating studies for multiple intelligences, and in 2004 Gardner asserted that he would be "delighted were such evidence to accrue",[35] and admitted that "MI theory has few enthusiasts among psychometricians or others of a traditional psychological background" because they require "psychometric or experimental evidence that allows one to prove the existence of the several intelligences."[35][36]

The same review presents evidence to demonstrate that cognitive neuroscience research does not support the theory of multiple intelligences:

... the human brain is unlikely to function via Gardner’s multiple intelligences. Taken together the evidence for the intercorrelations of subskills of IQ measures, the evidence for a shared set of genes associated with mathematics, reading, and g, and the evidence for shared and overlapping "what is it?" and "where is it?" neural processing pathways, and shared neural pathways for language, music, motor skills, and emotions suggest that it is unlikely that each of Gardner’s intelligences could operate "via a different set of neural mechanisms" (1999, p. 99). Equally important, the evidence for the "what is it?" and "where is it?" processing pathways, for Kahneman’s two decision-making systems, and for adapted cognition modules suggests that these cognitive brain specializations have evolved to address very specific problems in our environment. Because Gardner claimed that the intelligences are innate potentialities related to a general content area, MI theory lacks a rationale for the phylogenetic emergence of the intelligences.[36]

The theory of multiple intelligences has been conflated with learning styles. It is often cited as an example of pseudoscience because it lacks empirical evidence or falsifiability.[37][38]

Use in education[edit]

Gardner defines an intelligence as "biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture."[39] According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling "should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences. People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way."[a]

Gardner contends that IQ tests focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, the chances of attending a prestigious college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society.[40] While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. According to Helding (2009), "Standard IQ tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time, they can only provide a freeze-frame view of crystallized knowledge. They cannot assess or predict a person’s ability to learn, to assimilate new information, or to solve new problems."[41] Gardner's theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence. It challenges educators to find "ways that will work for this student learning this topic".[42]

James Traub's article in The New Republic notes that Gardner's system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching.[43] Gardner states that "while Multiple Intelligences theory is consistent with much empirical evidence, it has not been subjected to strong experimental tests ... Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience."[44]

George Miller, a prominent cognitive psychologist, wrote in The New York Times Book Review that Gardner's argument consisted of "hunch and opinion". Jerome Bruner called Gardner’s "intelligences" "at best useful fictions," and Charles Murray and Richard J. Herrnstein in The Bell Curve (1994) called Gardner's theory "uniquely devoid of psychometric or other quantitative evidence."[45]

Thomas Armstrong argues that Waldorf education engages all of Gardner's original seven intelligences.[b] In spite of its lack of general acceptance in the psychological community, Gardner's theory has been adopted by many schools, where it is often used to underpin discussion about learning styles,[46] and hundreds of books have been written about its applications in education.[47] Gardner himself has said he is "uneasy" with the way his theory has been used in education.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ This information is based on an informal talk given on the 350th anniversary of Harvard University on 5 September 1986. Harvard Education Review, Harvard Education Publishing Group, 1987, 57, 187–93.
  2. ^ "Waldorf education embodies in a truly organic sense all of Howard Gardner's seven intelligences ... not simply an amalgam of the seven intelligences. Many schools are currently attempting to construct curricula based on Gardner's model simply through an additive process (what can we add to what we have already got?). Steiner's approach, however, was to begin with an inner vision of the child and the child's needs and build a curriculum around that vision." Thomas Armstrong, cited in Eric Oddleifson, Boston Public Schools As Arts-Integrated Learning Organizations: Developing a High Standard of Culture for All

Citations

  1. ^ Gilman, Lynn (2012) [2008], "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences", Indiana University, retrieved 14 November 2012 
  2. ^ Slavin, Robert (2009) Educational Psychology, p. 117 ISBN 0-205-59200-7
  3. ^ Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008), Gardner "Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education", the encyclopedia of informal education, retrieved 22 October 2011 
  4. ^ McKenzie, W. (2005). Multiple intelligences and instructional technology. ISTE (International Society for Technology Education). ISBN 156484188X
  5. ^ Gardner, Howard (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. Basic Books Inc. ISBN 978-0-465-02611-1. 
  6. ^ a b c Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory, PBS, retrieved 9 December 2012 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989), "Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences", Educational Researcher 18 (8): 4, doi:10.3102/0013189X018008004 
  8. ^ Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III.
  9. ^ Carroll 1993
  10. ^ Gardner, Howard (May 1984), "Heteroglossia: A Global Perspective", Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory of Postpedagogical Studies 
  11. ^ Gardner, H. (1995). How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom—Administrators' Version. ISBN 1-887943-03-X. National Professional Resources Dr. Howard Gardner, along with teachers and students from Fuller Elementary School in Gloucester, MA, discuss the theory behind Multiple Intelligences and demonstrate how they have integrated it into their classrooms and community. (41 minutes)
  12. ^ Gardner, Howard (2002), "Interpersonal Communication amongst Multiple Subjects: A Study in Redundancy", Experimental Psychology 
  13. ^ Morris, M. (2004), "Ch. 8. The Eight One: Naturalistic Intelligence", in Kincheloe, Joe L., Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered, Peter Lang, pp. 159–, ISBN 978-0-8204-7098-6 
  14. ^ Gardner 2000
  15. ^ Tupper, K. W. (2002), "Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant Teachers as Cognitive Tools", Canadian Journal of Education 27 (4): 499–516, doi:10.2307/1602247 
  16. ^ Sternberg, R. J. (Winter 1983), "How much Gall is too much gall? Review of Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences", Contemporary Education Review 2 (3): 215–224 
  17. ^ Sternberg, R. J. (1991), "Death, taxes, and bad intelligence tests", Intelligence 15 (3): 257–270, doi:10.1016/0160-2896(91)90035-C 
  18. ^ Eysenck 1994
  19. ^ Scarr, S. (1985), "An authors frame of mind [Review of Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences]", New Ideas in Psychology 3 (1): 95–100, doi:10.1016/0732-118X(85)90056-X 
  20. ^ Davis et al. 2011, p. 489
  21. ^ Nikolova, K., & Taneva-Shopova, S. (2007), "Multiple intelligences theory and educational practice", Annual Assesn Zlatarov University 26 (2): 105–109 
  22. ^ Gardner 1983
  23. ^ Willingham, Daniel T. (2004), "Check the Facts: Reframing the Mind", Education Next: 19–24  PDF copy
  24. ^ Gardner, Howard (1998), "A Reply to Perry D. Klein's 'Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight'", Canadian Journal of Education 23 (1): 96–102, doi:10.2307/1585968, JSTOR 1585790 
  25. ^ Klein, Perry D. (1998), "A Response to Howard Gardner: Falsifiability, Empirical Evidence, and Pedagogical Usefulness in Educational Psychologies", Canadian Journal of Education 23 (1): 103–112, doi:10.2307/1585969 
  26. ^ Demetriou, A.; Spanoudis, G.; Mouyi, A. (2011), Educating the Developing Mind: Towards an Overarching Paradigm, "Educating the Developing Mind: Towards an Overarching Paradigm", Educational Psychology Review 23 (4): 601–663, doi:10.1007/s10648-011-9178-3 
  27. ^ Demetriou & Raftopoulos 2005, p. 68
  28. ^ Demetriou, A.; Efklides, A.; Platsidou, M.; Campbell, Robert L. (1993), "The architecture and dynamics of developing mind: Experiential structuralism as a frame for unifying cognitive developmental theories", Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 58 (234): i, doi:10.2307/1166053 
  29. ^ Demetriou, A., Christou, C.; Spanoudis, G.; Platsidou, M. (2002), "The development of mental processing: Efficiency, working memory, and thinking", Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Development 67 (268) 
  30. ^ Demetriou, A.; Kazi, S. (2006), "Self-awareness in g (with processing efficiency and reasoning", Intelligence 34 (3): 297–317, doi:10.1016/j.intell.2005.10.002 
  31. ^ Demetriou, Mouyi & Spanoudis 2010
  32. ^ a b Kaufman 2009
  33. ^ Visser, Beth A.; Ashton, Michael C.; Vernon, Philip A. (2006), "g and the measurement of Multiple Intelligences: A response to Gardner", Intelligence 34 (5): 507–510, doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.04.006 
  34. ^ Gottfredson, L. S. (2006), "Social Consequences of Group Differences in Cognitive Ability (Consequencias sociais das diferencas de grupo em habilidade cognitiva)", in Flores-Mendoza, C. E.; Colom, R., Introducau a psicologia das diferencas individuais, ArtMed Publishers, pp. 433–456, ISBN 8536314184 
  35. ^ a b Gardner 2004, p. 214
  36. ^ a b Waterhouse, Lynn (Fall 2006), "Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A critical review", Educational Psychologist 41 (4): 207–225, doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4104_1 
  37. ^ Jones 2010, p. 35.
  38. ^ Gottfredson, Linda, "Intelligence", New Scientist, retrieved 13 November 2012 
  39. ^ Gardner 2000, pp. 33–34
  40. ^ Gardner 1993, p. 6
  41. ^ Helding, L. (2009), "Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences", Journal of Singing 66 (2): 193–199 
  42. ^ Gardner 2000, p. 154
  43. ^ Traub, James (1998), "Multiple intelligence disorder", The New Republic 219 (17): 20 
  44. ^ Gardner 1993, p. 33
  45. ^ Eberstadt, Mary (October–November 1999), "The Schools They Deserve" (PDF), Policy Review 
  46. ^ Jones 2010, p. 23
  47. ^ Davis et al. 2011, p. 486
  48. ^ Revell, Phil (31 May 2005), "Each to their own", Guardian, retrieved 15 November 2012 

Bibliography

  • Carroll, J. B. (1993), Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-analytic Studies, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521382750 
  • Davis, Katie; Christodoulou, Joanna; Seider, Scott; Gardner, Howard (2011), "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences", in Sternberg, Robert J.; Kaufman, Barry, The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, pp. 485–503, ISBN 0521518067 
  • Demetriou, Andreas; Raftopoulos, Athanassios (2005), Cognitive Developmental Change: Theories, Models and Measurement, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521825792 
  • Demetriou, A.; Mouyi, A.; Spanoudis, G. (2010), "The development of mental processing", in Overton, W. F., The Handbook of Life-Span Development: Cognition, Biology and Methods, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 36–55, ISBN 978-0-470-39011-5 
  • Eysenck, M. W., ed. (1994), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology, Blackwell Publishers, pp. 192–193, ISBN 0631192573 
  • Gardner, Howard (1993), Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice, Basic Books, ISBN 046501822X 
  • Gardner, Howard (1983), Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, ISBN 0133306143 
  • Gardner, Howard (2000), Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02611-1 
  • Gardner, H. (2004), Changing Minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people's minds, Harvard Business School Press, ISBN 1422103293 
  • Jones, Paul Howard (2010), Introducing Neuroeducational Research, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0415472008 
  • Kaufman, Alan S. (2009), IQ Testing 101, Springer Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0-8261-0629-2 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R. (1987), "Substance over style: Assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching", Exceptional Children 54: 228–239 
  • Klein, Perry, D. (1997), "Multiplying the problems of intelligence by eight: A critique of Gardner's theory", Canadian Journal of Education 22 (4): 377–394, doi:10.2307/1585790 
  • Kornhaber, Mindy (2004), "Psychometric Superiority? Check the Facts",  
  • Fierros, Mindy (2003), "Multiple Intelligences: Best Ideas from Research and Practice",  
  • Lohman, D. F. (2001), "Fluid intelligence, inductive reasoning, and working memory: Where the theory of Multiple Intelligences falls short" (PDF), in Colangelo, N.; Assouline, S., Talent Development IV: Proceedings from the 1998 Henry B. & Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on talent development, Great Potential Press, pp. 219–228, ISBN 978-0-910707-39-8 
  • Kincheloe, Joe L.; Nolan, Kathleen; Progler, Yusef; Appelbaum, Peter; Cary, Richard; Blumenthal-Jones, Donald S.; Morris, Marla; Lemke, Jay L.; Cannella, Gaile S.; Weil, Danny; Berry, Kathleen S. (2004), Kincheloe, Joe L., ed., Multiple Intelligences Reconsidered, Counterpoints v. 278, Peter Lang, ISBN 978-0-8204-7098-6, ISSN 1058-1634, lay summary (4 September 2010) 
  • Sempsey, James (1993), "The Pedagogical Implications Of Cognitive Science and Howard Gardner's M.I. Theory (A Critique)",  
  • Sternberg, R. J. (1988), The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence, Penguin Books 
  • Waterhouse, Lynn (Fall 2006), "Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories", Educational Psychologist 41 (4): 247–255, doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4104_5