|Number of lines||3 (Phase 1)|
|Number of stations||12 (Line 1)|
|Daily ridership||1.5 million (Line 1 estimate)|
|Chief executive||Bharat Bhushan Modgil|
|Headquarters||Satellite Silver, Andheri-Kurla Road, Marol, Andheri (East),
|Operation will start||December 2013|
|Operator(s)||Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL)|
|Train length||4-6 coaches|
|System length||146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary|
|Average speed||33 km/h (21 mph)|
|Top speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
The Mumbai Metro is a metro system under construction in the Indian city of Mumbai. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres (39 mi). The Mumbai Metro's operator is Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).
In June 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh inaugurated the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008. A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013, and the system's first line is expected to enter operation in December 2013, although some aspects of the project have been afflicted by delays and cost issues.
The Mumbai Metro is India's first public private partnership metro project in which all the three phases (construction, operation and maintenance) were given to a private player.
- 1 Background
- 2 Construction
- 3 Network
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Operations
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Mumbai is the financial and commercial capital of India. It is also among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011, and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum. Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day, and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city’s geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the past several decades. Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications.
In May 2003, the original Mumbai rapid-transit plan was updated to include an elevated 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) LRT system linking Andheri and Ghatkopar, via Asalpha, Marol, Chakala and Saki Naka. In January 2004, a master plan was unveiled by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). The plan encompassed a total of 146 kilometres (91 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground. In June 2004, government approval was given for a 13-station elevated light rail line between Ghatkopar and Versova. The foundation-stone-laying ceremony was held on 21 June 2006.
On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.
|Plan of Phase I and interchanges with Mumbai Suburban Railway|
The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network. The Mumbai Metro is to be built in three phases, at a total cost of 36000 crore (US$5.5 billion). The eight lines of the system are projected to have a total length of approximately 146 kilometres (91 mi).
In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided that extending the line through Bandra to the Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport would increase the number of commuters. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of 21000 crore (US$3.2 billion), and will be India's first fully underground metro line. It will have 27 stations, and will connect business districts such as Nariman Point, BKC, MIDC and SEEPZ with the International Airport.
On 27 February 2012, India's central government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. According to the plan, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) will cover 50% of the project's debt, while the state government will have an equity stake of 16%, and central government taking 14% equity. The rest will be subordinate debt from other sources. In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.
On 30 August 2013, Prithviraj Chavan announced that contracts for future lines of the Mumbai Metro would not be given out on a build-operate-transfer basis, following delays to Line 1.
Phase I of the metro project is slated to be implemented on a Build-Operate-Transfer basis. The first line was awarded on an international competitive bidding process on BOOT basis for a 35-year period. This phase includes the construction of three metro lines. The 2356 crore (US$360 million) contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was secured by a consortium led by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group's Reliance Infrastructure Ltd, along with Veolia Transport Co. and the MMRDA.
In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013. The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.
|Phase||Line||Terminals||Length (km)||Opening date|
|Line 1||Versova||Ghatkopar||11.07||October 2013|
|Line 3||Colaba||SEEPZ||33||March 2019|
|Line 6||Andheri (E)||Dahisar (E)||18|
|Line 7||Hutatma Chowk||Ghatkopar||21.8|
Line 1 will connect Versova, Andheri in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Eastern Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.05 kilometres. It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations. Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. The first stretch is expected to open in December 2013, and the entire line will be commissioned in early 2014.
The second corridor that was planned to be built in the first phase was the 32 km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which was planned to have 27 stations. Line 2 was originally planned to be 40 km long and run from Colaba to Charkop, with Colaba to Mahalaxmi as underground. However, the underground stretch that was extended in plan up to Bandra (around 20 km) was changed to Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd (about 35 km), all elevated, primarily due to cost considerations. Then President Pratibha Patil launched the project in August 2009. The MMRDA appointed Reliance Infrastructure through an international competitive bidding process to carry out this phase of the project, and the concession agreement was signed with the R-Infra-led consortium in January 2010. The MMRDA estimated the project would cost 8250 crore (US$1.3 billion), while Reliance Infrastructure estimated it would cost 11,000 crore. Construction was planned to begin in August 2010 and be completed by mid-2013. However, construction work had yet to begin by December 2012, leading to calls for Line 2 to be cancelled outright.
The line's construction was handicapped by the lack of available land for carsheds at Charkop and Mankhurd; coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws forbade construction on the land that had been selected by the MMRDA. The Union environment ministry has refused to give clearance for the depots, although Reliance Infrastructure stated in 2009 that they were committed to the project and that it would go ahead provided that the government resolve the pending critical issues. MMRDA officials plan to solve the problem by shifting the location of the proposed rake depot to Malwani near Malad. The 19 hectares (0.19 km2) plot does not come under the purview of the CRZ laws and therefore will not require environmental clearances. Another problem is that the civil aviation authorities have objected to the height of the elevated section at the 1 km Vile Parle–Nanavati hospital stretch in the western suburbs. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has communicated to the MMRDA that the 9-metre (30 ft) elevated corridor is unacceptable, as it will obstruct the flight path of aircraft at Juhu Aerodrome. The state government subsequently asked Reliance Infrastructure to terminate plans for building the elevated line, requesting that Reliance either create an underground metro or consider constructing it along the road. Other problems are related to land acquisition and rehabilitation. The elevated corridor would require the shifting of about 700 families, and the demolition of many structures, some of them residential buildings, which could further stall the project. About 20 buildings stand on land that needs to be either completely or partially acquired. Residents of the Juhu Vile Parle Development Scheme have been demanding an underground metro line, but the state had claimed that the two-fold cost escalation of 500 crore, from an initial 250 to 750 crore per kilometer, was unfeasible. However, the MMRDA has said that they have not ruled out an underground line, claiming that they had considered a combination of an elevated and underground alignment but had deemed it impossible due to the large land requirement for ramps and slip roads.
On 6 September 2012, the MMRDA sent a letter to Reliance Infrastructure asking them to start work on the metro immediately or face legal action. In response to the letter, MMPTL blamed the government and MMRDA for the delayed construction work. They said that the government had failed to fulfil its contractual obligation to provide the necessary land, right of way permits and clearances. On 8 February 2013, R-Infra CEO Sumit Banerjee claimed that the project had not advanced because the MMRDA had failed to fulfill its share of the responsibilities. The state government had since been considering alternative sites for the depot, which might have led to complete change in the alignment of the line and could have required re-bidding for the project. On 9 August 2013, DNA reported that an MMRDA official had informed them that a 27-acre plot that was to be used as the casting yard for Line 2, was planned to be marked for use as a casting yard for Line 3. The paper called the move "a clear indication" that Line 2 "will not take off in the near future." Prithviraj Chavan told the media on 30 August 2013 that "it is now clear that Mumbai's Metro II project will now not happen."
The third line to be built will be the 33.5-km long Colaba–SEEPZ line. It will be the first underground metro line in Mumbai. It will have 27 stations and the track width is standard gauge. The cost of this corridor is estimated at 23136 crore (US$3.5 billion). Unlike Lines 1 and 2, Line 3 will be executed by the central and state governments with a 50:50 equity participation. The car yard, where metro coaches will be parked, is proposed to be built opposite SEEPZ on Aarey Colony land.
The line starts at Cuffe Parade, will run through Nariman Point, Worli, Dadar, Bandra, Bandra-Kurla complex, past the airport, through Andheri MIDC and SEEPZ. The project will connect the financial centre of the city with residential areas. It is proposed to set up the car depot at Aarey Colony, adjacent to SEEPZ and the passenger interchange facilities at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Central Line); Churchgate, Mumbai Central and Mahalaxmi (Western Line), Marol Naka (Metro Line 1), Bandra-Kurla Complex (Metro Line 2) and Mahalaxmi (Mumbai Monorail).
In early 2012, the MMRDA conducted talks with officials at Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA) to either construct or finance the construction of three of the line's stations: Domestic Airport, Sahar Road, and International Airport stations. CSIA authorities stated certain required conditions for the corridor – the metro line should run round-the-clock and a provision should be made for a check-in facility at the metro stations. Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL) agreed to bear the cost of constructing the three stations, which is expected to total 777 crore. According to MIAL's CEO, R.K. Jain, MIAL is willing to contribute to the metro's construction because of the potential increase in passenger convenience. MIAL will undertake the design and civil construction of the stations, costing 600 crore, on its own, and will pay the estimated cost of electromechanical equipment (around 177 crore) in three equal installments over three years. MIAL has specified that the commercial rights of the three stations it constructs will fully rest with the authority, and revenue from any commercial activity on the premises will go to MIAL.
In August 2012, the Urban Development Ministry rejected the Planning Commission's proposal to implement Line 3 in a public-private partnership (PPP) mode, having found the mode unsatisfactory for the Delhi Airport Metro Express. The ministry instead proposed a funding pattern with a ratio of 20:80 between the Centre and the State. Of the State equity, 45% was proposed to be through a loan from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). On 30 May 2013, following a meeting between the prime ministers of India and Japan in Tokyo, the Japanese state agreed to lend ¥71 billion (4,553 crore) in a soft loan at an interest rate of 1.44% for the construction of Line 3. The Union Cabinet granted clearance to Line 3 on 27 June 2013. The Cabinet also decide to convert Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC), the existing state-level special purpose vehicle, into a joint venture company of the governments of India and Maharashtra with equity participation. The state and central governments will infuse an equity of Rs 2,040crore each, another Rs2,640crore will come from subsidiary debt funding from the central and state governments, the Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL) will contribute Rs 777crore, and Rs1,000crore will be raised through commercial exploitation of land. The rest of the project cost will be obtained from JICA as soft loan.
JICA signed an official development assistance loan agreement with the Government of India on 17 September 2013, for providing the first tranche of 71,000 million yen (Rs 4,553 crore). The loan carries a concessional interest rate of 1.40% to be repaid in 30 years, including a 10-year moratorium period. The remainder of the loan will be handed over in two instalments. The JICA funds will be used to construct Line 3 including tunnels, stations, allied facilities, rolling stock, system component and consulting services. JICA will provide financial assistance amounting to 13235 crore (US$2.0 billion) for the 23136 crore (US$3.5 billion) project. JICA will fund 57.2% of the equity. The other finance will come from the central and state equity of 10.4% each, sub-debt by the central government (4.4%), sub-debt by the state (7%), property development and impact fee (4.3%), stakeholder contribution from the Mumbai International Airport Ltd. (3.4%) and MMRDA grant/aside funding (2.9%).
|Source||Amount (crores)||Share (%)|
|Equity by Centre||2,403||10.4|
|Equity by MMRC and State||2,403||10.4|
|Sub debt by Centre||1,025||4.4|
|Sub debt by State||1,615||7|
|Property development and impact fee||1,000||4.3|
|Stakeholder contribution (MIAL)||777||3.4|
|ASIDE funding / MMRDA grant||679||2.9|
The Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) invited bids for the pre-qualification of bidders for detailed design and construction of underground stations and associated tunnels for the project on 17 September 2013. Bidders are expected to submit their bids by 30 October 2013. The MMRDA plans to evaluate the pre-qualification bids by November 30, call for request for proposals by the first week December, and issue work orders by March 2014. The state government is considering implementing Line 3 project through the engineering procurement construction (EPC) model, and not based on build operate transfer (BOT). The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed in 2020.
RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion. In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars. The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.
The coaches are fire retardant, air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations. The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.
The Swiss-Swedish ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro. ABB will be responsible for the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of the traction electrification, power supply, power distribution and SCADA system for the first metro corridor.
Signaling and communications
The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.
Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
On 1 October 2012, Xylem, a water technology provider based in the United States, announced that it had been awarded a contract to develop wastewater treatment and recycling systems for the Mumbai Metro. The value of the contract was undisclosed. The system will incorporate a 1.2-million-litre-capacity sewage treatment plant with wastewater recycling capabilities; trials of the plant were expected to be commissioned by late November 2012. The plant will be equipped with Xylem’s Sanitaire wastewater treatment technology, which is expected to help the Mumbai Metro save up to 1.2 million litres of water a day.
Capacity and frequency
A 2012 traffic study, undertaken by Metro One and the Hong Kong-based traffic consultant MVA Systra, showed that in peak hours, 55,000 people were likely to travel per hour in one direction in up to sixteen trains, with four to six coaches each. The total daily passenger count was estimated to be 1.5 million. Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mumbai Metro.|
- Mumbai Metro Rail Project
- Mumbai Metro blog site
- Mumbai Metro map with proposed lines
- Mumbai Metro Google Mashup
- Mumbai Metro unofficial magazine
- Mumbai Metro Guide