Mumbai Metro

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Mumbai Metro
मुंबई मेट्रो
Mumbai metro.png
Metromumbai.jpg
Overview
Native name मुंबई मेट्रो
Owner Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 1 (operational)[1]
3 (planned)
Number of stations 12
Daily ridership 0.6 million (Line 1 estimate)
Website reliancemumbaimetro.com
Operation
Began operation 8 June 2014
Train length 4–6 coach trainsets[2]
Headway 4–8 minutes
Technical
System length 11.4 km (7.1 mi) (operational)[1]
160.9 km (100.0 mi) (planned)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary[3]
Average speed 33 km/h (21 mph)[2]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)[2]

The Mumbai Metro (Marathi: मुंबई मेट्रो) is a metro system serving the Indian city of Mumbai. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the existing, but severely overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. It will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres (39 mi). Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). In June 2006, the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh inaugurated the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008.[4][5][6] A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013,[7][8][9] and the system's first line entered operation on 8 June 2014, as some aspects of the project were afflicted by delays and cost issues.[5][10][11][12]

The Mumbai Metro is India's first public private partnership metro project in which all the three phases (construction, operation and maintenance) were given to a private player.[13]

History[edit]

Mumbai is the financial and commercial capital of India. It is also among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011,[14] and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum.[15] Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day,[16] and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades.[17] Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network.

Original Mumbai Metro master plan
Phase Line Name of the corridor[17] Length (km)
Phase I
(2006–2011)
1 Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar 11.07
2 Colaba - Bandra – Charkop 38.24
3 Bandra - Kurla – Mankhurd 13.37
Phase II
(2011–2016)
4 Charkop - Dahisar 7.5
5 Ghatkopar – Mulund 12.4
Phase III
(2016–2021)
6 BKC - Kanjur Marg via Airport 9.5
7 Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) 18
8 Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar 21.8
9 Sewri – Prabhadevi 3.5

The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult and TCS, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA).[17] The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground.[18] The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of INR19,525 crore.[17] In 2010, the MMRDA revised the estimated cost of constructing the nine lines to INR36000 crore (US$6.0 billion).[18]

In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided that extending the line through Bandra to the Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport would increase the number of commuters. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of INR21000 crore (US$3.5 billion),[19] and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations,[20] and will connect business districts such as Nariman Point, BKC, MIDC and SEEPZ with the International Airport.[21]

On 27 February 2012, India's central government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. According to the plan, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) will cover 50% of the project's debt, while the state government will have an equity stake of 16%, and central government taking 14% equity. The rest will be subordinate debt from other sources.[22] In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.[23] In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013.[24] The 21.8-km partially underground Hutatma Chowk-Ghatkopar line was later redesigned as the Carnac Bundar-Wadala. This line was eventually scrapped as there was an existing suburban railway line on the alignment.[25] The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.[26]

The following table shows the updated Mumbai Metro Master Plan unveiled by the MMRDA:

Line Name of Corridor[27] Length (km) Estimated cost (2012) Status
1 Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar 11.40 INR2356 Opened.
2 Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd 32 INR7660 Merged with Charkop-Dahisar route.
3 Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ 33.5 INR24,430 Planning
4 Charkop-Dahisar 7.8 INR4680 Merged with Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route.
5 Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Hath Naka (Thane)-Kasarvadavali 30.7 INR8757 Planning as Line 4
6 Wadala-Carnac Bunder 13.5 INR2635 Cancelled.[28]
7 SEEPZ-Kanjurmarg 10.5 INR4200
8 Andheri (E)–Dahisar (E) 18 INR10,800
9 Sewri-Prabhadevi 3.50 INR2100
Total 160.90 INR67618 crore (US$11 billion)

On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.[29][30][31][32] On 30 August 2013, Prithviraj Chavan announced that contracts for future lines of the Mumbai Metro would not be given out on a build-operate-transfer basis, following delays to Line 1.[33]

The original Mumbai Metro master plan proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. Consulting Engineering Services (CES) prepared the a project report including its economical feasibility. The report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposal of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of INR22,000 crore.[34] This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.[35] The Chief Minister also admitted that the government had made mistakes with the implementation of Line 1, and announced that future metro lines would not be allotted on build-operate-own-transfer (BOOT) basis, due to difficulties and delays faced in commissioning Line 1.[36]

Following the opening of Line 1, MMRDA metropolitan commissioner UPS Madan statetd that the authority would focus on constructing the Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ, Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd, and Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines. He also stated that the other proposed lines had not been cancelled and that they may be implemented in the future.[37]

Network[edit]

Map showing all of the railway services in Mumbai, including the Metro, Monorail and Suburban services
A metro station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.
Line Terminals Opening date Length (km) Stations
Line 1 Versova Ghatkopar 8 June 2014 11.40 12
Line 2 Dahisar Mankhurd Planning[38] 40.2 37
Line 3 Colaba SEEPZ 2020 33 27
Line 4 Wadala Kasarvadavali Planning[39] 32 29

Line 1[edit]

Main article: Line 1 (Mumbai Metro)
'The Leela Hotel seen from the window of the Metro train'
A metro train arriving at the DN Nagar station during the Line 1 trial run in May 2013.

Line 1 connects Versova, Andheri in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Eastern Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi).[1] It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations.[1] Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012.[40] The line opened for service on 8 June 2014.[41]

Line 2[edit]

The second corridor that was planned to be built in the first phase was the 32 km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which was planned to have 27 stations. Line 2 was originally planned to be 40 km long and run from Colaba to Charkop, with Colaba to Mahalaxmi as underground. However, the underground stretch that was extended in plan up to Bandra (around 20 km) was changed to Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd (about 35 km), all elevated, primarily due to cost considerations.[42] Like Line 1, this corridor was also proposed to be constructed on a public private partnership (PPP) model.[43] Then President Pratibha Patil launched the project in August 2009. The MMRDA appointed Reliance Infrastructure (RInfra), in consortium with SNC Lavolin Inc Canada and Reliance Communication,[44] through an international competitive bidding process to carry out this phase of the project, and the concession agreement was signed with the RInfra-led consortium in January 2010.[45] The project was proposed to be implemented on BOT basis for a concession period of 35 years with an extension clause of another 10 years.[44] The MMRDA estimated the project would cost INR8250 crore (US$1.4 billion), while Reliance Infrastructure estimated it would cost INR11,000 crore.[46] Construction was planned to begin in August 2010 and be completed by mid-2013.[47] However, construction work had yet to begin by December 2012, leading to calls for Line 2 to be cancelled outright.[45]

The line's construction was handicapped by the lack of available land for carsheds at Charkop and Mankhurd; coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws forbade construction on the land that had been selected by the MMRDA. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) refused to give clearance for the depots, although Reliance Infrastructure stated in 2009 that they were committed to the project and that it would go ahead provided that the government resolve the pending critical issues.[48] MMRDA officials plan to solve the problem by shifting the location of the proposed rake depot to Malwani near Malad. The 19 hectares (0.19 km2) plot does not come under the purview of the CRZ laws and therefore will not require environmental clearances.[49] Another problem is that the civil aviation authorities have objected to the height of the elevated section at the 1 km Vile ParleNanavati hospital stretch in the western suburbs. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) informed the MMRDA that the proposed 9-metre (30 ft) elevated corridor was unacceptable, as it would obstruct the flight path of aircraft at Juhu Aerodrome. The state government subsequently asked Reliance Infrastructure to terminate plans for building the elevated line, requesting that the they either create an underground metro or consider constructing it along the road.[50] Other problems were related to land acquisition and rehabilitation. The elevated corridor would have required the shifting of about 700 families, and the demolition of many structures, some of them residential buildings, which would have further stalled the project. About 20 affected buildings stood on land that needed to be either completely or partially acquired.[51] Residents of the Juhu Vile Parle Development Scheme demanded an underground metro line, but the state had claimed that the two-fold cost escalation of 500 crore, from an initial INR250 to INR750 crore per kilometer, was unfeasible.[52] However, the MMRDA has said that they have not ruled out an underground line, claiming that they had considered a combination of an elevated and underground alignment but had deemed it impossible due to the large land requirement for ramps and slip roads.[53]

On 6 September 2012, the MMRDA sent a letter to Reliance Infrastructure asking them to start work on the metro immediately or face legal action.[54][55] In response to the letter, RInfra blamed the government and MMRDA for the delayed construction work. They said that the government had failed to fulfill its contractual obligation to provide the necessary land, right of way permits and clearances.[56][57][58][59] On 8 February 2013, then RInfra CEO Sumit Banerjee claimed that the project had not advanced because the MMRDA had failed to fulfill its share of the responsibilities.[60][61] The state government had since been considering alternative sites for the depot, which might have led to complete change in the alignment of the line and could have required re-bidding for the project.[62] On 9 August 2013, DNA reported that an MMRDA official had informed them that a 27-acre plot that was to be used as the casting yard for Line 2, was planned to be marked for use as a casting yard for Line 3. The paper called the move "a clear indication" that Line 2 "will not take off in the near future."[63] Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan told the media on 30 August 2013 that "it is now clear that Mumbai's Metro II project will now not happen."[64]

In January 2014, then MP from Mumbai North Sanjay Nirupam told The Times of India that the existing contract awarded to Reliance Infrastructure would be cancelled and a revised tender would be invited. The decision to do so was taken at a meeting between the city's parliamentarians and Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan. The terminal of Line 2 was extended from Charkop end to Dahisar, making the new route the Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd corridor. According to Nirupam, "It would be easier to shift the depot and casting yard to Dahisar as a land there belongs to the Centre. The present Charkop land has run into environmental hurdles turning the project into a non-starter since 2009 despite contracts being awarded." The Dahisar land belongs to the civil aviation department and can be easily made available for the project as it has not been included in any aviation expansion plans. Reliance had previously informed the State government that lack of environmental clearance to the Charkop depot, absence of permission from the aviation department for the Metro's elevated track in Juhu, huge network of underground and overhead utilities and no higher FSI for station's commercial development made the project financially unviable.[65]

In September 2013, the MMRDA appointed RITES to study the feasibility of constructing the proposed 32-km metro line underground. RITES also studied the feasibility of extending the corridor and merging the 7.5-km Charkop-Dahisar metro, proposed as a separate line, with this project. RITES submitted it's final report to the MMRDA in the last week of May 2014, concluding that constructing the metro underground and extending it up to Dahisar was feasible.[66][67][68] The merged Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd line would be 40.2 km long and have 37 underground stations. The estimated cost of construction of this line is INR28,900 crore, 134% higher than the originally estimated costs of INR7,660 crore for the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd line and INR4,680 crore for the Charkop-Dahisar corridor. RITES proposed the construction of a major car depot at Oshiwara and a minor car depot at Mandalay, Mankhurd on sites that were a mix of publicly and privately-held land.[69]

Line 3[edit]

Main article: Line 3 (Mumbai Metro)

The second line to be constructed will be the 33.50 kilometre long Line 3. It will be the first underground metro line in Mumbai, and will consist of 27 stations.[70] The metro line will connect Cuffe Parade business district in the extreme south of the city to SEEPZ in the Western Suburbs with 27 underground stations.[71] The cost of this corridor is estimated at INR23136 crore (US$3.8 billion).[72][73] The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed in 2020.[74]

Infrastructure[edit]

Railcars of the Mumbai Metro in 2010.

Rolling stock[edit]

RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion.[75][76] In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars.[77] The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.[78]

The coaches are fire retardant,[79] air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations.[80] The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.[81]

Power[edit]

Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.[82] The choice of 25KV AC power supply was criticized by MMRDA director (technical) S.P. Khade in an article in a railway industry magazine. Khade wrote that the current method of power supply could be dangerous for buildings close to the metro line and a hazard during the monsoon. He also warned that parting of overhead wires and other equipment could be dangerous for those on the road below in case of the elevated Line 1, as they would hang down from the elevated corridor. He instead favoured 1,500V DC power supply, which he stated was used by 97% of metros around the world. He also argued that land required for a DC substation would have been one-third of what is needed for an AC substation, and that DC trains were lighter, leading to higher pick-up speeds, lower power requirements and a lighter load on the elevated structure. Khade explained that he did not take up the issue when he was MMDRA director, because he claimed that the decision to use 25KV had been made before he had assumed the post.[83]

Signaling and communications[edit]

The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.[2]

Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[84]

Operations[edit]

Capacity and frequency[edit]

A 2012 traffic study, undertaken by Metro One and the Hong Kong-based traffic consultant MVA Systra, showed that in peak hours, 55,000 people were likely to travel per hour in one direction in up to sixteen trains, with four to six coaches each. The total daily passenger count was estimated to be 1.5 million.[85] Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.[80]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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