|Major figures||Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Aaron Katz, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Joe Swanberg, Ry Russo-Young|
|Influences||DIY culture, Dogme 95, American independent film, digital filmmaking|
Mumblecore is a subgenre of American independent film characterized by low budget production values and amateur actors, heavily focused on naturalistic dialog. Filmmakers often assigned to this movement include Andrew Bujalski, Lynn Shelton, Mark Duplass, Jay Duplass, Aaron Katz, Joe Swanberg  and Ry Russo-Young. The term mumblegore has been used for films mixing mumblecore and horror gore. Examples include The Signal, V/H/S, The House of the Devil, and You're Next.
The 2005 South by Southwest Film Festival screened a number of other films that came to be considered part of the mumblecore movement, including Bujalski's second film Mutual Appreciation, The Puffy Chair by Mark Duplass & Jay Duplass, and Kissing on the Mouth by Joe Swanberg.
The term "mumblecore" was coined by Eric Masunaga, a sound editor who has worked with Bujalski. Masunaga coined the term one night at a bar during the 2005 South by Southwest Film Festival, when asked to describe the similarities between Mutual Appreciation, The Puffy Chair, and Kissing on the Mouth, which all screened at the festival. The term was first used publicly by Bujalski in an interview with indieWIRE. Bujalski has downplayed the existence of a movement and stated that he did not intentionally make mumblecore films.
The directors of the films are sometimes referred to collectively as the "mumblecorps", as in press corps. Film journalists have also used the terms "bedhead cinema", and "Slackavetes", a portmanteau derived from the title of Richard Linklater's dialogue heavy, lo-fi 1990s film Slacker and the name of independent film director John Cassavetes.
But Mumblecore is not only an American phenomenon. Since about 2009, there is the Berlin Mumblecore movement, with its own manifesto Sehr gutes Manifest. Berlin Mumblecore is not a reaction to the American hype as it is a reaction to the lack of reform in the German public financial support system for the film industry (Filmfoerderung). Crowdfunding is a new possibility to finance movie productions with small and very small budgets independently from restrictions of the German Filmfoerderung. In 2009, Jette Miller's Austern ohne Schale was screened in Berlin. In 2011, the movies Frontalwatte by Jakob Lass and Papa Gold by Tom Lass were released. The latter won several German film awards. 2012 saw the release of Klappe Cowboy by Timo Jacobs and Ulf Behrens, as well as the award winning Dicke Mädchen by Axel Ranisch.
Naturalism – both in performance and dialogue – is a key feature of almost all mumblecore films. Many feature non-professional actors; however, Mark Duplass & Jay Duplass have worked with professional actors on their films Baghead; Jeff, Who Lives at Home; and Cyrus. Some mumblecore films feature a prominent use of improvisation, with the cast sharing script credits. However, not all mumblecore films feature significant improvisation. For example, the films of Andrew Bujalski are heavily scripted.
Mumblecore films are generally produced with an extremely low budget and low production values. Many of these films are shot digitally; however, this is not a defining characteristic. Andrew Bujalski's first three films have been shot on film, Computer Chess being his fist foray into Digital .
List of mumblecore films
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- indieWIRE Interview:The Mumblecore Movement? Andrew Bujalski On His "Funny Ha Ha"
- indieWIRE: Mumblecore Movie? Swanberg, Bujalski, Duplass and Others Unveil "Hannah Takes The Stairs"
- The Austin Chronicle: Mumblecore And Murder
- Benten Films website
- Free Times: Features – Don't Call it "Mumblecore"
- Daily Film Dose: Alexander The Last, The Movie That Killed Mumblecore
- Mumblecore: All Talk? | Filmlinc.com | Film Society of Lincoln Center
- CineAction "A Cinema of Recession: Micro-Budgeting, Micro-Drama, and the 'Mumblecore' Movement"
- "Digital Socialism: How Mumblecore Filmmaking is Defying Capitalism by Stephen Lee Naish
- "Mumblecore in Obama’s America by Stephen Lee Naish"