Mundigak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mundigak
Archeological site
Mundigak is located in Afghanistan
Mundigak
Mundigak
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 31°39′N 65°15′E / 31.650°N 65.250°E / 31.650; 65.250Coordinates: 31°39′N 65°15′E / 31.650°N 65.250°E / 31.650; 65.250
Country  Afghanistan
Province Kandahar

Mundigak, in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan. It's situated c. 55 km northwest of Kandahar near Shāh Maqsūd, on the upper drainage of the Kushk-i Nakhud River.

History[edit]

Mundigak is recognised as a large prehistoric town belonging to transitional phase of Harappan development, having flourishing culture of Helmand Basin (Seistan), also called as Helmand Culture.[1] Mundigak has Indus Valley Civilization material. This material consists in part of ceramic figurines of snakes and humped bulls, and other items, similar to those found at other Indus valley sites.[2] Mundigak was a mound of 9 mt high at the time of excavation.[3] Mundigak, with 21 hectares spread, was second largest centre of Helmand Culture, the first being Shahr-i-Sokhta which was as large as 150 acres by 2400 BCE.[4] Around 2200 BCE, both Shahr-i-Sokhta and Mundigak started declining, with considerable shrinkage in area and with brief occupation at later date.[5]

Architecture[edit]

Remains of a "palace" is found in one mound and another mound revealed a larage "temple", indicating urban life.[6]

An extensive series of mounds marking the site of a town. The chronology is still uncertain, but it has tentatively been divided seven main periods with many subdivisions. The main period seems to be Period IV, which saw a massive rebuilding after an earlier destruction. Both the "palace" and the "temple" and possibly the city walls as well date from this period. Another destruction layer and a marked ceramic change indicate a period of abandonment between IV and VC, followed by a period of further building and construction of new monuments, including the "massive monument". Periods VI & VII saw only periodic occupation on a small scale.

Mundigak and Deh Morasi provide early developments in what may be now called religious activities. A white wahsed, pillared large building with its door way outlined with red, dating around 3,000 BC is related to religious activities.[7]

Early houses were constructed at Mundigak (during period I 4) in the form of tiny oblong cells with pressed earth walls. In the following layer (I 5) larger houses with square and oblong houses with sun dried bricks. Ovens for cooking and wells for water storage were found during later phases.[8]

Artefacts found[edit]

Apart from pottery and painted pottery, other artefacts found include crude humped bulls, human figures, shaft hole axes,adzes of bronze and terrecotta drains.[9] Painting on pots include pictures of Sacred Fig leaves (ficus religiosa) and tiger like animal.[10] Pottery found at Mundigak had number of similarities with such material found at Kot Diji.[11] Several stone button seals were also found at Mundigak.[12] Disk Beads and faience barrel beads,[13] copper stamp seals, copper pins with spiral loops were also found.[14]

The female looking human figurines (5 c.m.height) found at Mundigak are very similar to such figurines found at another archeological site of Afghanistan, Deh Morasi Ghundai. (cicra 3000 BC)[15]

Collection:

Field-work:

  • 1951-58 Casal, DAFA - excavasions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McIntosh, Jane. (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley, New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. Page 86.[1]
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Archeology, A. Ghosh
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ McIntosh, Jane. (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley, New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. Page 87.[3]
  5. ^ McIntosh, Jane. (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. Page 86.[4]
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Archeology, A. Ghosh
  7. ^ Jean-Marie Casal
  8. ^ Bridget and Raymond Allchin. The Birth of Indian Civilization. Penguin Books.1968. Page 237
  9. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Archeology, A. Ghosh
  10. ^ Bridget and Raymond Allchin. The Birth of Indian Civilization. Penguin Books.1968. Plate 5 B
  11. ^ McIntosh, Jane. (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. Page 75.[5]
  12. ^ Bridget and Raymond Allchin.(1982) The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan.Page 139
  13. ^ Bridget and Raymond Allchin.(1982) The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan.Page 202 [6]
  14. ^ Bridget and Raymond Allchin.(1982) The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan.Page 232
  15. ^ [7]
  • Archaeological Gazetter of Afghanistan / Catalogue des Sites Archéologiques D'Afghanistan, Volume I, Warwick Ball, Editions Recherche sur les civilisations, Paris, 1982.