Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Korean Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
|Type||Broadcast radio and
|Availability||South Korea, United States (Satellite, certain metropolitan areas over-the-air)|
|Slogan||Good Friends, MBC|
|Owner||The Foundation of Broadcast Culture(70%)
Jung-Su Scholarship Foundation(30%)
|Key people||Kim, Jong-Guk, CEO & President|
|Launch date||April 15, 1959, December 2,1961 (radio)
August 8, 1969 (television)
|Callsigns||HLKV, HLKV-FM and HLKV-TV
|Revised Romanization||Munhwa Bangsong Jushikhoesa|
|McCune–Reischauer||Munhwa Pangsong Chushikhoesa|
|Launched||August 8, 1969|
|Picture format||480i (16:9, SDTV);
|Formerly called||HLAC-TV (1969-1972)|
(Until December 31, 2012)
|Digital||Channel 11 (UHF 205.280MHz-LCN 11-1) (Seoul)|
|SkyLife||Channel 11 (HD)|
|Available on most South Korean cable systems||Check local listings for details|
|HanaTV||Channel 11 (HD)|
|U+ TV||Channel 11 (HD)|
|Olleh TV||Channel 11 (HD)|
|KOREALIVE||Click on MBC|
The Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC; Korean: 문화방송주식회사; Hanja: 文化放送; Munhwa Bangsong Jushikhoesa, literally "Cultural Broadcasting Corporation") is one of four major national South Korean television and radio networks, and is the oldest among all commercial broadcasting networks in South Korea. Munhwa is the Korean word for "culture". Its flagship terrestrial television station is Channel 11 (LCN) for Digital. Twice government owned, the network is managed by the Foundation of Broadcast Culture (which owns 70% of the company's stock), while the Jung-Su Scholarship Foundation owns 30%. MBC receives no government subsidy, and derives its income almost entirely from commercial advertising. It has 19 regional stations, and 10 subsidiaries. The network evolved from Busan Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, the first private broadcasting corporation in the country. As of 2011, MBC has over 4,000 employees. It has provided terrestrial digital TV service in the ATSC format since 2001, and T-DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) service since 2005.
MBC began as Busan Munhwa Bangsong (Busan Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, or Busan MBC), and was established in 1959 in Busan, South Korea. The radio station was then owned by Jeong Hwan-ok (a radio-store operator) and Kim Sang-yong (a former department-store owner). Jeong had suggested that Kim open a private broadcasting station; Kim was looking for a new business opportunity, and at that time Japanese stations dominated the south coastal Korean radio dial. On April 15, 1959 the postal ministry authorized Busan MBC to operate, making it Korea's first private commercial broadcaster. Busan MBC began its service with a 1 kW AM station, and became known for broadcasting the first CM Song in South Korea.
The company, however, faced financial problems: production costs for a local radio station were
higher than expected, and advertising did not generate sufficient revenue. The network also faced a management crisis. In September 1959 Busan MBC was sold to Kim Ji-tae, who owned the Busan Daily. Its management was revamped, and the network was saved from bankruptcy. After the network was rejuvenated, Kim decided to launch a private radio station in Seoul. That year, the postal ministry had approved four private stations. Kim purchased the right to operate a radio station in Seoul and launched a network in 1961, with a small AM station (as of 2011, the chief stockholder of Busan MBC is MBC in Seoul); MBC became the first private broadcasting network in South Korea.
After the military coup on May 16th, 1961, the network faced a challenge when Kim was accused by Park Chung-hee (South Korea's then-President) of corruption. Kim, under pressure, surrendered both Busan MBC and Busan Ilbo to the May 16 Scholarship Foundation in May 1962. It began television broadcasting on August 8, 1969 (MBC-TV was the third TV network in South Korea; the first is KBS-TV which was launched on December 31, 1961 while the second, TBC-TV, which is owned by Joong-ang Ilbo, was launched in 1965) and FM radio broadcasts in 1971. However, when the network faced severe financial problems to promote its television network, Park Chung-hee ordered 11 major companies to buy out 70% of MBC stocks from May 16 Scholarship Foundation to provide its financial support. Until 1980, these major companies could not sell MBC stocks nor request dividends from MBC without the government's approval.  Under the Chun Doo-hwan regime, South Korea's media policy had changed. The regime had closed several private commercial radio and TV networks and most of MBC's shares were taken by the government; MBC lost its position as a private broadcaster. On November 14, 1980, 70% of the network's stock was given to the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS).
Partly to address concerns following the country's 1987 democratic reforms, the National Assembly established the Foundation for Broadcast Culture on December 26, 1988 to insulate MBC from political influence and KBS. Now, the network is owned by the Foundation of Broadcast Culture (which owns 70% of the company's stock) while the Jung-Su Scholarship Foundation (former May 16 Scholarship Foundation) owns 30%. Although the network is now managed by the Foundation, MBC has maintained its role as a commercial broadcaster. MBC has had a jingle since 1969: Korean: "MBC...문화방송", "MBC...Munhwa Bangsong" in romanization and "MBC...Munhwa Broadcasting" in English; it was also used in 1994 for the silver anniversary of MBC-TV.
In 1991, MBC, the first private commercial broadcaster network in South Korea, lost its monopoly when the government allowed the second private commercial broadcaster station SBS to begin broadcasting on MBC 30th Anniversary, December 2–9, 1991. MBC and SBS celebrated their anniversary at December 1992 in MBC 31st Anniversary and SBS 2nd Anniversary on December 2–9, 1992. It also done in 1996, to celebrate MBC 35th Anniversary and SBS 6th Anniversary.
In 2001, MBC launched satellite and cable television broadcasting. As part of this expansion it created MBC America, a subsidiary based in Los Angeles, California, USA, to distribute its programming throughout the Americas. On August 1, 2008 MBC America launched MBC-D, a television network carried on the digital subchannels of KSCI-TV, KTSF-TV, and WMBC-TV. The service was planned to be launched in Atlanta, Chicago, and Washington, D.C. by the end of the year. In northeast metro Atlanta, it aired on WKTB-CD channel 47.3, but as of 2011 is on WSKC-CD channel 22.1.
On October 21, 2011, the heads of MBC and Google signed an agreement of partnership. MBC will release 10,000 hours of content produced before 2005. The files will be divided into 10-minute clips with advertisement in between. MBC is also interested in holding a K-pop concert at the head office of Google to celebrate the partnership. The concert was broadcast live worldwide through YouTube on May 21, 2012. On January 1, 2013 MBC TV became South Korea's third channel to go 24/7.
MBC channels 
- See also in Korean Wikipedia: Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation Television
- 1 terrestrial TV (MBC-TV channel 11)
- 3 Radio stations :
|Name||Frequency||Power (kW)||Transmitter Site|
|HLKV-AM||900 kHz AM
95.9 MHz FM
|Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul(AM/FM)|
|MBC FM4U||91.9 MHz FM||10 kW||Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul|
|Channel M||CH 12A DAB+||2kW||Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul|
- 5 cable (drama, sports, game-show, variety and documentary)
- 5 satellite (drama, sports, game-show, variety and documentary)
- 3 terrestrial DMB (TV, radio, data)
- 2 satellite DMB (drama, sports)
Former logos 
MBC programs 
MBC dramas have been part of the "Korean wave". MBC dramas are exported to 30 countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas. Dae Jang Geum has high audience ratings in China, Taiwan and Hong Kong; its popularity has continued in 50 countries, including Japan. Other dramas that have enjoyed high viewership include Jumong, The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince, Yi San, Queen Seondeok, and the recent drama Dong Yi.
MBC’s reality program Infinite Challenge has enjoyed high ratings for three consecutive years. The comedians hosting Exclamation! (which ended its run in 2007) have promoted reading, reuniting foreign workers in South Korea with their families and providing medical help to the elderly.
Current affairs and documentaries 
MBC documentaries encompass a wide range of issues, from foreign affairs to the environment. PD Notebook premiered in 1990, and has since earned notoriety for its investigations from a journalistic standpoint. Episodes have included one covering scientific fraud by Korean geneticist Hwang Woo-Suk, and another containing arguments against importing US beef. The latter episode, entitled "Is American Beef Really Safe from Mad Cow Disease?", contributed to three months of protest in Seoul against importing US beef. Since then, the accuracy of the episode and the program's method of obtaining information has been questioned. MBC current-affairs and documentary programs have won recognition from the New York and Banff TV Festivals, the Asian TV Awards, ABU Prizes, Earth Vision and the Japan Wildlife Festival.
In June 2012 MBC came under fire for a segment on their "Think Different" documentary section called "The Shocking Truth about Relationships with Foreigners." The video alleges that relationships between Korean women and foreign men is a "social problem" that must be dealt with by Koreans. In response to complaints, an MBC "representative responded that the documentary was outsourced and not produced in-house." 
News and sports 
MBC has 19 regional stations in Korea, 9 permanent overseas bureaus and service arrangements with CNN, APTN, Reuters TV and NBC. It also produces news-analysis programs such as News Magazine 2580, News Who, 100-Minute Debate, Economy Magazine, Global Report and North Korea Report covering the political, economic, social and cultural issues of the days..
iMBC is MBC's website, providing users with information on current and past programs and allowing users to download or stream programs to watch. Established in March 2000 as the internet subsidiary of MBC, iMBC uses the digital content of MBC to provide content to internet, mobile and ISP users and foreign businesses. iMBC also plans projects for creating, developing, and circulating new content. The site offers free and paid VOD services for users to view programs online. While the public-service programs, news, radio and programs currently on-air are free, drama, entertainment, and current-affairs programs are not.
For viewers in Korea and abroad, iMBC offers VOD streaming services. An episode typically costs around ₩500, and there is a fixed fee allowing users to watch as many videos as they wish for ₩4,000 a day or ₩15,000 a month. For users abroad, iMBC offers VOD download and streaming services, available for ₩1000 (about $1 US) each.
Foreign partners 
See also 
- MBC Music
- MBC Plus
- MBC Game
- List of South Korean broadcasting networks
- List of Korea-related topics
- Contemporary culture of South Korea
- Channel A
- TV Chosun
- http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=ndolphin&logNo=20053617223&parentCategoryNo=10&viewDate=¤tPage=1&listtype=0 (Korean)Who Owns the Korean TV stations?]
-  [Viewpoint] Dramatic changes at MBC,JoongAng Daily,August.20,2009
- "MBC to partner up with Google". Asia Pacific Arts. 2011-10-26.
- Bad Marks All Round In Hwang Scandal Retrieved October 14, 2006
- Lee Jung-bock: POLITICAL CHANGES IN KOREA(33) Korea on path to mature liberal democracy, 2008/02/15
- MBC suspends producers for breaching ethics
- Media ethics judged, found wanting
-  Retrieved June 1st, 2012