|IATA: MUC – ICAO: EDDM|
|Owner/Operator||Flughafen München GmbH|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||1,487 ft / 453 m|
|Passenger change 12–13||0.8%|
|Movements change 12–13||4.0%|
|Sources: Passenger Traffic & Aircraft Movements, ADV
German AIP at EUROCONTROL
Munich Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM) (German: Flughafen München), is the international airport of Munich, the capital of Bavaria. It is the second busiest airport in Germany in terms of passenger traffic behind Frankfurt Airport, and the seventh busiest airport in Europe, handling 38.7 million passengers in 2013. It is the world's 14th busiest airport in terms of international passenger traffic, and was the 30th busiest airport worldwide in 2013. Munich Airport serves as the secondary hub for Lufthansa including Lufthansa Regional and its Star Alliance partners besides Frankfurt. The biggest foreign carrier in Munich in terms of passenger numbers is Air Dolomiti.
The airport is located 28.5 km (17.7 mi) northeast of Munich near the old city of Freising and is named in memory of the former Bavarian Prime minister Franz Josef Strauss. It features two passenger terminals and two runways as well as extensive cargo and maintenance facilities and is fully capable to handle large aircraft such as the Airbus A380.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals and facilities
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Statistics
- 5 Other facilities
- 6 Ground transportation
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
From 1939 to 1992, Munich was served by Munich-Riem Airport. First plans to expand or build a new airport were made in 1954 due to the traffic flow-rate and the population density in its proximity. The decision for building the new airport at Erdinger Moos was made on 5 August 1969 by the Bavarian government. When construction started on 3 November 1980, a village named Franzheim was demolished and their ~500 inhabitants were resettled. The airport is located on the territory of four different municipalities: Oberding (location of the terminals; district of Erding), Hallbergmoos, Freising and Marzling, a district of Freising.
The airport is named after Franz Josef Strauß, who played a prominent, albeit sometimes controversial role in politics of the Federal Republic of Germany from the 1950s until his death in 1988. Among other positions, Strauß was a long-time Minister-President (Governor) of the state of Bavaria, where the airport is located and was initiated under his government. Strauß, having been a private pilot himself, had a particular interest in the aviation industry. He is regarded one of the fathers of Airbus and served as initial chairman of its supervisory board. Naming the airport by its full name "Flughafen München Franz Josef Strauß" is fairly uncommon. The company that owns and operates the airport is named "Flughafen München GmbH" and brands itself as "M – Flughafen München" respectively "M – Munich Airport". In the Munich area, most people use the term "Flughafen München" (Munich Airport), sometimes "Flughafen München II" in order to distinguish from the earlier airport or simply "MUC" for its IATA-code.
The new Munich Airport commenced operation on 17 May 1992, when operations moved from the former site at Munich-Riem Airport, which was closed shortly before midnight on the day before. As their home base at Frankfurt Airport suffered from capacity limits back then, Lufthansa established a second hub offering several short- and long-haul connections through Munich in addition to Frankfurt. While Lufthansa serves more European destinations from Munich Airport than from Frankfurt Airport, Frankfurt sees much more intercontinental routes.
Between 1995 and 2006 passenger numbers doubled from under 15 million per annum to over 30 million, despite the impact of the 11 September attacks in 2001 and 2002. In 1996 the airport overtook Düsseldorf as Germany's second busiest airport and currently handles almost twice as many passengers as the country's third busiest airport.
In June 2003 construction of Terminal 2 was completed and it was inaugurated as an exclusive facility for Lufthansa and its Star Alliance partners.
Terminals and facilities
Most of the airport's facilities are located in the area between the two runways. The approach road and railway divide the west part into a southern half, which contains cargo and maintenance facilities, and a northern half, which contains mostly administrative buildings, a holiday long-term parking lot and the Visitors' Centre. It is followed by the west apron and Terminal 1, then the Munich Airport Center (MAC), Terminal 2 and the east apron.
Terminal 1 is the older terminal and commenced operation when the airport was opened on 17 May 1992. It has a total capacity of 25 million passengers per year and is subdivided into five modules designated A, B, C, D and E. Modules A through D provide all facilities necessary to handle departures and arrivals, including individual landside driveways and parking, whereas module E is only equipped to handle arrivals. This design essentially makes each module a self-contained sub-terminal of its own. Modules A and D are used for flights within the Schengen-area, while modules B and C handle those to destinations outside of it. Hall F is separate, located near Terminal 2 and handles flights with increased security requirements, i.e. those to Israel. Furthermore, the checkin counters for some flights departing from Terminal 1 are located in the central area Z (German: Zentralbereich) where also most of the shopping and restaurant facilities of this Terminal as well as the airport's suburban railway station are located.
The 1,081 m (3,547 ft) pier features 21 jet bridges, two of which have been rebuilt into waiting halls for bus transfers. One gate position has been equipped with three jet bridges to handle the Airbus A380. There are further 60 aircraft stands on the apron, some of which are equipped with specially-designed apron jet bridges (German: Vorfeldfluggastbrücken), to which passengers are brought by bus. This unique concept allows passengers to board with full protection from the weather but without the high investments required for full satellite terminals connected through a passenger transport system.
Terminal 1 currently handles all flights from airlines that are not members of Star Alliance. However, due to lack of capacity at Terminal 2, Lufthansa's subsidiary Germanwings and former affiliate Condor moved back to Terminal 1. Some of the major users at Terminal 1 are Air Berlin, Condor, Emirates, Air France, Delta Air Lines, British Airways, easyJet and Qatar Airways.
Terminal 2 commenced operation on 29 June 2003. It has a design capacity of 25 million passengers per year. However, having been designed as a hub terminal for Lufthansa and Star Alliance members, it is not divided into modules. Instead, all facilities are arranged around a central Plaza.
Due to security regulations imposed by the European Union, the terminal has been equipped with facilities to handle passengers from countries considered insecure, i.e. not implementing the same regulations. This required the construction of a new level as, unlike other airports, the terminal does not have separate areas for arriving and departing passengers. The new level 06 opened on 15 January 2009.
The pier, which is 980 m (3,220 ft) long, is equipped with 24 jet bridges. As the total number of 75 aircraft stands on the east apron is not always sufficient, Terminal 2 sometimes also uses parking positions on the west apron, to which passengers are carried by airside buses. Terminal 2 is able to handle the Airbus A380 as well, however there are no designated stands or additional jet bridges for it until the opening of the Terminal 2 satellite building.
Terminal 2 has two main departure level, 04 and 05 and additional bus gates on the lower level 03. Gates on level 05 (H) are designated non-Schengen gates. Until the new level 06 opened the northernmost gates were behind an additional security checkpoint for departures to the USA most of the day. The lower level 04 (G) contains Schengen gates. The bus gates on level 03, also designated G, are Schengen gates, too.
The terminal is operated by Terminal-2-Betriebsgesellschaft (German for Terminal 2 Operating Company), which is owned by Flughafen München GmbH (60%) and Lufthansa (40%). This makes Terminal 2 the first terminal in Germany which is co-operated by an airline.
Terminal 2 satellite
Construction for the satellite building has started in 2012 and will be completed by 2015. This extension to Terminal 2 will see the baggage sorting hall on the east apron upgraded to become a satellite terminal. This will allow an additional 11 million passengers to be handled per year, adding 52 gates and 27 passenger air bridges. This plan was approved in December 2010. An expansion for the satellite building into a 'T' shape is also planned for the future along with another satellite and room for a possible 3rd Terminal to the east.
While Terminal 1 still has plenty of capacity left – in 2007, it only handled about 9 m passengers – the extension of Terminal 2 is required by Lufthansa and its Star Alliance partners to allow easy transfers within a single terminal. When Terminal 2 and its east apron were built, preparations for a satellite terminal had already been made. Besides the baggage transport tunnel, there are three more tunnels beneath the Terminal 2 apron that can receive a people mover and extensions to the current S-Bahn rail tunnel and unused inter-city rail tunnel respectively. The preparations also allow construction of a second satellite or an independent third terminal further to the east.
Munich Airport Center
The Munich Airport Center (sometimes shortened to MAC) is a shopping, business and recreation area that connects the two terminals. The older Central Area (German: Zentralbereich), which was originally built as part of Terminal 1, hosts a shopping mall and the S-Bahn station. The newer MAC Forum built with Terminal 2 is a large outdoor area with a tent-like, partly transparent roof. Next to it is the airport hotel managed by Kempinski.
The Munich Airport Center is the only location in the entire state of Bavaria where one can shop at a supermarket from 05.30 until midnight every day, including Sundays. This supermarket is given an exception from the Bavarian shop closing law (German: Ladenschlussgesetz).
The Franz-Josef Strauss Airport has two parallel runways and one helipad. The two runways at Munich's airport are 08R/26L and 26R/08L, made of concrete and the same size, at 4,000 metres (13,120 ft) long, and 60 metres (200 ft) wide. There is also a concrete helipad.
Planned third runway
A third runway would increase the number schedulable aircraft movements per hour from 90 to 120. It would run in parallel to the existing runways and be located to the northeast of the current north runway, significantly extending the total area occupied by the airport. According to Flughafen München GmbH (FMG), the airport's operator, the current two-runway system is already operating at full capacity during peak hours, and requests for additional slots from airlines have been denied. Further increase in air traffic is expected as Munich is to become a second major hub in Germany after Frankfurt.
In August 2007, the airport operator applied for a planning permission from the government of Upper Bavaria. As more than 60,000 objections have been filed during public display of the plans. The objections, lawsuits and results of a city wide referendum against the 3rd runway were later overturned by the Bavarian Administrative Court, allowing for construction plans to proceed.
On July 26, 2011, the government of Upper Bavaria issued the zoning approval for the construction of a third runway. With this decision, the zoning authority, after the intensive examination and consideration of all ramifications, expressly approved the need presented by Flughafen München GmbH and the plans submitted for the third runway. Also tied to the approval by the government of Upper Bavaria is the prompt completion of the construction project. However, the Company has chosen to follow the advice of Bavaria’s Higher Administrative Court and not to proceed until the principal proceedings concerning the project have reached a conclusion. The decision is currently being reviewed by the court. The building permit associated with the zoning will continue to be valid for up to 15 years.
While according to ICAO Regulations (Annex XIV) the new runway would have to be named 08L/26R (renaming the existing north runway to 08C/26C), it is currently assigned the working title 09/27 in all plans.
Visitor viewing facilities
The airport authorities have set out to cater for visitors and sight-seers by creating a 'Visitors Park' which includes a 'Visitors Hill', from which a good view of the westerly aircraft apron and Terminal 1 can be obtained, as well as a restaurant and a shop for airplane models and other collectors items. This location is served by a railway station named 'Besucherpark'. The view from the hill is shown in the above widescreen image of the Terminal 1 apron. There are three historic aircraft on display in the park, a Super Constellation, a Douglas DC-3 and a Junkers Ju 52/3m.
There is also a visitors viewing terrace on the roof of Terminal 2 that features a wide glassed balcony with seating areas and gives a view of the easterly aircraft apron. As of September 2013 the entrance fee has been abolished. Furthermore there are two additional, smaller Visitor Hills on the north end of the north runway and at the center of the south runway.
Airlines and destinations
|1||United Kingdom, London-Heathrow||1,156,000||4.8%|
|2||France, Paris-Charles de Gaulle||926,000||7.6%|
|8||Spain, Palma de Mallorca||564,000||8.5%|
|1||United Arab Emirates, Dubai||660,000||6.1%|
|2||United States, Newark||328,000||5.2%|
|4||United States, Chicago-O'Hare||295,000||4.4%|
|6||United States, Washington-Dulles||245,000||9.7%|
|7||People's Republic of China, Beijing||232,000||2.0%|
|9||United States, San Francisco||193,000||0.2%|
|10||People's Republic of China, Shanghai-Pudong||186,000||2.4%|
- Lufthansa maintains a Flight Operations Center at Munich Airport for crews based here at its secondary hub. In 2014, its subsidiary Lufthansa CityLine relocated their administration offices from Cologne to the grounds of Munich Airport. Additionally, there is a large maintenance facility of Lufthansa Technik located here which is capable of handling up to six Boeing 747 at once.
- Air Berlin maintains a technical division including technical training facilites at Munich Airport.
- The now defunct German airline DBA, originally Deutsche BA, had its head office on the grounds of Munich Airport and in Hallbergmoos.
- There are two hotels directly on the airports grounds, the Kempinski Hotel Airport Munich near Terminal 2 and a Novotel at the long-term parking area with several more in the nearby villages. The Kempinski however will be rebranded as Hilton in 2015.
- German car manufacturer Audi established a large training facility for its retailers on the grounds of Munich Airport in 2010. Designated areas near the apron are used for drive training.
Bavarian State Road St. 2584 connects A 92's exit 6 (Flughafen München) – an incomplete interchange that can only be used by traffic to and from the west – to the terminals. Access from the east is possible via exit 8 (Freising Ost) and Bavarian State Road St. 2580, which connects to St. 2584 in the east of the airport.
Munich Airport is connected to the city by Munich suburban railway (S-Bahn) lines S1 and S8. The ride takes approximately 45 minutes to the Marienplatz station in the city centre. S1 runs from the airport through the northwestern suburbs and reaches the city centre from the west (Hauptbahnhof – Marienplatz – München Ost), while S8 comes in from the eastern suburbs passing the stations from the opposite direction. The S-Bahn from the airport to the city runs approx. 20 hours a day with a short break between 01:30 and 04:00.
Furthermore, a scheduled bus service (MVV line 635) connects the airport within 20 minutes to the Freising railway station, providing access to regional trains to destinations like Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg and Prague.
Munich Airport Terminal station is located in a tunnel beneath the central area. A second station called Besucherpark (German for Visitors' Park) connects the cargo and maintenance areas, long-term parking, administrative buildings and the name-giving Visitors' Park.
A second tunnel beneath the terminals is currently unused. Originally, there were plans to use it for intercity railway, then for a Transrapid maglev train making the trip to München Hauptbahnhof in 10 minutes. However, this project was cancelled in March 2008 due to cost escalation.
MVV bus lines connect the airport to the nearby city of Freising as well as Erding and Markt Schwaben. Lufthansa Airport Bus provides an alternative to the S-Bahn, stopping at Nordfriedhof U-Bahn station and Munich Central Station.
- ADV passenger statistics and aircraft movements
- EAD Basic
- Airports Council International – Year to date International Passenger Traffic Data
- Company history on Airbus.com – Early days (1967–1969)
- anna.aero (20 April 2010). "Munich's traffic doubles in 10 years; Lufthansa adds more routes than it drops as a host of new airlines announce new services". anna.aero Airline News & Analysis.
- "Lufthansa and Munich operator approve Terminal 2 satellite". Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- "Munich Airport – Edeka". Munich-airport.de. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Ladenschlussgesetz – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Munich Airport Facts and Figures: 2011/2012
- MUC Airport – Facts and Figures 2010/2011 (p.10)
- DC Airports (20 August 2007). "Erläuterungsbericht Technische Planung Luftseite". Planfeststellungsverfahren 3. Start- und Landebahn (in German). pp. 16, 42. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- "Air China to Launch Shanghai Pudong-Munich Service from June 2014". Airline Route. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Air Europa Revises Planned Germany Service Launch in S14
- JL (4 March 2013). "Condor Adds New Long-Haul Routes from Munich in W13 | Airline Route – Worldwide Airline Route Updates". Airlineroute.net. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- JL (4 April 2014). "Condor W14 Planned New Routes as of 04APR14 | Airline Route – Worldwide Airline Route Updates". Airlineroute.net. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Estonian Air to open seasonal Tallinn-Munich route in December". BBN. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Lufthansa flies to convenient Haneda Airport" (Press release). Lufthansa. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- Duclos, François (18 July 2013). "Casablanca: Royal Air Maroc reprend la route de Munich" [Casablanca: Royal Air Maroc resumes services to Munich] (in French). Air Journal. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013.
- Turkish Airlines begin Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen-Munich service from January 2014
- "BOEING 747 OF AIRBRIDGECARGO AIRLINES GOES TO BAVARIA". AirBridgeCargo. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Annual Traffic Report 2013, p. 17 (in German)
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 29 March-4 April 1995. 68. "Wartungsallee 13, Munchen-Flughafen, Munchen D-85 356, Germany"
- "Contact Us." DBA. 4 February 2004. Retrieved on 21 January 2010. "dba Luftfahrtgesellschaft mbH Wartungsallee 13 85356 München,. Munich Airport Germany" The address on Google Maps goes to "Wartungsallee 13 85356 Hallbergmoos, Germany."
Media related to Munich Airport at Wikimedia Commons
- Official website
- Current weather for EDDM at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for MUC at Aviation Safety Network