Munich Security Conference

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Munich Security Conference
Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz logo.svg
Motto Peace through Dialog
Predecessor Internationale Wehrkundebegegnung / Münchner Wehrkundetagung
Formation 1963 / 2011
Founder Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin
Legal status Non-profit foundation
Location
Methods Host conferences
Chairman
Wolfgang Ischinger
Website www.securityconference.de
50th Munich Security Conference 2014

The Munich Security Conference (MSC, German: Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz) is an annual conference on international security policy and has been taking place since 1963. Former names are Wehrkundetagung and Münchner Konferenz für Sicherheitspolitik.[1] It is the world's largest gathering of its kind.

Over the past four decades the Munich Security Conference has become the most important independent forum for the exchange of views by international security policy decision-makers. Each year it brings together about 350 senior figures from more than 70 countries around the world to engage in an intensive debate on current and future security challenges.

The list of attendees includes Heads of States, Governments and International Organizations, Ministers, Members of Parliament, high-ranking representatives of Armed Forces, Science, Civil society as well as Business and Media.

The conference is held annually in February. The venue is the Hotel Bayerischer Hof in Munich, Germany. The 50th Security Conference was held from 31 January to 2 February 2014.

History[edit]

The conference evolved from the Internationale Wehrkundebegegnung / Münchner Wehrkundetagung,[2] which was founded in 1963 by Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin.[3] The resistance fighter from the Stauffenberg circle advocated to prevent military conflicts such as the Second World War in the future and brought together leaders and experts in security policy for this reason. The first meeting was limited to about 60 participants; among them were Helmut Schmidt and Henry Kissinger.[4] Von Kleist led the meetings until 1997; his successor who led them from 1999 until 2008 was politician and business manager Horst Teltschik (CDU). Since 2009, the conference is headed by the former diplomat Wolfgang Ischinger. Ischinger established the Munich Security Conference gGmbH non-profit foundation in 2011, which he has led since then.[5][1]

The Munich Security Conference was canceled twice, in 1991 due to the Second Gulf War and 1997 as a result of the demise of Kleist-Schmenzin. [1] Under the leadership of Teltschik the Security Conference opened in 1999 for political, military and business leaders from Central and Eastern Europe as well as India, Japan and the People's Republic of China.

Purpose[edit]

At this conference, under the theme of peace through dialogue, senior politicians, diplomats, military and security experts from the member countries of NATO and the European Union, but also from other countries such as Russia, the People's Republic of China, Japan and India are invited to discuss the current issues in security and defense policies.

The intention of the conference is to address the topical main security issues and to debate and analyze the main security challenges in the presence and the future in line with the concept of networked security. A focal point of the conference is the discussion and the exchange of views on the development of the transatlantic relations as well as European and global security in the 21st century.

The conference is organized privately and therefore not an official government event. It is used exclusively for discussion; an authorization for binding intergovernmental decisions does not exist. Furthermore, there is - contrary to usual conventions - no common final communiqué. The high-level meeting is also used to discrete background discussions between the participants. An exception is the presentation of global political decisions, such as the exchange of instruments of ratification for the New START disarmament agreement between the United States and Russia, which was held at the conclusion of the security conference in 2011.

Conferences[edit]

Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych meeting Hillary Clinton at the Munich Security Conference 2012

At the 39th Conference 2003, German Minister for Foreign Affairs Fischer doubted to the reasoning of the US government for a war against Iraq with the words "Excuse me, I am not convinced".[6]

From February 6–8, 2009, the 45th Munich Security Conference[7] was attended by over 50 ministers and more than a dozen heads of state and government from all over the world, including US-Vice-President Joe Biden, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk and Afghan President Hamid Karzai.

In 2009 the MSC inaugurated the Ewald von Kleist Award.[8] The new award highlights the political life and work of Ewald von Kleist, who founded the Munich Security Conference. The award will be given to prominent individuals who have made an outstanding contribution to peace and conflict resolution. The winners of the Ewald von Kleist Award were in 2009 Dr Henry Kissinger and in 2010 Javier Solana de Madariaga. Also in 2009, the MSC initiated a new event format, called MSC Core Group Meeting.[9] This new and smaller-scale event was introduced in addition to the annual main, Munich-based meeting of the Munich Security Conference. The idea is to invite a number of distinguished and high-ranking participants to changing capitals and give them the opportunity to confidentially discuss current international security policy issues and develop sustainable solutions. Meetings took place 2009 in Washington D.C., 2010 in Moscow and 2011 in Beijing.

The 47th Munich Security Conference[10] was held from February 4–6, 2011 and has again assembled top-level decision makers from all over the world, including UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British Prime Minister David Cameron U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov whilst Belarus has been excluded from the circle of MSC attendees because of the country’s human rights situation.

48th Munich Security Conference 2012: From left - Mario Monti, Prime Minister, Italy, Dr. Josef Ackermann, Chairman of the Management Board and the Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank AG, Germany, Robert B. Zoellick, President, The World Bank Group, USA, Peer Steinbrück, SPD-Parliamentary Group, Germany, George Soros, Chairmann, Soros Fund Management LLC and Open Society Foundations, USA

In 2011 two special features marked the growing role of the Munich Security Conference as center of attention of international security policy: European Union's High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton called for the Quartet on the Middle East, consisting of the EU, Russia, the USA and the UN, to meet within the setting of the 2011 Munich Security Conference and during a ceremony on the sidelines of the conference Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton exchanged the instruments for ratifying the New START Treaty (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) that entered into force in Munich New START.

The 48th Munich Security Conference was held from February 2–5, 2012.

The 49th Munich Security Conference featured talks concerning the Syrian civil war. Attendees included former Syrian opposition leader Moaz al-Khatib, who offered Bashar al-Assad and his aides safe passage out of the country in exchange for their resignations. [11]

Conference 2014[edit]

German President Joachim Gauck during his opening speech at the 50th Munich Security Conference

The 50th Munich Security Conference was held from 31 January to 2 February 2014.[12] At the event, more than 400 international guests attended, including 20 Heads of State and Government,[13] 50 foreign and defense ministers and 90 government delegations.[14] Joachim Gauck was the first German Federal President to ever hold the opening speech.[15]

In his speech Gauck called for a new German foreign policy, together with a stronger foreign policy commitment from Germany, which would show a greater self-confidence and take on more responsibility.[16] The President referred to the Federal Republic as "the best Germany we have ever had".[17] The country should not hide behind its historic debt. To address the federal government, he pled "not to flee from threats".[18] Instead, Germany should "decisively and substantially stand up” in the defense of their own values. Finally, the President urged to correct the German self-image. The previous six decades of the Federal Republic as a free and stable nation should justify the Germans having "trust and confidence" in themselves. Gauck called it a requirement to be "reliable for their partners" in the world.[19]

Ukrainian opposition leaders meeting John Kerry at the Munich Security Conference 2014

A dominant theme of the conference was the violent clashes between government and opposition in Ukraine. At the Munich Security Conference US Secretary of State John Kerry promised the Ukrainian opposition support from the West.[20] The Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov accused the Western countries of assisting in the violent uprising in Ukraine which was getting out of control. NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen on the other hand, accused Russia of violating Ukraine’s rights to a free choice of alliances.[21] The Ukrainian politician Vitali Klitschko accused the Ukrainian government during a panel discussion of responding with acts of terror and violence to the demands of the opposition.[22] Klitschko called for economic sanctions against those responsible for the violence. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Leonid Kozhara dismissed the allegations that his country's political policies were directed against Europe. Since Ukraine is geographically part of Europe and also carries a very close relationship with Russia, Koschara warned, it should not be faced with the decision "Europe or Russia". The Foreign Minister also declared that Ukraine had already met key demands of the opposition.[23] His claims that the violence in Ukraine started from terrorists, was countered by Klitschko by distributing a collection of images of the protests in Ukraine to panel participants and spectators.[24] During the conference Catherine Ashton, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, started a mediation initiative, inviting members of the Ukrainian parties in conflict and the Foreign Ministers of important EU countries to participate.[25] During the conference, Swiss Federal President Didier Burkhalter, in in his capacity as OSCE Chairman, pointed out again an existing offer of mediation of the OSCE to the conflicting parties in the Ukraine.[26] Zbigniew Brzezinski, Leonid Kozhara, Vitali Klychko, Leonid Slutsky, Irakli Garibashvili, Traian Basescu and Štefan Füle participated in a discussion panel regarding the situation in Ukraine.[27]

Panel on the 50th anniversary

The panel discussion on the history of the Security Conference to mark the 50th anniversary had attendances from former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who both had participated in the first Internationale Wehrkundebegegnung in 1963. Attendances in the discussions also included the former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, the former German Federal Minister for Special Tasks Egon Bahr, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband and the acting Polish Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski.[28][29] During the discussions, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing pointed out that the number of major wars has decreased while the level of violence, the risk of new threats such as terrorism or cyber-attacks and the number of refugees[28] have increased worldwide. In combination with this, the former French President justified the military interventions of his country in Africa.[30]

Henry Kissinger also shared the assessment of an increasingly complex global security situation, which hampered the development of "coherent strategies".[28] The former US Secretary of State cited Sino-Japanese territorial conflicts that could lead to military conflict. Kissinger pushed that Europe in turn was very "reluctant to military conflicts"[31] and was sometimes too "hesitant" in the fight against violence, a criticism that Giscard d'Estaing already accused Europe of and linked it to "discouragement". Recalling the situation in Afghanistan and Iraq, Kissinger warned however to be cautious that the decisions of military intervention should not be influenced by a "moment of rage", if willingness is not given to such wars to "endure to the end".[30]

Egon Bahr emphasized the risks of new, hard-to-find threats such as cyber-attacks on power grids and other infrastructure facilities. These threats had even made the US vulnerable and revealed an existing inability to defend themselves against them. Bahr further demanded a policy of deterrence analogous to that of the days of the nuclear threat. Asked about the future of NATO, Bahr, Kissinger and Giscard d’Estaing all expressed their conviction that NATO would still exist in ten years’ time.[31]

Former German Chancellor Schmidt said Europe was decreasing in importance. Schmidt stated that the consequences of global population growth were crucial for the continent's future. Europe will make up only seven percent of the world population in 2050, while in 1950 more than one in five people had lived in Europe.[31] According to Schmidt, the Europeans overestimated their global significance.[32] The former Chancellor critically regarded global urbanization, which leads to the "big urban masses", who were "easily led astray" by the temptations of modern media.[31] Schmidt called the "power of the financial manager" another threat which despite the recent financial crisis was unabated.[28] The current European Union policy, Schmidt described as a future hazard: "If the EU continues the way that it is, in ten years’ time NATO will still be there, but maybe not the EU."[31] David Miliband described a decline of classical foreign policy and attributed this to the fact that the electorate increasingly placed regional and national issues at the center of importance.[28]

US-Secretary of Defense Hagel speaking at 50th MSC

No approaches were made towards the transatlantic conflict over NSA surveillance in Europe. The US Secretaries John Kerry and Chuck Hagel avoided any mention of this controversial subject.[33][34] Instead Kerry advocated a "transatlantic renaissance" based on common values.[35][36] Hagel emphasized the role of Europe as an "indispensable partner" of the United States.[37] Both ministers campaigned for the transatlantic free trade agreement TTIP.[38][39] US Senator John McCain added in relation to the NSA spying on allies as a 'credibility problem', which the American government had to deal with in order to regain lost trust. Significant criticism of the NSA spying was voiced by German Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière. Throughout the discussion he called the carried out spying on German citizens "exorbitantly"[40] and demanded a "signal from the Americans to their closest partner in Europe".[36] De Maizière declared that the political damage caused by these surveillance measures was higher than their security benefits.[41] The Federal Minister of the Interior called the information provided by the American side completely inadequate.[42] A possible no-spy agreement with the United States provided the Minister with no great expectations. Along Kerry and Hagel, de Maizière agreed with a continuation of negotiations on TTIP. The German MEP Elmar Brok predicted a defeat in the vote on the TTIP agreement in the European Parliament in the event that an examination and reappraisal of the NSA's activities would fail. Company representatives from Deutsche Telekom, Huawei and Microsoft demanded a binding international standard of Internet security. Thus, Deutsche Telekom CEO Timothy Höttges called for an international agreement of digital basic rights. Microsoft Vice President Matt Thomlinson announced the opening of the company's own transparency centers, including one in Brussels, where governments could check the source code of Microsoft products to insure that they contain no backdoors for US intelligence agencies.[43]

EU Representative Ashton with presidents Dačić and Thaçi

During the conference, the two Prime Ministers from Serbia and Kosovo, Ivica Dacic and Hashim Thaçi, came forward[44] and discussed the rapprochement between the two countries, which in 2013 had led to the signing of the normalization Agreement, under the moderation of Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Both leaders reaffirmed their intention to seek solutions, "that advance the two nations".[45] Dacic called the convergence process as a "tightrope walk" and Thaci referred to resistors in the population that had to be overcome before the agreement.[46]

The conference also housed a meeting of the Middle East Quartet in which the EU Representative Ashton put economic aid for Israelis and Palestinians in view that both parties consented to a peace agreement.[47] US Secretary of State Kerry had previously referred to a failure of the Middle East negotiations as "unacceptable".[48]

Kerry, Ban Ki-moon, Brahimi, and Lavrov before a meeting on Syria

After the previously unsuccessful negotiations in Geneva of the Syrian civil war parties, discussions at the security conference took no further approach towards the Syrian conflict. Despite his announcement of follow-up negotiations designated UN special envoy Lakhdar Brahimi stated the international peace efforts in Syria had failed.[49] Brahimi warned of a further escalation of the situation in Syria.[50] UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the parties in conflict to lead future negotiations "serious and sincere".[51] The Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif echoed the call of his country for a ceasefire in Syria, referring to the difficulties of monitoring such actions.[52]

During a debate on Iran's nuclear program Zarif insisted on his country's right to use nuclear energy. In connection with the forthcoming international negotiations were "many steps" to go, the Iranian foreign minister stated.[53] The previously reached agreements Zarif called as a significant beginning and assured the readiness of Iran to constructive negotiations.[54] The IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano spoke of positive feedback from Iran, but said that a lot of work still had to be done.[55] Amano also pointed out that the IAEA still did not have access to all nuclear facilities and could therefore "not exclude the character of some non-peaceful Iranian activities".[56] The Israeli defense minister Moshe Ya'alon warned following the debate against too much optimism and stated that Iran will continue to develop its nuclear program throughout the course of the current negotiations.[57] The fact that Ya’alon and the Israeli Ambassador to the UN, Ron Prosor, had previously been among the audience that had followed the appearance of the Iranian foreign minister was interpreted as a public gesture of rapprochement to Iran.[58] The Iranian nuclear program was also the subject of a meeting between Sharif and US Secretary of State Kerry.[59]

Conference 2015[edit]

The 51st Munich Security Conference was held from 6 to 8 February 2015. Attendances in the discussions include Angela Merkel, Joe Biden, John McCain, Jens Stoltenberg, Ursula von der Leyen, Sergey Lavrov and Petro Poroshenko.[60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tobias Greiff. "Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz" (in German). Historisches Lexikon Bayerns. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  2. ^ William S. Cohen (28 January 2014). ""Little Patience for Frivolous Speeches - A Personal Remembrance of Wehrkunde and Ewald von Kleist"". Munich Security Conference. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Wolfgang Ischinger (13 March 2013). "Die Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz trauert um Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist" (in German). Munich Security Conference. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Stefan Kornelius (30 January 2014). "Vom Privat-Treffen zum Riesenzirkus" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "Ambassador Wolfgang ISCHINGER". Geneva Centre for Security Policy. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  6. ^ Kate Connolly (10 February 2003). "I am not convinced, Fischer tells Rumsfeld". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  7. ^ "Obama Sends Vice President to Build Bridges". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  8. ^ "Ewald-von-Kleist-Award: MSC". Securityconference.de. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  9. ^ "MSC Core Group Meeting: MSC". Securityconference.de. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  10. ^ "Egypt, terrorism lead discussion at Munich Security Conference". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 2012-12-12. 
  11. ^ Yousaf, Farooq (May 31, 2013). "Aiding Syrian Opposition Could Be Harmful". Sharnoff's Global Views. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja to attend the Munich Security Conference". Embassy of Finland, London. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Charles Recknagel (31 January 2014). "German President Opens Munich Security Conference". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  14. ^ Thorsten Jungholt, Clemens Wergin (31 January 2014). "Gauck fordert aktivere deutsche Außenpolitik" (in German). DIE WELT. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  15. ^ "Speech to open 50th Munich Security Conference". Der Bundespräsident. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  16. ^ "Gauck opens Munich Security Conference with call for more German engagement". Deutsche Welle. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  17. ^ Alison Smale (1 February 2014). "Spurred by Global Crises, Germany Weighs a More Muscular Foreign Policy". New York Times. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  18. ^ "Gauck auf der Sicherheitskonferenz: Deutschland soll sich in der Welt mehr einmischen" (in German). DER SPIEGEL. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  19. ^ "Gauck fordert neue deutsche Außenpolitik" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  20. ^ Sam Frizell (1 February 2014). "Kerry: We Stand With Ukraine’s People". TIME. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  21. ^ Harriet Alexander (1 February 2014). "Russian foreign minister criticises West for supporting Ukraine protests". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
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  23. ^ "Klitschko wirft ukrainischer Regierung Terror und Gewalt vor" (in German). ZEIT ONLINE. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  24. ^ Josh Rogin (2 February 2014). "Ukraine Government and Opposition Clash, in Munich". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  25. ^ Stefan Kornelius, Paul-Anton Krüger. "Vermittler verzweifelt gesucht" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "Burkhalter sendet Vermittlungsangebot an Ukraine" (in German). Tages-Anzeiger. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  27. ^ "Official agenda". securityconference.de. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Mathias Müller von Blumencron (1 February 2014). "„Ist mir doch egal, ob es die Nato in zehn Jahren noch gibt“" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  29. ^ "The 50th Munich Security Conference". Diplomatisches Magazin. March 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  30. ^ a b Nils Rüdel (2 February 2014). "Der Besuch der alten Herren" (in German). Handelsblatt. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Holger Möhle (3 February 2014). "Helmut Schmidt, Henry Kissinger, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing und Egon Bahr auf einer Bühne" (in German). General-Anzeiger. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  32. ^ "Die großen alten Männer erinnern sich an alte Zeiten" (in Germany). ZEIT ONLINE. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015. 
  33. ^ Tobias Bunde (26 March 2014). "Putin, the Atlanticist". IR Blog. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
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  35. ^ Craig Whitlock (1 February 2014). "Kerry, Hagel urge ‘transatlantic renaissance’ to confront political and security challenges". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  36. ^ a b "Beredtes Schweigen" (in German). Der Tagesspiegel. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  37. ^ Chuck Hagel (1 February 2014). "Secretary of Defense Speech". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  38. ^ Nils Rüdel (1 February 2014). "Das Lächel-Kommando aus Washington" (in German). Handelsblatt. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  39. ^ Steffen Hebestreit (2 February 2014). "Sicherheitskonferenz in München: Transatlantisches Tief" (in German). Berliner Zeitung. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  40. ^ "De Maizière nennt US-Abhöraktionen maßlos" (in German). ZEIT ONLINE. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  41. ^ Kevin Lynch (7 February 2014). "Strolling down Snowden Street". The Atlantic Times. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  42. ^ Matthias Gebrauer (1 February 2014). "Kerry zum NSA-Skandal: Kein bisschen Sorry" (in German). DER SPIEGEL. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  43. ^ Monika Ermert (31 January 2014). "Sicherheitskonferenz: De Maizière kritisiert die NSA-Überwachung" (in German). heise online. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  44. ^ Roger Cohen (6 February 2014). "Setting Aside Revealed Truth". New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  45. ^ Patrick Guyton (3 February 2014). "Alte Männer und alte Zeiten" (in German). STUTTGARTER NACHRICHTEN. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  46. ^ Helmar Dumbs (2 February 2014). "Thaci: "Frieden schließen ist schwerer als Krieg beginnen"" (in German). Die Presse. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  47. ^ "EU will Israel und Palästinenser für Friedensabkommen belohnen" (in German). der Standard. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  48. ^ Adiv Sterman, Marissa Newman (5 February 2014). "Livni ‘shocked’ by right-wing attacks on Kerry". Times of Israel. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  49. ^ Lyse Doucet (10 February 2014). "Syrian peace talks: Small steps forward, big lurches backwards". BBC. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  50. ^ David Ignatius (12 February 2014). "Taking a long view on Syria and the Sunni-Shiite divide". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  51. ^ "UN's Ban calls for earnest Syrian talks". Deutsche Welle. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  52. ^ Kersten Knipp (2 February 2014). "Internationale Gemeinschaft scheitert an Syrien" (in German). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  53. ^ "Zarif says Iran is serious about nuclear deal". CCTV. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  54. ^ Raphael Ahren (2 February 2014). "Iran FM: Israel must restore Palestinian rights". Times of Israel. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  55. ^ Steven Erlanger (2 February 2014). "Kerry and Iran Minister Confer on Nuclear Issue". New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  56. ^ Christoph Schule (2 February 2014). "Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz: Iran verführt den Westen" (in German). DER SPIEGEL. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  57. ^ Christoph Herwartz (2 February 2014). "Iran-Debatte auf der Sicherheitskonferenz: Der Bad Boy aus Israel" (in German). n-tv. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  58. ^ Karl Vick (3 February 2014). "Israeli Officials Stay to Hear Iranian Minister’s Presentation". TIME. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  59. ^ Adrian Croft, Alexandra Hudson (2 February 2014). "Iran says nuclear talks failure would be 'disaster'". REUTERS. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  60. ^ [1]

External links[edit]