Municipal divisions of Russia
The municipal divisions in Russia are called the municipal formations (Russian: муниципальные образования).
In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of the local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by January 1, 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went into effect on January 1, 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called municipal formations) are as follows:
- Municipal district (or municipal raion), a group of urban and rural settlements, often along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are usually formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts.
- Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district. In practice, urban okrugs are usually formed within the boundaries of existing cities of federal subject significance.
- Intra-city territory of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. In Moscow, these are called municipal formations (which correspond to administrative districts); in St. Petersburg they are known as municipal okrugs, municipal towns, and municipal settlements.
Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories.
- Государственная Дума Российской Федерации. Федеральный Закон №131-ФЗ от 6 октября 2003 г. «Об общих принципах организации местного самоуправления в Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального Закона №243-ФЗ от 28 сентября 2010 г. (State Duma of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #131-FZ of October 6, 2003 On General Principles of the Organization of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Law #243-FZ of September 28, 2010. ).