A city may and may not be divided into city municipalities (gradske opštine) depending on their size. Currently, there are six cities in Serbia with city municipalities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac, Požarevac and Vranje comprise several city municipalities, divided into "urban" (in the city proper) and "other" (suburban). There are 33 city municipalities (17 in Belgrade, 5 in Niš, 5 in Kragujevac, 2 in Novi Sad, 2 in Požarevac and 2 in Vranje).
Like in many other countries, municipalities are the basic entities of local government in Serbia. The head of the municipality is the President of the municipality, while the executive power is held by the Municipal council, and legislative power by the Municipal assembly. Municipal assembly is elected on local elections (held every 4 years), while the President and the Council are elected by the Assembly. Municipalities have their own property (including public service companies) and budget. Only the cities officially have mayors (gradonačelnici), although the municipal presidents are often informally referred to as such.
The territory of a municipality is composed of a town (seat of the municipality) and surrounding villages. The municipality bears the name of the seat town (e.g. the territory of the Municipality of Kikinda is composed of the town of Kikinda, which is the seat of the municipality, and surrounding villages.).
Advocates of reform of Serbian local self-government system point out that Serbian municipalities (with 50,000 citizens in average) are the largest in Europe, both by territory and number of residents, and as such can be inefficient in handling citizens' needs and distributing the income from the country budget into most relevant projects.
Cities are another type of local self-government. The territory with the city status usually has more than 100,000 inhabitants, but is otherwise very similar to municipality. There are 24 cities (gradovi), each having an assembly and budget of its own. Only the cities have mayors (gradonačelnik), although the presidents of the municipalities are often referred to as "mayors" in everyday usage.
As with a municipality, the territory of a city is composed of a city proper and surrounding villages (e.g. the territory of the City of Subotica is composed of the Subotica town and surrounding villages). Every city (and municipality) is part of a district. The exception is the capital Belgrade, which is a district on its own.
The city may or may not be divided into city municipalities. Six cities: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, Kragujevac, Požarevac and Vranje comprise several city municipalities. As of October 2013[update], town of Sevojno near city of Užice is in the process of creation of a separate city municipality, which would make Užice seventh on the list. Of those, only Novi Sad did not undergo the full transformation, as the newly formed municipality of Petrovaradin exists pretty much only formally; thus, the Municipality of Novi Sad is largely equated to City of Novi Sad. Competences of cities and city municipalities are divided. The city municipalities of the six cities above mentioned also have their assemblies and other prerogatives.
The two largest city municipalities by number of residents are Novi Sad (307,760) and Novi Beograd (212,104).
Serbian law still treats Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia (officially the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija), although Kosovo declared independence in 2008. The Law on Territorial Organization defines 28 municipalities and 1 city on the territory of Kosovo. Kosovo was under official United Nations' administration (UNMIK) from 1999 to 2008. The UNMIK administration changed the territorial organisation on the territory of Kosovo. In 2000 the municipality of Gora was merged with Opolje (part of the Municipality of Prizren) into the new municipality of Dragaš and one new municipality was created: Mališevo. Later, from 2005 to 2008, seven new municipalities were created: Gračanica, Elez Han, Junik, Parteš, Klokot-Vrbovac, Ranilug and Mamuša. However, the Government of Serbia does not recognise the territorial re-organisation of Kosovo, although some of these new-formed municipalities have Serb majority, and some Serbs participate in local elections. In three of those municipalities: Gračanica, Klokot-Vrbovac and Ranilug, Serbian parties won a majority in the 2009 elections.
In the Brussels Agreement, in 2013, Serbia agreed to disband its parallel municipal institutions in Kosovo, although it has been slow to act on this agreement.
This is a list of the municipalities in Serbia, as defined by the Law on territorial organisation It does not include municipalities in Kosovo created by UNMIK after 1999. The data on population is taken from the 2002 census.
The census was not conducted in Kosovo, which is under administration of UNMIK, so the population numbers are not given for the municipalities in Kosovo.