Members of the Munsee branch of the Lenape (Delaware) nation arrived in the area in the eighteenth century. The Lieutenant-Governor, John Graves Simcoe, encouraged the Munsee to settle there although Chippewa were already established there. In 1819 the Chippewa of the Thames reserve was established, and in 1840 the Munsee and the Chippewa finally reached an agreement to share the land. In 1967 the Munsee portion became part of the current reserve, which was established by Order in Council.
The Munsee-Delaware First Nation had a registered population of 524 in April 2004, of whom 163 lived on the reserve. By January 2011, the nation had a total registered population of 555, of whom 145 lived on the reserve.