|Born||Dhanpat Rai Srivastav
31 July 1880
Lamhi, North-Western Provinces, British India
|Died||8 October 1936
Varanasi, United Provinces, British India
|Pen name||Nawab Rai|
|Notable work(s)||Godaan, Bazaar-e-Husn, Karmabhoomi, Shatranj ke khiladi|
|Children||Sripath Rai, Amrit Rai, Kamala Devi|
Munshi Premchand (Urdu: منشی پریم چند, Hindi: मुंशी प्रेमचंद, pronounced [mʊnʃi preːm t͡ʃənd̪] ( )) (31 July 1880 – 8 October 1936) was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindustani literature. He is one of the most celebrated writers of the Indian subcontinent, and is regarded as one of the foremost Hindustani writers of the early twentieth century. Born Dhanpat Rai Srivastav, he began writing under the pen name "Nawab Rai", but subsequently switched to "Premchand", while he is also known as "Munshi Premchand", Munshi being an honorary prefix. A novel writer, story writer and dramatist, he has been referred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" ("Emperor among Novelists") by some Hindi writers. His works include more than a dozen novels, around 250 short stories, several essays and translations of a number of foreign literary works into Hindi.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Style and influences
- 3 List of works
- 4 Adaptations of Premchand's works
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in Lamahi, a village located near Varanasi (Benares). His ancestors came from a large family, which owned six bighas of land. His grandfather Gur Sahai Lal was a patwari (village accountant), and his father Ajaib Lal was a post office clerk. His mother was Anandi Devi of Karauni village, who could have been the inspiration for the character Anandi in his Bade Ghar Ki Beti. Premchand was the fourth child of Ajaib Lal and Anandi; the first two were girls who died as infants, and the third one was a girl named Suggi. His parents named him Dhanpat Rai ("the master of wealth"), while his uncle, Mahabir, a rich landowner, nicknamed him "Nawab" ("Prince"). "Nawab Rai" was the first pen name chosen by Premchand.
When he was 7 years old, Premchand began his education at a madarsa in Lalpur, located around 2½ km from Lamahi. Premchand learnt Urdu and Persian from a maulvi in the madarsa. When he was 8, his mother died after a long illness. His grandmother, who took the responsibility of raising him, died soon after. Premchand felt isolated, as his elder sister had already been married, and his father was always busy with work. His father, who was now posted at Gorakhpur, re-married, but Premchand received little affection from his step-mother. The step-mother later became a recurring theme in Premchand's works.
After his mother's death, Premchand sought solace in fiction, and developed a fascination for books. He heard the stories from the Persian-language fantasy epic Tilism-e-Hoshruba at a tobacconist's shop. He took the job of selling books for a book wholesaler, thus getting the opportunity to read a lot of books. He learnt English at a missionary school, and studied several works of fiction including George W. M. Reynolds's eight-volume The Mysteries of the Court of London. He composed his first literary work at Gorakhpur, which was never published and is now lost. It was a farce on a bachelor, who falls in love with a low-caste woman. The character was based on Premchand's uncle, who used to scold him for being obsessed with reading fiction; the farce was probably written as a revenge for this.
After his father was posted to Jamniya in the mid-1890s, Premchand enrolled at the Queen's College at Benaras as a day scholar. In 1895, he was married at the age of 15, while still studying in the 9th grade. The match was arranged by his maternal step-grandfather. The girl was from a rich landlord family and was older than Premchand, who found her quarrelsome and not good-looking.
Premchand's father died in 1897 after a long illness. He managed to pass the matriculation exam with second division. However, only the students with first division were given fee concession at the Queen's College. Premchand then sought admission at the Central Hindu College, but was unsuccessful due to his poor arithmetic skills. Thus, he had to discontinue his studies.
Premchand then obtained an assignment to coach an advocate's son in Benares at a monthly salary of five rupees. He used to live reside in a mud-cell over the advocate's stables, and used to send 60% of his salary back home. Premchand read a lot during these days. After racking up several debts, in 1899, he once went to a book shop to sell one of his collected books. There, he met the headmaster of a missionary school at Chunar, who offered him a job as a teacher, at a monthly salary of 18. He also took up the job of tutoring a student at a monthly fees of 5.
In 1900, Premchand secured a job as an assistant teacher at the Government District School, Bahraich, at a monthly salary of 20. Three months later, he was transferred to the District School in Pratapgarh, where he stayed in an administrator's bungalow and tutored his son.
Dhanpat Rai first wrote under the pseudonym "Nawab Rai". His first short novel was Asrar e Ma'abid (Devasthan Rahasya in Hindi, "The Mystery of God's Abode"), which explores corruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women. The novel was published in a series in the Benares-based Urdu weekly Awaz-e-Khalk from 8 October 1903 to February 1905. Siegfried Schulz states that "his inexperience is quite evident in his first novel", which is not well-organized, lacks a good plot and features stereotyped characters. Prakash Chandra Gupta calls it an "immature work", which shows a tendency to "see life only white or black".
Stay at Kanpur
From Pratapgarh, Dhanpat Rai was relocated to Allahabad for training, and subsequently posted at Kanpur in 1905. Premchand stayed in Kanpur for around four years, from May 1905 to June 1909. There he met Daya Narain Nigam, the editor of the magazine Zamana, in which he later published several articles and stories.
Premchand visited his village Lamahi during the summer vacation, but did not find the stay enjoyable due to a number of reasons. He did not find the weather of the atmosphere conducive for writing. Plus, he faced domestic trouble due to quarrels between his wife and his step-mother. Premchand angrily scolded his wife, after she unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide by hanging. Dismayed, she went to her father's house, and Premchand displayed no interest in bringing her back. In 1906, Premchand married a child widow, Shivarani Devi, who was the daughter of a landlord from a village near Fatehpur. The step was considered to be revolutionary at that time, and Premchand faced a lot of social opposition. After his death, Shivarani Devi wrote a book on him, titled Premchand Ghar Mein ("Premchand in House").
In 1905, inspired by the nationalist activism, Premchand published an article on the Indian National Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Zamana. He criticised Gokhale's methods for achieving political freedom, and instead recommended adoption of more extremist measures adopted by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Premchand's first published story was Duniya Ka Sabse Anmol Ratan ("The Most Precious Jewel in the World"), which appeared in Zamana in 1907. According to this story, the most precious 'jewel' was the last drop of blood necessary to attain independence. Many of Premchand's early short stories had patriotic overtones, influenced by the Indian independence movement.
Premchand's second short novel Hamkhurma-o-Hamsavab (Prema in Hindi), published in 1907, was penned under the name "Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi". It explores the issue of widow remarriage in the contemporary conservative society: the protagonist Amrit Rai overcomes social opposition to marry the young widow Poorna, giving up his rich and beautiful fiance Prema. According to Prakash Chandra Gupta, "while containing seeds of his future greatness in many ways, the novel is still youthful and lacks the discipline which full maturity brings".
In 1907, another of Premchand's short novels, Kishna was published by the Medical Hall Press of Benares. This 142-page work, which satirises women's fondness for jewellery, is now lost. Literary critic Nobat Rai criticised the work in Zamana, saying that it is a mockery of the women's conditions.
During April–August 1907, Premchand's story Roothi Rani was published in serial form in Zamana. Also in 1907, the publishers of Zamana published Premchand's first short story collection, titled Soz-e-Watan. The collection, which was later banned, contained four stories which sought to inspire the Indians in their struggle for political freedom.
Adoption of the name Premchand
In 1909, Premchand was transferred to Mahoba, and later posted to Hamirpur as the Sub-deputy Inspector of Schools. Around this time, Soz-e-Watan was noticed by the British Government officials, who banned it as a seditious work. The British collector of the Hamirpur District ordered a raid on Premchand's house, where around five hundred copies of Soz-e-Watan were burnt. Subsequently, Dhanpat Rai had to change his pseudonym from "Nawab Rai" to "Premchand".
In 1914, Premchand started writing in Hindi (Hindi and Urdu are considered different registers of a single language Hindustani, with Hindi drawing much of its vocabulary from Sanskrit and Urdu being more influenced by Persian). By this time, he was already reputed as a fiction writer in Urdu. His first Hindi story Saut was published in the magazine Saraswati in December 1915, and his first short story collection Sapta Saroj was published in June 1917.
In August 1916, Premchand was transferred to Gorakhpur on a promotion. He became the Assistant Master at the Normal High School, Gorakhpur.
At Gorakhpur, he developed a friendship with the bookseller Buddhi Lal, who allowed him to borrow novels for reading, in exchange for selling exam cram books at the school. Premchand was an enthusiastic reader of classics in other languages, and translated several of these works in Hindi.
By 1919, Premchand had published four novellas, of about a hundred pages each. In 1919, Premchand's first major novel Seva Sadan was published in Hindi. The novel was originally written in Urdu under the title Bazaar-e-Husn, but was published in Hindi first by a Calcutta-based publisher, who offered Premchand 450 for his work. The Urdu Publisher of Lahore published the novel later in 1924, paying Premchand 250. The novel tells the story of an unhappy housewife, who first becomes a courtesan, and then manages an orphanage for the young daughters of the courtesans. It was well received by the critics, and helped Premchand gain wider recognition.
In 1919, Premchand obtained a BA degree from Allahabad. By 1921, he had been promoted to Deputy Inspectors of Schools. On 8 February 1921, he attended a meeting in Gorakhpur, where Mahatma Gandhi asked people to resign from government jobs as part of the non-cooperation movement. Premchand, although physically unwell and with two kids and a pregnant wife to support, thought about it for 5 days and decided, with the consent of his wife, to resign from his government job.
Back to Benares
After quitting his job, Premchand left Gorakhpur for Benares on 18 March 1921, and decided to focus on his literary career. Till his death in 1936, he faced severe financial difficulties and chronic ill health.
In 1923, he established a printing press and publishing house in Benares, christened "Saraswati Press". The year 1924 saw the publication of Premchand's Rangabhumi, which has a blind beggar called Surdas as its tragic hero. Schulz mentions that in Rangabhumi, Premchand comes across as a "superb social chronicler", and although the novel contains some "structural flaws" and "too many authorial explanations", it shows a "marked progress" in Premchand's writing style. According to Schulz, it was in Nirmala (1925) and Pratigya (1927) that Premchand found his way to "a balanced, realistic level" that surpasses his earlier works and manages to "hold his readers in tutelage". Nirmala, a novel dealing with the dowry system in India, was first serialised in the magazine Chand, before being published as a novel. Pratigya ("The Vow") dealt with the subject of widow remarriage.
In 1928, Premchand's novel Gaban ("Embezzlement"), focusing on the middle class' greed, was published. In March 1930, Premchand launched a literary-political weekly magazine titled Hans, aimed at inspiring the Indians to mobilise against the British rule. The magazine, noted for its politically provocative views, failed to make a profit. Premchand then took over and edited another magazine called Jagaran, which too ran at a loss.
In 1931, Premchand moved to Kanpur as a teacher in the Marwari College, but had to leave because of difference with the college administration. He then returned to Benares, and became the editor of the Maryada magazine. In 1932, he published another novel titled Karmabhumi. He briefly served as the headmaster of the Kashi Vidyapeeth, a local school. After the school's closure, he became the editor of the Madhuri magazine in Lucknow.
Premchand arrived in Mumbai on 31 May 1934 to try his luck in the Hindi film industry. He had accepted a script writing job for the production house Ajanta Cinetone, hoping that the yearly salary of 8000 would help him overcome his financial troubles. He stayed in Dadar, and wrote the script for the film Mazdoor ("The Labourer"). The film, directed by Mohan Bhawnani, depicted the poor conditions on the labour class. Premchand himself did a cameo as the leader of labourers in the film. Some influential businessmen managed to get a stay on its release in Mumbai. The film was released in Lahore and Delhi, but was banned again after it inspired the mill workers to stand up against the owners.
Ironically, the film inspired the workers of his own loss-making press in Benares to launch a strike, after they were not paid their salaries. By 1934–35, Premchand's Saraswati Press was under a heavy debt of 4000, and Premchand was forced to discontinue the publication of Jagaran. Meanwhile, Premchand was beginning to dislike the non-literary commercial environment of the Mumbai film industry, and wanted to return to Benares. However, he had signed a one-year contract with the production house. He ultimately left Mumbai on 4 April 1935, before the completion of one year. Himanshu Roy, the founder of Mumbai Talkies, tried to convince Premchand to stay back, but did not succeed.
After leaving Bombay, Premchand wanted to settle in Allahabad, where his sons Sripat Rai and Amrit Rai were studying. He also planned to publish Hans from there. However, owing to his financial situation and ill-health, he had to hand over Hans to the Indian Literary Counsel and move to Benares.
Godaan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936), Premchand's last completed work, is generally accepted as his best novel, and is considered as one of the finest Hindi novels. The protagonist, Hori, a poor peasant, desperately longs for a cow, a symbol of wealth and prestige in rural India. According to Schulz, "Godan is a well-structured and well-balanced novel which amply fulfills the literary requirements postulated by the Western literary standards." Unlike other contemporary renowned authors such as Rabindranath Tagore, Premchand was not appreciated much outside India. Siegfried Schulz believes that the reason for this was absence of good translations of his work. Also, unlike Tagore and Iqbal, Premchand never travelled outside India, studied abroad or mingled with the renowned foreign literary figures.
In 1936, Premchand also published Kafan ("Shroud"), in which a poor man collects money for the funeral rites of his dead wife, but spends it on food and drink. Premchand's last published story was Cricket Match, which appeared in Zamana in 1937, after his death.
Style and influences
Premchand is considered the first Hindi author whose writings prominently featured realism. His novels describe the problems of the poor and the urban middle-class. His works depict a rationalistic outlook, which views religious values as something that allows the powerful hypocrites to exploit the weak. He used literature for the purpose of arousing public awareness about national and social issues and often wrote about topics related to corruption, child widowhood, prostitution, feudal system, poverty, colonialism and on the India's freedom movement.
Premchand started taking an interest in political affairs while at Kanpur during the late 1900s, and this is reflected in his early works, which have patriotic overtones. His political thoughts were initially influenced by the moderate Indian National Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale, but later, he moved towards the more extremist Bal Gangadhar Tilak. He considered the Minto-Morley Reforms and the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms as inadequate, and supported greater political freedom. Several of his early works, such as A Little Trick and A Moral Victory, satirised the Indians who cooperated with the British Government. He did not specifically mention the British in his some of his stories, due to strong government censorship, but disguised his opposition in settings from the medieval era and the foreign history. He was also influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda.
In the 1920s, he was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's non-co-operation movement and the accompanying struggle for social reform. During this period, his works dealt with the social issues such as poverty, zamindari exploitation (Premashram, 1922), dowry system (Nirmala, 1925), educational reform and political oppression (Karmabhumi, 1931). Premchand was focused on the economic liberalisation of the peasantry and the working class, and was opposed to the rapid industrialisation, which he felt would hurt the interests of the peasants and oppression of the workers. This can be seen in works like Rangabhumi (1924).
In his last days, he focused on village life as a stage for complex drama, as seen in the novel Godan (1936) and the short-story collection Kafan (1936). Premchand believed that social realism was the way for Hindi literature, as opposed to the "feminine quality", tenderness and emotion of the contemporary Bengali literature.
List of works
Premchand wrote over three hundred short stories and fourteen novels, many essays and letters, plays and translations. Many of Premchand's works were translated into English and Russian after his death.
Devasthan Rahasya (Hindi)
|Awaz-e-Khalk (serial form)||1903 (8 October)-1905 (February)||English translation of the title: "The Mystery of God's Abode"|
Hamkhurma-o-Ham Sawab (Urdu)
|Indian Press/Hindustan Publishing House||1907||Amrit Rai overcomes social opposition to marry the young widow Poorna, giving up his rich and beautiful fiance Prema. (Penned under the name "Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi")|
|Kishna||Medical Hall Press, Benares||1907||142||Now lost; satirises women's fondness for jewellery|
|Roothi Rani||Zamana (serial form)||1907 (April–August)|
|Soz-e-Watan (collection)||Publishers of Zamana||1907,1909||Banned by the British Government in 1909|
|Granth Bhandar and Dhanju||1912|
|Seva Sadan (Hindi)
|Calcutta Pustak Agency (Hindi)||1919 (Hindi); 1924 (Urdu)||280||An unhappy housewife first becomes a courtesan, and then manages an orphanage for the young daughters of the courtesans.|
|Darul Ishaat (Urdu, 1935)||1924|
|Nirmala (novel)||Idaara-e-Furoogh-Urdu||1925||156||English title: The second wife. About the dowry system in India (serialised in the magazine Chand between November 1921 and November 1926, before being published as a novel)|
|Lajpat Rai & Sons, Lahore (Urdu)||1926 (Hindi), 1934 (Urdu)||440|
|1927||Deals with widow remarriage|
|Gaban (also transliterated as Ghaban)||Saraswati Press, Benares; Lajpatrai & Sons, Urdu Bazar||1928||248|
|Maktaba Jamia, Delhi||1932|
|Godaan||Saraswati Press||1936||344||English title: The Gift of the Cow. Themed around the socio economic deprivation as well as the exploitation of the village poor.|
|Mangalsootra (incomplete)||Hindustan Publishing House|
Several of Premchand's stories have been published in a number of collections, including the 8-volume Mansarovar. Some of his stories include:
|Adeeb Ki Izat||A story of writer who wanted respect and recognition of his work but later realised that he is a candle which will have to burn giving light to others.|
|Namak Ka Daroga||1907|
|Duniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan||Zamana||1907||The title means "The Most Precious Jewel in the World", which according to the story, is the drop of the blood necessary for the nation's independence|
|Bade Bhai Sahab||Zamana||1910 (December)||A story of two brothers, their conflict and its resolution.|
|Beti ka Dhan||Zamana||1915 (November)|
|Saut||Sarasvati (Vol. 16, Part 2, No. 6, 353–359)||1915 (December)||The title means "co-wife".|
|Sajjanata ka dand||Sarasvati||1916 (March)||The title means "The Penalty for Integrity".|
|Panch Parameshvar||Sarasvati||1916 (June)||A friendship is marred when one friend delivers a verdict against the other. The story narrates how they reunite as friends.|
|Ishwariya Nyaya||Sarasvati||1917 (July)||The title means "The Divine Law"|
|Durga ka Mandir||Sarasvati||1917 (December)||The title means "The Temple of Durga".|
|Balidan||Sarasvati||1918 (May)||The title means "Sacrifice".|
|Putra Prem||Sarasvati||1920 (July)||The title means "Love of a Son".|
|Boodhi Kaki (The Old Aunt)||Hans||1921||An old woman craves for love from her family.|
|Pariksha||Chand||1923 (January)||The title means "The Test". Its background is the Nadir Shah's invasion and sack of Delhi. The retiring minister Sardar Sujan Singh has been ordered by the king to find a new minister to replace him. The minister tests several candidates for a month and then announces the rightful successor based on his values of sympathy and bravery.|
|Shatranj ke khiladi (Hindi)
Shatranj ki bazi (Urdu)
|Madhuri||October 1924||Two aristocrats – Mirza Sajjad Ali and Mir Roshan Ali — live in the kingdom of Awadh during the times of the British Raj. Both of them are careless towards their duties and spend their days playing chess. Their love for the game is so immense that even when the ruler of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, is captured by the British they continue playing chess. In the end, a move in the game sparks a verbal conflict between them and they end up killing each other with their swords.|
|Hinsa Parmo Dharma||Madhuri||1926 (December)|
|Idgah||Chand||1933 (August)||A poor boy in India lives with his grandmother. On the festival day of Eid, the other kids buy themselves candies and toys. The poor boy, thinking of his grandmother, buys a pair of tongs to help her make rotis, since she burns her hands trying to cook them bare-handed.|
|Nashaa||Chand||1934 (February)||Two friends from different strata of society study away from their homes. The story explores class disparity and aspirations in their friendship. It has an autobiographical touch.|
|Kafan||Jamia||1936||A low-caste father and his son are poor labourers in a village. An emergency occurs when the son's wife dies while giving birth to a child and the family has no money to cremate the body of the dead woman. The lazy duo ask for money from the village zamindar and other members of the society. However, they use the money they get on liquor and food instead.|
|Cricket Match||Zamana||1937||Published posthumously|
|Gupt Dhan||Haridas, a man of character, owns a brick factory. He loses his character when he gets a map of a hereditary treasure of a worker, but eventually dies as a punishment of god.|
|Mantra||The selfishness of a rich doctor named Chaddha results in the death of a patient. The same patient's father selflessly cures Dr. Chaddha's son, when the doctor meets the same sort of situation.|
|Namak Ka Daroga||The title means 'The Salt Inspector'. An idealist becomes a police officer, and faces problems while performing his duties.|
|Poos ki raat||Madhuri||1930 (May)||The title means "A night of the Poos month (Winter)". A poor farmer stays out with his dog to protect his field on an extremely cold December night.|
|Lottery||Zamana||It is a story of an Indian family in which every member bought a ticket of a 1 million rupees worth lottery. After some time they begun to fight over that what would they do if anyone win the lottery but at last neither from their home even town, state or country win the lottery but someone from America.|
Other stories include:
- Agni Samadhi
- Daroga Sahab
- Dhaai ser gehun
- Dikri Ke Rupaye
- Do Bahanein
- Do Bailon ki Katha
- Doodh ka Damm (1910)
- Gilli danda"
- Gurumantra (1927)
- Har Ki Jeet
- Jail (1931)
- Juloos (1930)
- Manushya Ka Param Dharma (March 1920)
- Maryada ki Vedi
- Mukti Marg
- Nimantran (1926)
- Pashu se Manushya
- Prem Purnima
- Samar Yatra (1930)
- Satyagraha (1923)
- Sawa Ser Gehu
- Sewa Marg
- Suhag ki Sari (1923)
- Sujan Bhagat
- Swatva Raksha
- Thakur ka Kuaan
- Thriya Charita
- Udhar Ki Ghadi
- Hajje Akbar
- Sautele Maa
- Bhadde ka Tattu
Premchand translated several non-Hindi works into Hindi. These included the writings of Ratan Nath Dhar Sarshar, Leo Tolstoy, Charles Dickens (The Story of Richard Doubledick), Oscar Wilde (Canterville), John Galsworthy (Strife), Sadi, Guy de Maupassant, Maurice Maeterlinck (Sightless) and Hendrik van Loon (The Story of Mankind).
Some of the translated titles include:
|Ahankar||Thais by Anatole France (adaptation)|
|Azad Katha||Fasana-e Azad (1880) by Ratan Nath Dhar Sarshar|
|Parvat Yatra||Sair-e-Kohsar (1890) by Ratan Nath Dhar Sarshar|
|Chandi Ki Dibiya||Silver Box (1906) by John Galsworthy|
|Hartal||Strife (1909) by John Galsworthy|
|Nyaya||Justice (1910) by John Galsworthy|
|Sukhdas||Silas Marner by George Eliot (adaptation)|
|Tolstoy Ki Kahaniyan||Stories of Leo Tolstoy|
- Mazdoor (1934)
- Prem Ki Vedi
- Roohani Shadi
- Kuchh Vichar (two parts)
- Qalam Tyag aur Talwar
- Mahatma Sheikhsadi (biography of Saadi)
- Jangal ki Kahaniyan
- Kutte ki Kahani
- Ram Charcha
Adaptations of Premchand's works
||This section of a biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchand's works– Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story revolving around poor Dukhi, who dies of exhaustion while hewing wood for a paltry favour. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) revolved around the decadence of nawabi Lucknow, where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis.
Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in the lead role. The novel is set in Varanasi, the holy city of Hindus. Sevasadan ("House of Service") is an institute built for the daughters of courtesans. The lead of the novel is a beautiful, intelligent and talented girl called Suman. She belongs to a high caste. She is married to a much older, tyrannical man. She realises that a loveless marriage is just like prostitution except that there is only one client. Bholi, a courtesan, lives opposite Suman. Suman realises that Bholi is "outside purdah", while she is "inside it". Suman leaves her husband and becomes a successful entertainer of gentlemen. But after a brief period of success, she ends up as a victim of a political drama played out by self-righteous Hindu social reformers and moralists.
The Actor Factor Theatre Company, a young Delhi based theatre group, staged Kafan in 2010 in New Delhi. It is an original stage adaptation of Premchand's short story. Kafan is a dark comedy. In the play, puppetry is explored to depict the tussle between two classes and the plight of Budhia, who is caught in the crossfire. Bleakness of hope in the story and awfulness of the father-son duo find a delicate balance. At times the situations break into morbid humour. In the end a wine-house becomes the stage for Ghisu (father) and Madhav's (son) rebellious dance, defying not only the laws of the land but also that of the Gods.
Oka Oori Katha (English title: The Marginal Ones; Telugu: ఒక ఊరి కథ) is a 1977 Telugu film directed by Mrinal Sen. It is based on the story Kafan by Munshi Premchand. It is one of the few Art films made in Telugu language.
Dramatech, a 28-year old amateur theatre group in Delhi, staged Premchand: Three Comedies for Families and Children, at Sri Ram Centre, Delhi in August, September and October 2012. The stories by Premchand included Do bailon ki katha; Shatranj ke khiladi; Nimantran. The stories were dramatised and directed by Ravi Raj Sagar.
- Michael Sollars and Arbolina Llamas Jennings, ed. (2008). The Facts on File companion to the world novel: 1900 to the present. Infobase Publishing. pp. 631–633. ISBN 978-0-8160-6233-1.
- Munshi Premchand of nami Village, Robert O. Swan, Duke University Press, 1969
- Gupta 1998, p. 7
- Gupta 1998, p. 7
- Sigi 2006, p. 15
- Premchand: A Life, Amrit Rai (Harish Tirvedi, translator), People's Publishing House, New Delhi, 1982.
- "Munshi Premchand: The Great Novelist". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Gupta 1998, p. 10
- Sigi 2006, p. 16
- Gupta 1998, p. 11
- Sigi 2006, p. 17
- Gupta 1998, p. 12
- Sigi 2006, p. 20
- Gupta 1998, p. 13
- Schulz 1981, p. 16
- Gupta 1998, p. 14
- Gupta 1998, p. 17
- Sigi 2006, p. 24
- Dr. Girirajsharan Agarwal (2001). Premchand : Karam Bhoomi (Abhyas Pustika) (in Hindi). Diamond. pp. 5–9. ISBN 978-81-7182-328-4.
- Sigi 2006, p. 25
- Sigi 2006, p. 26
- Mohan Lal (2006). The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume Five: Sasay To Zorgot). Sahitya Akademi. p. 4149. ISBN 978-81-260-1221-3.
- Sigi 2006, p. 27
- Bhisham Sahni; Om Prakash Paliwal (1980). Premchand: a tribute. Premchand Centenary Celebrations Committee.
- Madan Gopal (1964). Munshi Premchand: a literary biography. Asia Pub. House. pp. 114–117.
- Harish Trivedi (2 May 2004). "The power of Premchand (Literary Review of The Oxford India Premchand)". The Hindu.
- David Rubin (1994). "Short Stories of Premchand". In Barbara Stoler Miller. Masterworks of Asian literature in comparative perspective: a guide for teaching. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 168–177. ISBN 978-1-56324-258-8.
- Schulz 1981, p. 17
- Schulz 1981, p. 18
- Sigi 2006, p. 50
- Sigi 2006, p. 75
- Sigi 2006, p. 77
- Sigi 2006, p. 76
- MAHAPRASHASTA, AJOY ASHIRWAD (30 December 2011). "Writers for change". Frontline. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- Finest Hindi Novel
- Schulz 1981, p. 40
- Schulz 1981, p. 41
- Sigi 2006, p. 87
- "India Heritage, Creative Arts, Literature". India Heritage, A living portrait of India. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- Gupta 1998, p. 6
- Sheldon I. Pollock (2003). Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia. University of California Press. p. 1011. ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4.
- Lal, Anupa. THE PREMCHAND READER Selected Stories 1.
- The best of Premchand: a collection of 50 best short stories. Cosmo Publications. 1997. p. xii. ISBN 978-81-7020-776-4. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- Govind Narain (1999). Premchand, novelist and thinker. Pragati Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-7307-059-4.
- Nagendra (1981). Premchand: an anthology. Bansal. p. 70. OCLC 8668427.
- Schulz, Siegfried A. (1981). Premchand: a Western appraisal. Indian Council for Cultural Relations. OCLC 10062769. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- Gupta, Prakash Chandra (1998). Makers of Indian Literature: Prem Chand. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0428-7.
- Sigi, Rekha (2006). Munshi Prem Chand. Diamond. ISBN 978-81-288-1214-9.
- Amrit Rai; Harish Trivedi (1991). Premchand: his life and times. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562894-4.
- Francesca Orsini (2004). The Oxford India Premchand. Oxford University Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-19-566501-7.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Munshi Premchand|
- Collection of Stories in PDF Format – IIT Kanpur Initiative
- Premchand at the Internet Movie Database
- Premchand Ghar mein, a biography by Premchand's wife Shiva Rani Devi (in Hindi)