Muramyl dipeptide

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Muramyl dipeptide
Muramyl dipeptide.png
CAS number 53678-77-6
PubChem 11620162
ChemSpider 9794910 YesY
MeSH Muramyl+dipeptide
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C19H32N4O11
Molar mass 492.47758
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Muramyl dipeptide is a peptidoglycan constituent of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. It is composed of N-acetylmuramic acid linked by its lactic acid moiety to the N-terminus of an L-alanine D-isoglutamine dipeptide.[1]

It can be recognized by the immune system as a PAMP (pathogen associated molecular pattern)and activate the NALP3 inflammasome which in turn leads to cytokine activation, especially IL-1α and IL-1β. [2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Inohara, N.; Ogura, Y.; Fontalba, A.; Gutierrez, O.; Pons, F.; Crespo, J.; Fukase, K.; Inamura, S.; Kusumoto, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Foster, S. J.; Moran, A. P.; Fernandez-Luna, J. L.; Nuñez, G. (2003). "Host Recognition of Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide Mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's Disease". Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (8): 5509–5512. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200673200. PMID 12514169.  edit
  2. ^ Curr Biol. 2004 Nov 9;14(21):1929-34., Martinon F, Agostini L, Meylan E, Tschopp J. Identification of bacterial muramyl dipeptide as activator of the NALP3/cryopyrin inflammasome..