Murashige and Skoog medium
Murashige and Skoog medium or (MSO or MS0 (MS-zero)) is a plant growth medium used in the laboratories for cultivation of plant cell culture. MSO was invented by plant scientists Toshio Murashige and Folke K. Skoog in 1962 during Murashige's search for a new plant growth regulator. A number behind the letters MS is used to indicate the sucrose concentration of the medium. For example MS0 contains no sucrose and MS20 contains 20 g/l sucrose. Along with its modifications, it is the most commonly used medium in plant tissue culture experiments in laboratorium.
As Skoog's doctoral student, Murashige originally set out to find an as-yet undiscovered growth hormone present in tobacco juice. No such component was discovered; instead, analysis of juiced tobacco and ashed tobacco revealed higher concentrations of specific minerals in plant tissues than were previously known. A series of experiments demonstrated that varying the levels of these nutrients enhanced growth substantially over existing formulations. It was determined that nitrogen in particular enhanced growth of tobacco in tissue culture.
Major salts (macronutrients)
- Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) 1,650 mg/l
- Calcium chloride (CaCl2 · 2H2O) 440 mg/l
- Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 · 7H2O) 370 mg/l
- Potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) 170 mg/l
- Potassium nitrate (KNO3) 1,900 mg/l
Minor salts (micronutrients)
- Boric acid (H3BO3) 6.2 mg/l
- Cobalt chloride (CoCl2 · 6H2O) 0.025 mg/l
- Cupric sulphate (CuSO4 · 5H2O) 0.025 mg/l
- Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4 · 7H2O) 27.8 mg/l
- Manganese sulphate (MnSO4 · 4H2O) 22.3 mg/l
- Potassium iodide (KI) 0.83 mg/l
- Sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4 · 2H2O) 0.25 mg/l
- Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4·7H2O) 8.6 mg/l
- Na2EDTA · 2H2O 37.2 mg/l
Vitamins and organics
- i-Inositol 100 mg/l
- Niacin 0.5 mg/l
- Pyridoxine · HCl 0.5 mg/l
- Thiamine · HCl 0.1 mg/l
- IAA 1–30 mg/l
- Kinetin 0.04–10 mg/l
- Glycine (recrystallized) 2.0 mg/l
- Edamin (lactalbumin hydrolysate) 1.0 g/l
- Agar 10 g/l
An optimum pH of 5.8 should be maintained.
- Murashige T and Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15(3): 473-497.
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