The Murray–Darling basin is a large geographical area in the interior of southeastern Australia, whose name is derived from its two major rivers, the Murray River and the Darling River. It drains around one-seventh of the Australian land mass, and is one of the most significant agricultural areas in Australia. It spans most of the states of New South Wales, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory, and parts of the states of Queensland (lower third) and South Australia (southeastern corner). It is 3,375 kilometres (2,097 mi) in length (the Murray River is 2,530 km (1,570 mi) long).
Most of the 1,061,469 km2 (409,835 sq mi) basin is flat, low-lying and far inland, and receives little direct rainfall. The many rivers it contains tend to be long and slow-flowing, and carry a volume of water that is large only by Australian standards.
The Murray-Darling basin is home to many native animal species. The true numbers may not be known, but a fairly confident estimate has been made of these animals and the current status of their population. Among the aboriginal fauna in the region, the study found that there were:
- 80 species of mammals, with 20 extinct and 16 endangered
- 54 species of frogs, with none endangered
- 46 species of snakes, with none endangered
- five species of tortoises, with none endangered
- 34 species of fish, with up to half either threatened or of conservation significance
The basin has also played host to a variety of introduced species. One of the most well known is the carp. The time of the introduction of carp into the system is not known, but by the 1920s, they had become established in the basin.
Four varieties of carp were used to stock up fish dams. Since then they have made their way into the river systems, where they spread quite quickly. Human introduction, possibly by anglers using small carp illegally as live bait has also increased their distribution. These fish are very mobile, as they can travel easily on flood waters and their eggs can be transported by birds.
Carp are a problem because they feed by sucking gravel from the river bed and taking all the edible material off it, before returning the rest to the water. This stirs up all the sediment, reducing the quality of the water. When caught by fishermen, carp must be killed by law.
Cane toads have entered the upper reaches of the Darling Basin and there are several reports of individuals being found further down the system. Cane toads compete with native amphibians and are toxic to native carnivores.
Total water flow in the Murray–Darling basin 1885 to the present has averaged around 24,000 gigalitres (19.5 maf) per year. This is the lowest rate of the world's major river systems. About 6.0 percent of Australia's total rainwater falls into the basin. In most years only half of this quantity reaches the sea and in dry years much less. Estimated total annual flows for the basin have ranged from 5,000 gigalitres in 1902 to 57,000 gigalitres in 1956. Despite the magnitude of the basin, the hydrology of the streams within it is quite varied.
These waters are divided into four types:
- The Darling and Lachlan basins. These have extremely variable flows from year to year, with the smallest annual flow being typically as little as 1 percent of the long-term mean and the largest often more than ten times the mean. Periods of zero flow in most rivers can extend to months and in the drier parts (Warrego, Paroo and Lower Darling basins) to years. Flows in these rivers are not strongly seasonal. In the northern regions the majority of floods occur in the summer from monsoonal penetration. For most of the Darling and Lachlan catchments it is typical to see high or low flows begin in winter and extend to the following autumn (see El Niño). High water extraction rates for irrigation and mining have heavily compromised these rivers.
- The southwestern basins (Campaspe, Loddon, Avoca, Wimmera). These have a marked winter rainfall maximum and relatively lower precipitation variability than the Lachlan or Darling. However, the age and infertility of the soils mean that run-off ratios are exceedingly low (for comparison, around a tenth that of a European or North American catchment with a similar climate). Thus, variability of runoff is very high and most of the terminal lakes found in these basins very frequently dry up. Almost all runoff occurs in the winter and spring and, in the absence of large dams for regulation, these rivers are often seasonally dry during summer and autumn.
- A number of small catchments in South Australia, of which the largest are the Angas River flowing through Strathalbyn and the Finniss River further west, are part of the Murray–Darling Basin. These catchments lead to Lake Alexandrina, one of the lakes at the end of the Murray system. The Angas River is often dry in summer because of high levels of water extraction. The Finniss River has permanent flow which previously went into Lake Alexandrina but now has been cut off by a weir. The Finniss now fills the Goolwa Channel for recreational boating.
- The Murray, Murrumbidgee and Goulburn (except the Broken River which resembles the southwestern basins) Basins. Because these catchments have headwaters in alpine country with relatively young peaty soils, the runoff ratios are much higher than in other parts of the basin. Consequently, although gross precipitation variability is no lower than in the Lachlan or Darling basins, runoff variability is markedly lower than in other parts of the basin. Typically these rivers never cease to flow and the smallest annual flow is typically around 30 percent of the long-term mean and the largest around three times the mean. In most cases the flow peaks very strongly with the spring snow melt and troughs in mid-autumn.
Of the approximately 13,000 gigalitres of flow in the basin, which studies have shown to be divertible, 11,500 gigalitres are removed for irrigation, industrial use, and domestic supply. Agricultural irrigation accounts for about 95 percent of the water removed, including for the growing of rice and cotton. This extraction is highly controversial among scientists in Australia, regarding the agriculture industry's high water use in a region extremely short of water (as much due to exceptionally low run-off coefficients as to low rainfall).
Rivers in the Murray–Darling basin
The rivers listed below comprise the Murray–Darling basin and its direct significant tributaries, with elevations of their confluence with the downstream river. The tributary with the highest elevation is Swampy Plain River that rises in the Snowy Mountains, below Mount Kosciuszko at an elevation of 2,120 metres (6,960 ft), and ends merging with the Murray River, descending 1,860 metres (6,100 ft).
The ordering of the basin, from downstream to upstream, is:
|Rivers of the Murray–Darling basin|
|Catchment river||Elevation at
|River mouth||States||River length|
|Murray River||0 m (0 ft)||Southern Ocean||NSW, Vic, SA||2,375 km (1,476 mi)|
|Darling River||35 m (115 ft)||Murray||NSW||1,472 km (915 mi)|
|Paroo River||94 m (308 ft)||Darling||Qld, NSW||1,210 km (750 mi)|
|Warrego River||98 m (322 ft)||Darling||Qld, NSW||1,380 km (860 mi)|
|Langlo River||280 m (920 ft)||Warrego||Qld||440 km (270 mi)|
|Nive River (Queensland)||336 m (1,102 ft)||Warrego||Qld||263 km (163 mi)|
|Culgoa River||109 m (358 ft)||Darling||Qld, NSW||489 km (304 mi)|
|Birrie River||115 m (377 ft)||Culgoa||Qld||197 km (122 mi)|
|Barwon River (New South Wales)||110 m (360 ft)||Darling||NSW||700 km (430 mi)|
|Bokhara River||113 m (371 ft)||Barwon||Qld, NSW||347 km (216 mi)|
|Namoi River||130 m (430 ft)||Barwon||NSW||708 km (440 mi)|
|Mooki River||264 m (866 ft)||Namoi||NSW||128 km (80 mi)|
|Peel River (New South Wales)||286 m (938 ft)||Namoi||NSW||210 km (130 mi)|
|Cockburn River||384 m (1,260 ft)||Peel||NSW||34 km (21 mi)|
|Manilla River||349 m (1,145 ft)||Namoi||NSW||138 km (86 mi)|
|Macdonald River (Bendemeer)||705 m (2,313 ft)||Namoi||NSW||169 km (105 mi)|
|Cobrabald River||990 m (3,250 ft)||Macdonald||NSW||53 km (33 mi)|
|Gwydir River||144 m (472 ft)||Barwon||NSW||488 km (303 mi)|
|Horton River||270 m (890 ft)||Gwydir||NSW||128 km (80 mi)|
|Moredun Creek||645 m (2,116 ft)||Gwydir||NSW||210 km (130 mi)|
|Rocky River (New South Wales)||760 m (2,490 ft)||Gwydir||NSW||138 km (86 mi)|
|Mehi River||145 m (476 ft)||Barwon||NSW||314 km (195 mi)|
|Moonie River||149 m (489 ft)||Barwon||NSW||542 km (337 mi)|
|Boomi River||152 m (499 ft)||Barwon||NSW, Qld||231 km (144 mi)|
|Macquarie River||154 m (505 ft)||Barwon||NSW||626 km (389 mi)|
|Castlereagh River||121 m (397 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||541 km (336 mi)|
|Talbragar River||258 m (846 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||277 km (172 mi)|
|Coolaburragundy River||271 m (889 ft)||Talbragar||NSW||156 km (97 mi)|
|Little River (Dubbo)||271 m (889 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||122 km (76 mi)|
|Bell River (New South Wales)||285 m (935 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||146 km (91 mi)|
|Cudgegong River||342 m (1,122 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||250 km (160 mi)|
|Turon River||406 m (1,332 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||117 km (73 mi)|
|Crudine River||563 m (1,847 ft)||Turon||NSW||54 km (34 mi)|
|Fish River (New South Wales)||668 m (2,192 ft)||Macquarie||NSW||119 km (74 mi)|
|Campbells River||706 m (2,316 ft)||Fish||NSW||82 km (51 mi)|
|Duckmaloi River||1,010 m (3,310 ft)||Fish||NSW||27 km (17 mi)|
|Weir River (Queensland)||166 m (545 ft)||Barwon||Qld, NSW||197 km (122 mi)|
|Balonne River||171 m (561 ft)||Barwon||Qld||479 km (298 mi)|
|Maranoa River||207 m (679 ft)||Balonne||Qld||519 km (322 mi)|
|Merivale River||401 m (1,316 ft)||Maranoa||Qld||205 km (127 mi)|
|Condamine River||256 m (840 ft)||Balonne||Qld||657 km (408 mi)|
|Macintyre River||224 m (735 ft)||Barwon||NSW, Qld||319 km (198 mi)|
|Dumaresq River||227 m (745 ft)||Macintyre||NSW||214 km (133 mi)|
|Macintyre Brook||241 m (791 ft)||Dumaresq||Qld||165 km (103 mi)|
|Beardy River||354 m (1,161 ft)||Dumaresq||NSW||90 km (56 mi)|
|Pike Creek (Queensland)||360 m (1,180 ft)||Dumaresq||Qld||117 km (73 mi)|
|Mole River (New South Wales)||363 m (1,191 ft)||Dumaresq||Qld||73 km (45 mi)|
|Deepwater River||601 m (1,972 ft)||Mole||NSW||84 km (52 mi)|
|Bluff River (New South Wales)||614 m (2,014 ft)||Mole||NSW||13 km (8.1 mi)|
|Severn River (Queensland)||375 m (1,230 ft)||Dumaresq||Qld, NSW||90 km (56 mi)|
|Severn River (New South Wales)||284 m (932 ft)||Macintyre||NSW||52 km (32 mi)|
|Beardy Waters||884 m (2,900 ft)||Severn (NSW)||NSW||70 km (43 mi)|
|Bogan River||111 m (364 ft)||Darling||NSW||617 km (383 mi)|
|Little River (Parkes)||305 m (1,001 ft)||Bogan||NSW||319 km (198 mi)|
|Murrumbidgee River||55 m (180 ft)||Murray||NSW, ACT||~1,450 km (900 mi)|
|Lachlan River||68 m (223 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||1,440 km (890 mi)|
|Belubula River||262 m (860 ft)||Lachlan||NSW||165 km (103 mi)|
|Boorowa River||301 m (988 ft)||Lachlan||NSW||134 km (83 mi)|
|Abercrombie River||375 m (1,230 ft)||Lachlan||NSW||130 km (81 mi)|
|Isabella River (New South Wales)||479 m (1,572 ft)||Abercrombie||NSW||51 km (32 mi)|
|Bolong River||589 m (1,932 ft)||Abercrombie||NSW||60 km (37 mi)|
|Tumut River||220 m (720 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||182 km (113 mi)|
|Goobarragandra River||272 m (892 ft)||Tumut||NSW||56 km (35 mi)|
|Doubtful Creek||1,290 m (4,230 ft)||Tumut||NSW||15 km (9.3 mi)|
|Yass River||345 m (1,132 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||139 km (86 mi)|
|Goodradigbee River||345 m (1,132 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||105 km (65 mi)|
|Crookwell River||430 m (1,410 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||78 km (48 mi)|
|Molonglo River||440 m (1,440 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW, ACT||115 km (71 mi)|
|Jerrabomberra Creek||554 m (1,818 ft)||Molonglo||NSW, ACT||35 km (22 mi)|
|Sullivans Creek||556 m (1,824 ft)||Molonglo||NSW, ACT||13 km (8.1 mi)|
|Queanbeyan River||567 m (1,860 ft)||Molonglo||NSW, ACT||104 km (65 mi)|
|Cotter River||460 m (1,510 ft)||Murrumbidgee||ACT||74 km (46 mi)|
|Paddys River (Australian Capital Territory)||477 m (1,565 ft)||Cotter||ACT||28 km (17 mi)|
|Tidbinbilla River||618 m (2,028 ft)||Paddys||ACT||13 km (8.1 mi)|
|Gibraltar Creek||647 m (2,123 ft)||Paddys||ACT||13 km (8.1 mi)|
|Gudgenby River||573 m (1,880 ft)||Murrumbidgee||ACT||35 km (22 mi)|
|Naas River||631 m (2,070 ft)||Gudgenby||ACT||26 km (16 mi)|
|Orroral River||842 m (2,762 ft)||Gudgenby||ACT||15 km (9.3 mi)|
|Bredbo River||695 m (2,280 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||52 km (32 mi)|
|Strike-a-Light River||733 m (2,405 ft)||Bredbo||NSW||38 km (24 mi)|
|Numeralla River||706 m (2,316 ft)||Murrumbidgee||NSW||94 km (58 mi)|
|Big Badja River||735 m (2,411 ft)||Numeralla||NSW||32 km (20 mi)|
|Kybeyan River||745 m (2,444 ft)||Numeralla||NSW||36 km (22 mi)|
|Wakool River||58 m (190 ft)||Murray||NSW||363 km (226 mi)|
|Niemur River||63 m (207 ft)||Wakool||NSW||155 km (96 mi)|
|Edward River (an anabranch)||61 m (200 ft)||Murray||NSW||383 km (238 mi)|
|Little Murray River (Victoria)||67 m (220 ft)||Murray||Vic||46 km (29 mi)|
|Loddon River||71 m (233 ft)||Murray||Vic||392 km (244 mi)|
|Avoca River||74 m (243 ft)||Murray||Vic||270 km (170 mi)|
|Little Murray River (New South Wales)||75 m (246 ft)||Murray||NSW||22 km (14 mi)|
|Goulburn River, Victoria||100 m (330 ft)||Murray||Vic||654 km (406 mi)|
|Broken River (Victoria)||118 m (387 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||225 km (140 mi)|
|Yea River||162 m (531 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||122 km (76 mi)|
|Murrindindi River||186 m (610 ft)||Yea||Vic||26 km (16 mi)|
|Acheron River||190 m (620 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||84 km (52 mi)|
|Little River (Cathedral Range)||207 m (679 ft)||Acheron||Vic||22 km (14 mi)|
|Steavenson River||264 m (866 ft)||Acheron||Vic||20 km (12 mi)|
|Taggerty River||368 m (1,207 ft)||Steavenson||Vic||18 km (11 mi)|
|Rubicon River||200 m (660 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||43 km (27 mi)|
|Royston River||381 m (1,250 ft)||Rubicon||Vic||19 km (12 mi)|
|Big River (Victoria)||259 m (850 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||62 km (39 mi)|
|Delatite River||260 m (850 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||83 km (52 mi)|
|Howqua River||265 m (869 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||66 km (41 mi)|
|Jamieson River||294 m (965 ft)||Goulburn||Vic||33 km (21 mi)|
|Campaspe River||123 m (404 ft)||Murray||Vic||232 km (144 mi)|
|Coliban River||183 m (600 ft)||Campaspe||Vic||89 km (55 mi)|
|Little Coliban River||501 m (1,644 ft)||Coliban||Vic||12 km (7.5 mi)|
|Ovens River||125 m (410 ft)||Murray||Vic||191 km (119 mi)|
|King River, Victoria||142 m (466 ft)||Ovens||Vic||126 km (78 mi)|
|Buffalo River (Australia)||206 m (676 ft)||Ovens||Vic||65 km (40 mi)|
|Dandongadale River||279 m (915 ft)||Buffalo||Vic||41 km (25 mi)|
|Catherine River (Victoria)||392 m (1,286 ft)||Buffalo||Vic||25 km (16 mi)|
|Buckland River (Victoria)||274 m (899 ft)||Ovens||Vic||38 km (24 mi)|
|Kiewa River||156 m (512 ft)||Murray||Vic, NSW||109 km (68 mi)|
|Mitta Mitta River||180 m (590 ft)||Murray||Vic||204 km (127 mi)|
|Dart River (Victoria)||452 m (1,483 ft)||Mitta Mitta||Vic||29 km (18 mi)|
|Big River (Victoria)||655 m (2,149 ft)||Mitta Mitta||Vic||52 km (32 mi)|
|Cobungra River||656 m (2,152 ft)||Mitta Mitta||Vic||55 km (34 mi)|
|Victoria River (Victoria)||830 m (2,720 ft)||Cobungra||Vic||25 km (16 mi)|
|Tooma River||238 m (781 ft)||Murray||NSW||74 km (46 mi)|
|Swampy Plain River||269 m (883 ft)||Murray||NSW, Vic||59 km (37 mi)|
|Geehi River||439 m (1,440 ft)||Swampy Plain||Vic||47 km (29 mi)|
The basin covers five states and territory governments, who according to the Constitution, are responsible for managing water resources. The River Murray Commission was established in 1917. Under the River Murray Waters Agreement, which never included Queensland despite the state containing about a quarter of the basin, the Commission's role was only as an advisory body with no authority for the enforcement of provisions. For a long time the Commission was only concerned with water quantity until salinity became a problem. This led to minor reforms in 1982 in which water quality became part of the Commission's responsibilities. However, it was soon recognised that a new organisational structure which considered the national perspective was needed for effective management.
The Murray–Darling Basin Agreement was first adopted in 1985 but it wasn't until 1993 that its full legal status was enacted. The Agreement led to the creation of a number of new organisations under what is known as the Murray-Darling Basin Initiative. These included the Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council and the Murray Darling Basin Commission.
The Murray–Darling Basin plan
The Murray-Darling Basin Plan was signed off by Tony Burke, Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities on 22 November 2012, and passed disallowance period in the Australian Parliament on the 19 March 2013. Following is the history leading up to this significant occasion in the history of Australian water reform.
In October 2010, The Murray–Darling Basin Authority released a draft plan to secure the long-term ecological health of the Murray–Darling Basin. This entailed cutting existing water allocations and increasing environmental flows. The document is officially titled the Guide to the Proposed Murray–Darling Basin Plan. It is the first part of a three-stage process to address the problems of the Murray–Darling Basin. MDBA is responsible for preparing and overseeing a legally-enforceable management plan — the Basin Plan.
The Basin Plan is designed to set environmentally sustainable limits on the quantities of water that may be taken from Basin water resources, to set Basin-wide environmental, water quality and salinity objectives, to develop efficient water trading regimes across the Basin, to set requirements for state water resource plans and to improve water security for all Basin users. It also intends to minimise social and economic impacts whilst achieving the plan's environmental outcomes.
With the release of the Guide to the Proposed Murray–Darling Basin Plan there have been a number of protests and voiced concerns about the plan in rural towns that the MDBA visited to present the plan to consultation meetings. More than 5,000 people attended a MDBA meeting in Griffith where Griffith Mayor, Mike Neville, said the plan would "obliterate" Murrumbidgee valley communities. Other groups also echo this feeling, such as the Victorian Farmers Federation and Wine Group Growers' Australia. Conversely, support for the Murray–Darling Basin plan has been received by various groups, including Australian Conservation Foundation, and Environment Victoria.
New legal advice from the lawyers of the Federal Government is changing the plan. The Government's interpretation is that the plan must give equal weight to the environmental, social, and economic impacts of proposed cuts to irrigation.
Environmentalists and South Australian irrigators, at the end of the river in South Australia, say that the authority should stick to its original figure.
In October 2010, a parliamentary inquiry into the economic impacts of the plan was announced.
In late October 2010 the Water Minister, Tony Burke, played down the prospect of a High Court challenge to the Murray–Darling Basin plan, as confusion continued over new legal advice released by the Government. In response to community concerns that the Murray–Darling Basin Authority had put environmental issues first over social and economic needs, Burke released new advice on the requirements of the Water Act. Burke stated that the Act does allow for the authority to "optimise" the needs of all three areas, but constitutional lawyer, George Williams, had cast doubts over the interpretation of the laws, stating it could be subject to a legal challenge.
The MDBA announced in November 2010 that it might be forced to push back the release of its final plan for the river system until early 2012.
The then MDBA chairman, Mike Taylor, reassured the public meeting that more work is being done to look at how the proposed cuts would affect regional communities. He stated; "Importantly, we want to make sure the social and economic impacts—which under any sort of scenario is very significant—were fully teased out". Taylor resigned as he allegedly believed that the overriding principle should be the environmental outcome which was in conflict with the Gillard Government and following a period of sustained criticism of the Authority and the implementation of the proposed draft basin plan. He was replaced by former New South Wales Planning Minister, Craig Knowles.
In late May 2012, the revised plan was forwarded to state water ministers. It did not alter the recommendation to cut 2,750 gigalitres of water entitlements.
Following much negotiation between the Commonwealth and State governments and numerous submissions from interested stakeholders and the community,the Basin Plan finally became law in November 2012 and can now be implemented.
Sustainability and risks
Although the MDBPG is a positive step towards sustainability the measures keep a significant risk of human activities exacerbating the drought risk (see River Murray which has only dried up twice since records began). The Environmental Water Requirement found that a reduction in allocations of 7600gl (per year) is required to be certain that the river systems would maintain their health to have baby rivers . However objectors cite socio-economic impacts of major cutbacks to the widescale farming (and in some areas wine-growing) in the basin, and conclude that within plans for population growth, particularly in times of drought, may be a need for sustainable water transportation from new extraction from rivers in the wettest part of the country, the Cape York Peninsula or more desalination.
- Pigram, John J. (2007). Australia's Water Resources: From use to management. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. p. 160—162. ISBN 978-0-643-09442-0.
- MDBA (August 2012). proposed Murray Darling Basin Plan http://download.mdba.gov.au/altered-PBP/APBP-Proposed-Basin-Plan-20120806.pdf
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "General information about carp - biology, ecology and impacts". New South Wales Department of Primary Industires. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Ayers, D., Mazzer, T.M. and Ellis, M.V. (2004). Herpetofauna of the Darling Basin. In: The Darling (Eds. R. Breckwoldt, R. Boden and J. Andrew) (Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra).
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- VFF Declares War!: Stop the MDBA plundering.
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- Cautious support from scientists for the emerging Murray‐Darling Basin Plan.
- Murray-Darling Basin Plan – what’s it all about? 11 March 2010.
- Jason Om. (27 October 2010). SA irrigators back Murray–Darling cuts. ABC News.
- Tim Lee. (18 October 2010). Murray authority chairman faces uphill battle. ABC News.
- Emma Rodgers. (28 OCtober 2010) Burke plays down challenge to basin plan. ABC News.
- Kerrin Binnie. (2 November 2010) Basin authority flags delay to final plan. ABC News.
- (4 November 2010). Water cuts treat farmers as 'second-class citizens'. ABC News.
- Rodgers, Emma (7 December 2010). "Murray–Darling boss resigns". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation).
- Coorey, Phillip (28 January 2011). "Ex-NSW minister Craig Knowles to be Murray Darling supremo". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Coorey, Phillip (29 January 2011). "A cosy number for a party mate or the right man for the job?". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Kruger, Paula (28 January 2011). "'Jobs for mate' claims dog new Murray–Darling chief". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Anna Vidot and rural reporters (28 May 2012). "Murray-Darling plan delivered to states". ABC Rural (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Murray-Darling Basin Authority
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