Murraya paniculata

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"Orange Jessamine" redirects here. This can also refer to the Orange Cestrum (Cestrum aurantiacum).
Murraya paniculata
Murraya paniculata line draing.gif
Line drawing of Murraya paniculata, showing flowers and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Murraya
Species: M. paniculata
Binomial name
Murraya paniculata
(L.) Jack

Murraya paniculata, commonly called Orange Jessamine, is a tropical, evergreen plant bearing small, white, scented flowers, which is grown as an ornamental tree or hedge. Murraya is closely related to Citrus, and bears small orange to red fruit resembling kumquats, though some cultivars do not set fruit.

Synonyms and common and local names[edit]

Taxonomical synonyms for M. paniculata are:

  • Chalcas exotica (L.) Millsp
  • Chalcas paniculata L. (basionym)
  • Murraya exotica L.

Some of the common names include

Orange Jessamine, Chinese box, mock orange, Mock lime, satinwood ,[1] or Lakeview Jasmine (mainly in Florida)

  • Burmese: ယုဇန [jṵ zana̰] (from Pali yojana)
  • Bengali: কামিনী
  • Khmer: Sarika Keo
  • Hindi: Kamini (कामिनी)[2]
  • Indonesian: Kemuning
  • Kannada: Kadu karibevu[2]
  • Lao: ແກ້ວ [kɛ̂ːw]
  • Malay: Kemuning
    M. paniculata
  • Nederlands: Kemoening 'Nog pas gisteren' by Maria Dermoût p. 102
  • Malayalam: Maramulla [2]
  • Manipuri: Kamini kusum [2]
  • Marathi: Kunti (कुन्ती)[2]
  • Mandarin Chinese: 月橘 (Pinyin: yué jú "moon tangerine")
  • Malaysian Fujian Chinese : 七里香[Chit Li Heong meaning "fragant can be smell seven li (li = 1/3 of a mile)]
  • Tagalog: Kamuning
  • Telugu: Nagagolungu[2]
  • Tamil: Kattu Kariyilai or Vengarai (வெங்காரை)[2]
  • Thai: แก้ว  [kɛ̂ːw]
  • Vietnamese: Nguyệt quất, Nguyệt quới

Description[edit]

M. paniculata in flower pots
Fruit of the Chinese box

Orange Jessamine is a small, tropical, evergreen tree or shrub growing up to 7 m tall. The plant flowers throughout the year. Its leaves are glabrous and glossy, occurring in 3-7 oddly pinnate leaflets which are elliptic to cuneate-obovate to rhombic. Flowers are terminal, corymbose, few-flowered, dense and fragrant. Petals are 12–18 mm long, recurved and white (or fading cream). The fruit of Murraya paniculata is fleshy, oblong-ovoid, coloured red to orange,[3] and grows up to 1 inch in length.[4]

Range[edit]

M. paniculata is a native of South and Southeast Asia, China and Australasia. It is naturalised in southern USA.[1]

Uses[edit]

Traditionally, Murraya paniculata is used both in traditional medicine as an analgesic and for wood (for tool handles).

In the West, Murraya paniculata is cultured as an ornamental tree or hedge because of its hardiness, wide range of soil tolerance (M. paniculata may grow in alkaline, clayey, sandy, acidic and loamy soils), and is suitable for larger hedges. The plant flowers throughout the years and produces small, fragrant flower clusters which attract bees, while the fruits attract small frugivorous birds.[4]

Honey Bee farms have been known to plant Orange Jasmine near bee hives. Serving not only as food for the bees but as protection from harsh winds. Honey collected from bee hive colonies that collect pollen from orange jasmines, have a tangy sweet orange undertone. Alternatives for outdoor growth in colder climates would be a Gardenia bush.

Propagation[edit]

The Orange Jessamine is sexually propagated by its seeds. The fruits are eaten by birds, who then pass the seeds out in their stool. It may also be artificially propagated by softwood cuttings.[4]

Diseases[edit]

M. paniculata is vulnerable to soil nematodes, scales, sooty mold and whiteflies.[4]

M. paniculata is the preferred host to the insect pest Diaphorina citri, the citrus psyllid. This psyllid is the vector for the citrus greening disease.[5]

Potential medicinal uses[edit]

The crude ethanolic extract of leaves of Murraya paniculata has antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive [6] and anti-inflammatory activities.[7] Yuehchukene, a dimeric indole alkaloid, can be extracted from the root.

Notes and references[edit]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Murraya%20paniculata retrieved on 28 June 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Kamini.html
  3. ^ Welsh, 1998; pp 256
  4. ^ a b c d Gilman, Edward F. Factsheet FPS-416, October 1999; University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; from http://www.coralsprings.org/environment/SmallTreeList/pdf/MURPANA.pdf retrieved on 28 June 2007
  5. ^ http://www.hear.org/pier/species/murraya_paniculata.htm retrieved on 28 June 2007
  6. ^ "Antinociceptive and bioactivity of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Rutaceae. Sharker S.Md., Shahid I.J., Hasanuzzaman Md. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 19 (3) (pp 746-748), 2009.
  7. ^ Rahman M.A., Hasanuzzaman M., Uddin N., Shahid I.Z.,Antidiarrhoeal and anti-inflammatory activities of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack." Pharmacologyonline. 3 (pp 768-776), 2010.

References

  • Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah.