Mus`ab ibn `Umair
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Mus‘ab ibn Umair (Arabic: مصعب بن عمير) also known as Mus‘ab al-Khayr (the good) was a sahabi (companion) of Muhammad. From the Banū ‘Abd al-Dār branch of the Quraysh, he embraced Islam in 614 CE and was the first ambassador of Islam. He died a martyr's death in the Battle of Uhud in 625 CE.
Early life 
Mus‘ab ibn Umair was born to the Banū ‘Abd al-Dār branch of the Quraysh tribe. Although his exact birth year is not known, it is believed that he was born sometime between 594 and 598 CE since he was very young when he embraced Islam in 614. Mus‘ab was the son of Umair ibn Hashim and Khunaas Bint Maalik. His mother had a strong, imposing personality; people feared her. His parents were wealthy, and Mus‘ab ibn Umair grew up in affluence. Due to his intelligence and good morals, he was permitted to attend high-level meetings of the Quraysh.
Conversion to Islam 
Mus‘ab ibn Umair embraced Islam in the house of al-Arqam, where the first Muslims used to meet with Muhammad to decide the future of Islam, evading harassment by the Quraish. Musab had gone to the house of Al Arqam to see for himself the facts about the new faith brought by Muhammad, which was the talk of the Quraish. On entering, he sat with the believers and listened to Muhammad with a great degree of attention. He was deeply moved by the Quranic verses and the words of Muhammad and embraced Islam. Thereafter, he offered salah and frequently visited the house. Musab concealed his acceptance of Islam out of fear of his mother. However, he was seen by Uthman ibn Talhal, a Quraish opponent of Muhammad, entering Al Arqam‘s house and praying as Muhammad prayed. The news spread and eventually reached his mother, who chained him in his own house with the intention of making him recant. Musab stood firm in his new faith and on the advice of Muhammad, migrated to Abyssinia along with other companions of Muhammad to avoid persecution at the hands of the Quraish.
First Ambassador of Islam 
Mus‘ab ibn Umair was appointed the first ambassador of Islam and sent to Yathrib (Medina). His assignment was to prepare Yathrib for the day of Hijra. For his tactics, character and intellect, he was chosen for this task above all the other companions, who were older and more experienced and had greater prestige than him. Musab went to Madina and performed his task with great zeal along with Sad ibn Zurarah, an Ansar (Helper). It was due to the great qualities of Musab and the truth of the teachings that not only the common people of Medina but also the chieftains, such as Sad ibn Muadh, Usayd ibn Khudayr, and Sad ibn Ubadah, accepted Islam. It was because of Musab ibn Umayr, "the first ambassador of Islam", that at the Hijra, Medina was prepared with more than ten thousand Muslims called as Ansars, "helpers".
Death in the Battle of Uhud 
In the Battle of Uhud in 625 CE, some Muslims fled and left their positions on the battlefield, giving the opposing forces an advantage. Their main objective was to get to Muhammad. Musab ibn Umayr had been assigned by Muhammad to carry the Muslim standard. On realising the great danger, he raised the standard in one hand and shouted the takbir (Allah is the greatest), with the intention of drawing the attention of the opposing forces towards him and enabling Muhammad to escape their attack; also he resembled Muhammad in build and complexion. He fought against the enemy with extraordinary courage. First his right hand was severed but he continued to repeat the Quranic words, "Muhammad is only a Messenger of God. Messengers have passed away before him." At last, defending Muhammad, Musab was hit with a spear by Ibn Kami'ah, and fell and died a martyr‘s death.
After the battle was over, many companions of Muhammad had been killed in battle, among them Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, the uncle of Muhammad, but it was when Mus‘ab ibn Umair‘s body was brought that tears flowed from everyone remembering his early days of style and elegance. Khabbab ibn al-Aratt narrated:
We migrated in the company of Allah's Apostle, seeking Allah's Pleasure. So our reward became due and sure with Allah. Some of us have been dead without enjoying anything of their rewards (here), and one of them was Mus'ab bin 'Umar who was martyred on the day of the battle of Uhud, and did not leave anything except a Namira (i.e. a sheet in which he was shrouded). If we covered his head with it, his feet became naked, and if we covered his feet with it, his head became naked. So the Prophet said to us, "Cover his head with it and put some Idhkhir (i.e. a kind of grass) over his feet or throw Idhkhir over his feet." But some amongst us have got the fruits of their labor ripened, and they are collecting them.
Muhammad stood beside Musab's body with great emotion and recited the verse of the Quran: "Among the believers are men who have been true to what they have pledged to God." On seeing the battlefield on which lay the dead companions of Musab, Muhammad said: "the Messenger of God testifies that you are martyrs in the sight of God". When Hammanah bint Jahsh, the wife of Musab ibn Umair, heard from Muhammad about the death of her brother and maternal uncle, she replied, "to Allah we belong and to him we will verily return. I ask Allah‘s forgiveness". But when she heard about the death of her husband Musab, she shouted and cried.
See also 
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- UNESCO (2012). Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: Vol.3: The Spread of Islam Throughout the World Volume 3 of Different aspects of Islamic culture. UNESCO, 2012. p. 51-. ISBN 9789231041532. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Jean-Pierre Filiu, M. B. DeBevoise (2011). Apocalypse in Islam University of California Press. University of California Press, 2011. p. 186-. ISBN 9780520264311. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009). The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 2) 2nd Edition. MSA Publication Limited, 2009. p. 69-. ISBN 9781861796448. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Scott C. Lucas (2004). Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam: The Legacy of the Generation of Ibn Sad, Ibn Maīn, and Ibn Ḥanbal. BRILL, 2004. p. 269-. ISBN 9789004133198. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Rafi Ahmad Fidai, N.M. Shaikh (2002). Companion of the Holy Prophet, the. Adam Publishers, 2002. p. 40,47-. ISBN 9788174352231. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Scott C. Lucas (2004). Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam: The Legacy of the Generation of Ibn Sad, Ibn Maīn, and Ibn Ḥanbal. BRILL, 2004. p. 269-. ISBN 9789004133198. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Dr Ali Muhammad As Sallaabee (2005). The Noble Life of the Prophet (Vol1-3) Volume 1 of The Noble Life of the Prophet. Darussalam, 2005. p. 175-. ISBN 9789960967875. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Biography of Musab ibn Umair" (pdf). techislam.com. Retrieved 23-08-2012.
- Ariel Merari (2010). Driven to Death: Psychological and Social Aspects of Suicide Terrorism. Oxford University Press, 2010. p. 96-. ISBN 9780195181029. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Safi ur Rahman Al Mubarakpuri (2002). Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtūm. Darussalam, 2002. p. 187,338-. ISBN 9789960899558. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Islamic Book Trust (1994). The Life of Muḥammad. The Other Press, 1994. p. 186-. ISBN 9789839154177. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Ali Unal (2007). The Qur'an with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English. Tughra Books, 2007. p. 160-. ISBN 9781597840002. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Quran 3:144
- David Cook (2007). Martyrdom in Islam Volume 4 of Themes in Islamic History. Cambridge University Press, 2007. p. 24-. ISBN 9780521615518. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:378
- Translated: Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan (1994). Summarized Sahih Al Bukhari (Large). Darussalam, 1994. p. 323-. ISBN 9789960732206. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Quran 33:23