Musca vetustissima

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Musca vetustissima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Muscidae
Genus: Musca
Species: M. vetustissima
Binomial name
Musca vetustissima
Walker, 1849

Musca vetustissima — commonly known as the Australian bush fly — is a species of fly found in Australia.[1] It is the specific fly that has given rise to the expression "Aussie salute".[2]

Description[edit]

The bush fly is a dung fly that is closely related to the bazaar fly (M. sorbens). The adults are attracted to large mammals for fluid for nourishment and feces for oviposition.[3] A study showed that there is a low survival rate for eggs and larvae in cattle feces because of infrequent rainfall. The study also showed that parasites and predators have caused a low survival rate.[4] According to a study, the fly can spread harmful bacteria. The fly can spread the pathogens Salmonella and Shigella. Most of the bacterial populations per fly occurred in a farm environment while an urban environment was the lowest.[5] A standard composition that contains small amounts of trimethylamine and indole, blended with large amounts of ammonium sulfate and anchovy meal attracts the fly.[6] A wind-oriented trap has been used to catch this species.[7] The number of ovariole in females probably have to do with how big they are. If females do not obtain enough dietary protein, the maturation of their eggs will stop.[8] The fly likes to crawl on human faces as well as on the faces of livestock.[9]

Life Cycle[edit]

The fly breeds in large numbers in dung pads.[10] Larvae has been found in the feces of large mammals. The species continually breeds in subtropical Australia and migrations help repopulate Australia and Tasmania each spring.[3] In a study, a mixture of levamisole and oxfendazole killed larvae in sheep feces.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Musca vetustissima, the Australian bush fly". Retrieved 4 April 2009. 
  2. ^ Roger D. Moon (2009). "Muscid flies (Muscidae)". In Gary R. Mullen, Gary Mullen & Lance Durden. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 268–288. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4. 
  3. ^ a b Richard Mullen, Gary; Mullen, Gary; Durden, Lance (2009). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4. 
  4. ^ Matthiessen, J. N. (1985). "Breeding of the bush fly, Musca vetustissima Walker, in an over-wintering area during winter and spring". Austral Ecology 10 (2): 101–104. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1985.tb00870.x. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  5. ^ Vriesekoop, Frank; Shaw, Rachel (7 March 2010). "The Australian bush fly (Musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries". Foodborne Pathog Dis 7 (3): 275–9. doi:10.1089/fpd.2009.0366. PMID 19895260. 
  6. ^ Mulla, Mir S.; Ridsdill-Smith, James T. (21 June 1985). "Chemical attractants tested against the Australian bush flyMusca vetustissima (Diptera: Muscidae)". Journal of Chemical Ecology 12 (1): 261–270. doi:10.1007/BF01045609. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  7. ^ Zealand, The Royal Society of New (March 1958). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research Mar 1958. The Royal Society of New Zealand. p. 316. 
  8. ^ Vogt, W. G.; Walker, J. M. (July 1987). "Potential and realised fecundity in the bush fly, Musca vetustissima under favourable and unfavourable protein-feeding regimes". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 44 (2): 115–122. doi:10.1007/BF00367618. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  9. ^ D. Bowman, Dwight; Georgi, Jay R (2008). Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-4160-4412-3. 
  10. ^ DeBach, Paul; Rosen, David (1991). Biological control by natural enemies. CUP Archive. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-521-39191-7. 
  11. ^ Wardhaugh, KG; Mahon, RJ; Axelsen, A; Rowland, MW; Wanjura, W (June 1993). "Effects of ivermectin residues in sheep dung on the development and survival of the bushfly, Musca vetustissima Walker and a scarabaeine dung beetle, Euoniticellus fulvus Goeze". Veterinary parasitology 48 (1–4): 139–57. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(93)90151-C. PMID 8346628.