Mushir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Military ranks of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman
ranks
Western
equivalents
Officers
Müşir
مشير
Field marshal
Birinci Ferik
(Serdar)
فريق أول
General
Ferik
فريق
Lieutenant general
Mirliva
لواء
Major general
Miralay
أمير آلاي
Senior colonel (Brigadier)
Kaymakam
قائم مقام
Colonel
Binbaşı
بكباشي
Lieutenant colonel
Kolağası
(Sağ Kolağası / Sol Kolağası)
صاغ
Senior captain (Major)
Yüzbaşı
يوزباشي
Captain
Mülâzım-ı Evvel
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mülâzım-ı Sani
ملازم ثاني
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Çavuş
شاويش
Sergeant
Onbaşı
أونباشي
Corporal
Soldiers
Nefer
عسكري
Private
Military ranks of Egypt
Turco-Egyptian
ranks
(until 1958)
Modern
Egyptian ranks
Western armies
equivalents
Officers
Mushir
مشير
General of the army/ field marshal
Sirdar
سردار
Fariq awwal
فريق أول
General
Fariq
فريق
Lieutenant general
Liwa
لواء
Major general
Amiralay
أمير آلاي
Amid
عميد
Senior colonel (Brigadier)
Qaimaqam
قائم مقام
Aqid
عقيد
Colonel
Bimbashi
بكباشي
Muqaddam
مقدم
Lieutenant colonel
Sagh
صاغ
Raid
رائد
Senior captain (Major)
Yuzbashi
يوزباشي
Naqib
نقيب
Captain
Mulazim awwal
ملازم أول
First lieutenant
Mulazim thani
ملازم ثاني
Mulazim
ملازم
Second lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers
Shawish
شاويش
Raqib
رقيب
Sergeant
Ombashi
أونباشي
Arif
عريف
Corporal
Soldiers
Askari
عسكري
Jundi
جندي
Private

Mushir (Arabic: مشير‎) is an Arab word meaning "counsellor" or "advisor". It is related to the word shura, meaning consultation or "taking counsel".

As an official title, it historically indicates a personal advisor to the ruler. In this use it is roughly comparable to the European titles of State Counsellor and counsellor of state.

In a military context, mushir became associated with the idea of the ruler's personal counsellor or advisor on military matters, and as such became the highest rank in Arab countries and the Ottoman Empire. It is used as the highest rank in most armed forces of the Middle East and North Africa, for armies, navies, and air forces. It is therefore equivalent to the ranks of Field Marshal and Admiral of the Fleet.

Iraq[edit]

In Iraq under the rule of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi navy maintained a fleet admiral rank known as Mushir. A Mushir was the most senior of all naval officers and the rank was rarely bestowed. The sleeve insignia was the same as a British Admiral of the Fleet.

The rank of Mushir in Iraq is known as "Muhib" and is used in all official and unofficial addresses. Saddam Hussein as commander-in-chief of the armed forces was an honorary "staff muhib" (مهيب ركن) in the Iraqi army, and the uniform which he typically wore was that of a staff muhib. He was the only muhib in the Iraqi army, for the minister of defence and the chief of staff held the rank of "Fariq awal rukun" (فريق اول ركن), or "staff general". (Hussein never actually served in the Iraqi Army but commanded as ruler of Iraq.) After Saddam Hussein's fall in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the rank of Mushir became obsolete in the new Iraqi military.

Saudi Arabia[edit]

In Saudi Arabia, the rank of Mushir is typically held ceremonially by the Saudi Royal Family, and translated as "First class Field Marshal".

See also[edit]