Shirk (Islam)

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In Islam, shirk (Arabic: شركširk) refers to the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything other than the singular God. Literally, it means the establishment of "partners" placed beside God. It is the vice that is opposed to the virtue of Tawhid (monotheism).[1]

Within Islam, shirk is an unforgivable crime if remained unpardoned before death: God may forgive any sin if one dies in that state except for committing shirk.[1][2]

The word šhirk comes from the Arabic root Š-R-K (ش ر ك), with the general meaning of "to share".[3] In the context of the Quran, the particular sense of "sharing as an equal partner" is usually understood, so that polytheism means "attributing a partner to Allah". In the Qur'an, shirk and the related word mušrikūn (مشركون), — those who commit shirk and plot against Islam — often refer to the enemies of Islam (as in verse 9.1–15).

Qur'an[edit]

Islamic commentators on the Qur'an have emphasized that pre-Islamic Arabic idolatry made a number of godlings (most memorably the three goddesses al-Manāt, al-Lāt and ʻUzzā) equal associates of Allah (as the Qur'an discusses in the 53rd surat) and the word mushrikūn (singular: mushrik) is often translated into English as "polytheists".

Other forms of shirk include the worship of wealth and other material objects. This is pointed out in the Qur'an in one of the stories of the Children of Israel, when they took a calf made of gold for worship,[4] and for which Moses ordered them to repent.

Another form of shirk mentioned in the Qur'an is to take scholars of religion, monks, divines, or religious lawyers as Lord(s) in practice by following their doctrines, and/or by following their rulings on what is lawful when it is at variance to the law or doctrines prescribed by God's revelation.[5][6] Yet another form is to treat a prophet, such as Jesus, as God.

Theological interpretation[edit]

Medieval Muslim (as well as Jewish) philosophers identified belief in the Trinity with the heresy of shirk, in Arabic, (or shituf in Hebrew), meaning "associationism", in limiting the infinity of God by associating his divinity with physical existence.[7]

In a theological context one commits shirk by associating some lesser being with Allah. This sin is committed if one imagines that there is some other spirit than Allah whom it is suitable to worship. Many Islamic theologians[who?] extend the sense of worship to include praying to some other being to intercede with Allah on one's behalf, rather than taking one's case to God Himself. The limits of the concept of worship are quite elastic and theologians often describe excessive veneration of some artifact here on earth as shirk.

Atheism is described as shirk because it denies the position of Allah as the unique creator and sustainer of the universe (tawhid ar-rububiyya, the Unity of Lordship). In the same way, the act of shirk is extended to include such things as the notion that God possesses human-like anthropomorphic qualities as well as acts of worship or piety whose inward goal is pride, caprice, or a desire for public admiration, although public prayer is a core Islamic aspect of faith, encouraged and supported in the Quran.

Greater and lesser shirk[edit]

Shirk is defined in various ways. Some argue that there is only one type of shirk. The Islamic prophet Muhammad has classified shirk into two categories:[1]

  • Greater shirk (Shirk-al-Akbar): open and apparent
  • Lesser shirk (Shirk-al-Asghar): concealed or hidden

Greater shirk[edit]

Greater shirk or Shirke-al-Akbar means open polytheism. Muhammad describes major shirk in two forms:[1]

  • To associate anyone with Allah Taala as His partner (to believe in more than one god).
  • To associate Allah's attributes with someone else. (Attributing, considering, or portraying God's knowledge or might to being those of anyone else)

Other interpretations also derived from the Qur'an and the prophetic tradition (Sunnah) divide shirk into three main categories. Shirk can be committed by acting against the three different categories.

Rubūbīyah (Lordship)[edit]

This category of shirk refers to either the belief that others share God's Lordship over creation as His equal or near equal, or to the belief that there exists no Lord over creation at all.

  • Shirk by association: This is the shirk concerned with associating "others" with Allah.
  • Shirk by negation: This is shirk in Rubūbīyah (Lordship).

al-Asma was-Sifat (names and attributes)[edit]

Shirk in this category includes both the non-believer practices of giving God the attributes of his creation as well as the act of giving created beings God's names and attributes.

  • Shirk by humanization: In this aspect of shirk, God is given the form and qualities of human beings and animals. Due to man's superiority over animals, the human form is more commonly used by idolaters to represent God in creation. Consequently, the image of the Creator is often painted, moulded or carved in the shape of human beings possessing the physical features of those who worship them.
  • Shirk by deification: This form of shirk relates to cases where created beings or things are given or claim God's names or his attributes. For example, it was the practice of the ancient Arabs to worship idols whose names were derived from the names of God. Their main three idols were; al-Lat (taken from God's name al-Elah), al-'Uzza (taken from al-'Aziz), and al-Manat (taken from al-Mannan). During the era of Muhammad there was also a man in a region of Arabia called Yamamah, who claimed to be a prophet and took the name Rahman which, in Islam, belongs only to God.

al-'Ibadah (worship)[edit]

In this category of shirk, acts of worship are directed to others and not to Allah and the reward for worship is sought from the creation instead of the Creator. As in the case of the previous categories, shirk in al-'Ebadah has two main aspects.

This form of shirk occurs when any act of worship is directed to someone else and not to Allah. It represents the most obvious form of idolatry, against which the prophets were specifically sent by God, calling the masses of mankind to give it up. Examples of this shirk are asking for forgiveness, admittance to paradise, etc. that only Allah can provide, from others and not from Allah.

Lesser shirk[edit]

Lesser shirk or Shirke-e-Asghar means hidden polytheism. A person commits hidden polytheism when he says tawhid (there is no god except Allah) but his thoughts and actions do not reflect his belief.[1] Lesser shirk fundamentally stems from an underestimation of God. This intellectual defect leads to pride, arrogance, and self-delusion.[8]

"One who offers the ritual prayers in an ostentatious way is a polytheist. One who keeps the fast, or gives alms, or performs the Hajj to show the public his righteousness or to earn good name is a polytheist."

—Muhammad[1]

Mahmud ibn Lubayd reported, "God's messenger said: 'The thing I fear for you the most is ash-Shirk al-Asghar.'"

The companions asked, "O messenger of God, what is that?"
He replied, "Ar-Riya (showing off), for verily God will say on the Day of Resurrection when people are receiving their rewards, 'Go to those for whom you were showing off in the material world and see if you can find any reward from them.'"

Mahmud ibn Lubayd also said, "The Prophet came out and announced, 'O people, beware of secret Shirk!'"

The people asked, "O messenger of God, what is secret Shirk?"
He replied, "When a man gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer because people are looking at him; that is secret Shirk."

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever swears by other than Allah has committed an act of kufr or shirk." (graded hasan by Al-Tirmidhi and saheeh by Al-Hakim)

Ibn Mas’ood, one of Muhammad’s companions, said: "That I should swear by Allah upon a lie is more preferable to me than that I should swear by another upon the truth."[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Kamoonpuri, S: "Basic Beliefs of Islam" pages 42–58. Tanzania Printers Limited, 2001.
  2. ^ "Qur'an 4:48". 
  3. ^ see e.g. A. A. Nadwi, "Vocabulary of the Qur'an"
  4. ^ "Qur'an 7:148–150". 
  5. ^ "Qur'an 9:31". 
  6. ^ "Yusuf Ali translation of 9:31, footnote 1266". 
  7. ^ Learning from other faiths Hermann Häring, Janet Martin Soskice, Felix Wilfred - 2003 - 141 "Medieval Jewish (as well as Muslim) philosophers identified belief in the Trinity with the heresy of shituf (Hebrew) or shirk (Arabic): 'associationism', or limiting the infinity of God by associating his divinity with creaturely being"
  8. ^ Shah-Kazemi, R: "The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib", A Sacred Conception of Justice: Imam 'Ali's Letter to Malik al-Ashtar pages 75–76.
  9. ^ "Kitab At-Tawheed" by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, chapter 40

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