Music and politics

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The connection between music and politics, particularly political expression in music, has been seen in many cultures. Although music influences political movements and rituals, it is not clear how or even if, general audiences relate to music on a political level.[1] Music can express anti-establishment or protest themes, including anti-war songs, but pro-establishment ideas are also represented, for example in national anthems, patriotic songs, and political campaigns. Many of these types of songs could be described as topical songs.

Political music can be used to portray a specific political message. However, even in the case of overtly political rock groups such as The Clash, or Rage Against the Machine, where the message in their music is apparent, it is often shaped by the political context of the time it was made, making an understanding of the historical era and events that inspired the music essential to fully understanding the message. The existence and nature of that message is also potentially ambiguous as the label "political music" can be applied either to songs that merely observe political subjects, songs which offer a partisan opinion, or songs which go further and advocate for specific political action. Thus a distinction has been made between the use of music as a tool for raising awareness, and music as advocacy.[2]

Furthermore, some forms of music may be deemed political by association with cultural change irrespective of political content, as evidenced by the way Western pop bands such as The Beatles were censored by the State in the Eastern Bloc, while being embraced by younger people as symbolic of social change.[3] This points to the possibilities for discrepancy between the political intentions of musicians (if any), and reception of their music by wider society.

It is difficult to predict how audiences will respond to political music, in terms of aural or even visual cues.[1] For example, Bleich and Zillmann found that "counter to expectations, highly rebellious students did not enjoy defiant rock videos more than did their less rebellious peers, nor did they consume more defiant rock music than did their peers",[1] suggesting there may be little connection between behaviour and musical taste. Pedelty and Keefe argue that "It is not clear to what extent the political messages in and around music motivate fans, become a catalyst for discussion, [or] function aesthetically".

However, in contrast they cite research that concludes, based on interpretive readings of lyrics and performances with a strong emphasis on historical contexts and links to social groups, that "given the right historical circumstances, cultural conditions, and aesthetic qualities, popular music can help bring people together to form effective political communities".[1]

Folk music[edit]

The song "We Shall Overcome" is perhaps the best-known example of political folk music, in this case a rallying-cry for the Civil Rights Movement. Pete Seeger was involved in the popularization of the song, as was Joan Baez.[4] During the early part of 20th century, poor working conditions and class struggle lead to the growth of the Labour movement and numerous songs advocating social and political reform. The most famous songwriter of the early 20th century "Wobblies" was Joe Hill. From the 1940s through the 1960s, groups like the Almanac Singers and The Weavers were influential in this type of socio-political music. Woody Guthrie's "This Land Is Your Land" is one of the most famous American folk songs and the lyrics exemplify Guthrie's socialistic patriotism.[5] Pete Seeger's "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?", was a popular anti-war protest song.[6] Many of these types of songs became popular during the Vietnam War era. Blowin' in the Wind, by Bob Dylan, was a hit for Peter, Paul and Mary, and suggested that a younger generation was becoming more aware of global problems than many of the older generation.[7] In 1964, Joan Baez had a top-ten hit in the UK [8] with "There but for Fortune" (by Phil Ochs); it was a plea for the innocent victim of prejudice or inhumane policies.[9] Many topical songwriters with social and political messages emerged from the folk music revival of the 1960s, including Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs,[10] Tom Paxton, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Judy Collins, Arlo Guthrie, and others.

The folk revival can be considered as a political re-invention of traditional song, a development encouraged by Left-leaning folk record labels and magazines such as Sing Out! and Broadside. The revival began in the 1930s after the Great Depression as a response to the new wave of modernization that triggered the post-industrial era,[11] and continued after World War II. Folk songs of this time gained popularity by using old hymns and songs but adapting the lyrics to fit the current social and political conditions.[12] Archivists and artists such as Alan Lomax, Lead Belly and Woody Guthrie were crucial in popularizing folk music, and the latter began to be known as the Lomax singers.[13] This began an era of folk music in which artists and their songs expressed clear political messages with the intention of swaying public opinion and recruiting support.[14]

During the revival, folk music became popular mostly with college students since universities provided the organization necessary for sustaining music trends and an impressionable audience looking to rebel against the older generation.[15] It was at this time that folk artists, such as Bob Dylan, began writing their own songs to fit current times, as opposed to only adapting traditional songs.[16] Nevertheless, the rhetoric of the United States government during the Cold War era was very powerful and in some ways overpowered the message of folk artists, such as in regard to public opinion about Communism. Various Gallup Polls that were conducted during this time suggest that Americans consistently saw Communism as a threat. For example, a 1954 poll shows that at the time 51% of Americans said that admitted Communists should be arrested, and in relation to music 64% of respondents said that if a radio singer is an admitted Communist he should be fired.[17] As McCarthyism began to dominate the United States population and government, it was more difficult for folk artists to travel and perform since folk was pushed out of mainstream music.[18] In general, the significance of lyrics within folk music reduced as it became influenced by rock and roll.[19]

Black folk music[edit]

Blues songs tend to be resigned to fate rather than fighting against misfortune, but there are a few exceptions. Bessie Smith recorded protest song "Poor Man Blues" in 1928. Josh White recorded "When Am I Going to be Called a Man" in 1936 - at this time it was common for white men to address black men as "boy" - before releasing two albums of explicitly political material, 1940's Chain Gang and 1941's Southern Exposure - An Album of Jim Crow Blues.[20] Lead Belly's "Bourgeois Blues" and Big Bill Broonzy's "Black, Brown and White" (aka "Get Back") protested racism. Billie Holiday recorded (as did Josh White) and popularised the song "Strange Fruit" in 1939. Written by Communist Lewis Allan, it addressed Southern racism, specifically the lynching of African-Americans, and was performed as a protest song in New York venues, including Madison Square Gardens.

Paul Robeson, singer, actor, athlete, and civil rights activist, was investigated by the FBI and was called before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) for his outspoken political views. The State Department denied Robeson a passport and issued a "stop notice" at all ports, effectively confining him to the United States. In a symbolic act of defiance against the travel ban, labour unions in the U.S. and Canada organised a concert at the International Peace Arch on the border between Washington state and the Canadian province of British Columbia on May 18, 1952.[21] Paul Robeson stood on the back of a flat bed truck on the U.S. side of the border and performed a concert for a crowd on the Canadian side, variously estimated at between 20,000 and 40,000 people. Robeson returned to perform a second concert at the Peace Arch in 1953,[22] and over the next two years two further concerts were scheduled.

Folk music outside of the USA[edit]

Folk music had an impact outside the United States during this time as well. Hungary, for instance, experimented with a form of liberal Communism in the late Cold War era, which was reflected in much of their folk music.[23] During the late twentieth century folk music was crucial in Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia as it allowed ethnicities to express their national identity in a time of political uncertainty and chaos.[24]

In Communist China, exclusively national music is promoted. A flautist named Zhao Songtime, a member of the Zhejiang Song-and-Dance Troupe, attended an Arts festival in 1957 in Mexico; he was punished for his international outlook by being expelled from the Troupe, and from 1966 to 1970 underwent "re-education". In 1973 he returned to the Troupe but was expelled again following accusations.[25]

Edward Lansdale was a CIA chief dedicated to counter-insurgency in emerging nations, specifically in the Philippines and Vietnam. He believed that the government’s best weapon against Communist rebellion was the support and trust of the population. In 1965, intrigued by the use of folklore traditions and customs as a technique of raising consciousness (his interest dating back to his days in the Office of Strategic Services during World War II), he started to record folk songs on the subjects of prominent political figures, and war, while on his military tours. Performers included Pham Duty as well as other Vietnamese guests, students, military men, and bureaucrats. Lansdale also curated other tapes collected from civilians and soldiers.[26]

Contemporary folk music[edit]

Folk protest traditions are carried on today by many old and new topical songwriters and musicians of all types and varieties. Today's socially-conscious musicians not only sing at rallies, demonstrations and on picket lines, but typically have professional websites and post videos online. Examples of such activist musicians include Ray Korona (environmental, labor, peace, social justice), Charlie King (labor, social justice) and Anne Feeney (labor, protest), among many others. Although these musicians each have their own followings and performance circuits, good sources for finding many of them include the Peoples Music Network for Songs of Freedom and Struggle and the Labor Heritage Foundation.

Rock music[edit]

Many rock artists, as varied as Roger Waters,[27] Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young,[28] Bruce Springsteen,[29] Little Steven,[30] Rage Against the Machine,[31] Manic Street Preachers,[32] Megadeth,[33] Enter Shikari,[34] and System of a Down[35] have had openly political messages in their music. The use of political lyrics and the taking of political stances by rock musicians can be traced back to the 1960s counterculture,[36] specifically the influence of the early career of Bob Dylan,[7] itself shaped by the politicised folk revival.

1960s-70s Counterculture[edit]

During the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture era, musicians such as John Lennon commonly expressed protest themes in their music,[37] for example on the Plastic Ono Band's 1969 single "Give Peace a Chance". Lennon later devoted an entire album to politics and wrote the song Imagine, widely considered to be a peace anthem. Its lyrics invoke a world without religion, national borders or private property.

In 1962-63, Bob Dylan sang about the evils of war, racism and poverty on his trademark political albums "The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan" and "The Times They are A-Changin" (released in 1964), popularising the cause of the civil rights movement. Dylan was influenced by the folk revival, as well as by the Beat writers, and the political beliefs of the young generation of the era.[7] In turn, while Dylan's political phase comes under the 'folk' category, he was known as a rock artist from 1965 and remained associated with an anti-establishment stance that influenced other musicians - such as the British Invasion bands - and the rock music audience, by broadening the spectrum of subjects that could be addressed in popular song.[36]

The MC5 (Motor City 5) came out of the Detroit, Michigan underground scene of the late 1960s,[38] and displayed an aggressive evolution of garage rock which was often fused with socio-political and countercultural lyrics, such as in the songs "Motor City Is Burning", (a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot (1943) to the 1967 12th Street Detroit Riot), and "American Ruse" (which discusses U.S. police brutality as well as pollution, prison, materialism and rebellion). They had ties to radical leftist groups such as Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers and John Sinclair's White Panther Party. MC5 was the only band to perform a set before the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, as part of the Yippies' Festival of Life where an infamous riot subsequently broke out between police and students protesting the recent assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Vietnam War.

Other rock groups that conveyed specific political messages in the 1960s - often in regard to the Vietnam War - include The Fugs, Country Joe and the Fish, Jefferson Airplane and Creedence Clearwater Revival, while some bands, such as The Beatles and Rolling Stones referenced political issues in a more observational than engaged way, e.g. in songs like Revolution, Street Fighting Man and Salt of the Earth.

Punk rock[edit]

Main article: Punk ideologies

Notable punk rock bands, such as The Clash, Discharge, MDC, Aus-Rotten, Green Day, Anti-Flag, and Leftover Crack have used political and sometimes controversial lyrics that attack the establishment, sexism, capitalism, racism, colonialism, and other phenomena they see as sources of social problems.

Since the late 1970s, punk rock has been associated with various left-wing or anti-establishment ideologies,[39][40][41] including anarchism and socialism. Punk's DIY culture held an attraction for some on the Left, suggesting affinity with the ideals of workers' control, and empowerment of the powerless[42] (though some Leftists may see the DIY ethic as just another form of private enterprise)[citation needed] - and the genre as a whole came, largely through the Sex Pistols, to be associated with anarchism. The sincerity of the early punk bands has been questioned - many saw their referencing of anarchism, etc, as a provocative pose more than an ideology[citation needed] - but bands such as Crass[43] and Dead Kennedys later emerged who held strong anarchist views, and over time this association strengthened, as they went on to influence other bands in the UK anarcho-punk and US hardcore sub-genres, respectively.

The Sex Pistols song "God Save the Queen" was banned from broadcast by the BBC[44] in 1977 due to its presumed anti-Royalism, partly due to its apparent equation of the monarchy with a "fascist regime". The following year, the release of debut Crass album The Feeding Of the 5000 was initially obstructed when pressing plant workers refused to produce it due to sacrilegious lyrical content.[45] Crass later faced court charges of obscenity related to their Penis Envy album, as the Dead Kennedys later did over their Frankenchrist album artwork.[46]

The Clash are regarded as pioneers of political punk, and were seen to represent a progressive, socialistic worldview compared to the apparently anti-social or nihilistic attack of many early punk bands.[47][48] Partly inspired by 60s protest music such as the MC5, their stance influenced other first and second wave punk/new wave bands such as The Jam, The Ruts, Stiff Little Fingers, Angelic Upstarts and TRB, and inspired a lyrical focus on subjects such as racial tension, unemployment, class resentment, urban alienation and police violence, as well as imperialism. Partially credited with aligning punk and reggae,[49][50] The Clash's anti-racism helped to cement punk's anti-fascist politics, and they famously headlined a joint Rock Against Racism (RAR)/Anti Nazi League (ANL) carnival in Hackney, London, in April 1978.[51][52][53] The RAR/ANL campaign is credited with helping to destroy the UK National Front as a credible political force, aided by the support received from punk and reggae bands.

Many punk musicians, such as Bad Religion, Tim McIlrath (Rise Against), Fat Mike (NOFX), Dropkick Murphys and Crashdog, have held and expressed left-wing views. Dead Kennedys singer Jello Biafra, as well as T.S.O.L. frontman Jack Grisham, have run as candidates for public office under left-wing platforms. However, some punk bands have expressed more populist and conservative opinions, and an ambiguous form of patriotism, beginning in the U.S with many of the groups associated with 1980s New York hardcore,[54] and prior to that in the U.K. with a small section of the Oi! movement.[55][56]

An extremely small minority of punk rock bands, exemplified by (1980s-era) Skrewdriver and Skullhead, have held far-right and anti-communist stances, and were consequently reviled in the broader, largely Leftist punk subculture.

Rock the Vote[edit]

Rock the Vote is an American 501(c)(3) non-profit, non-partisan organization founded in Los Angeles in 1990 by Jeff Ayeroff for the purposes of political advocacy. Rock the Vote works to engage youth in the political process by incorporating the entertainment community and youth culture into its activities.[57] Rock the Vote's stated mission is to "build the political clout and engagement of young people in order to achieve progressive change in our country."[58]

Racist music[edit]

Not to be confused with Race music. ‹See Tfd›

Racist music or white power music is music associated with and promoting neo-Nazism and white supremacy ideologies.[59] Although musicologists point out that many, if not most early cultures had songs to promote themselves and denigrate any perceived enemies, the origins of Racist music is traced to the 1970s. By 2001 there were many music genres with 'white power rock' the most commonly represented band type, followed by National Socialist black metal.[60] 'Racist country music' is mainly an American phenomena while Germany, Great Britain, and Sweden have higher concentration of white power bands.[60] Other music genres include 'fascist experimental music' and 'racist folk music'.[60] Contemporary white-supremacist groups include "subcultural factions that are largely organized around the promotion and distribution of racist music."[61] According to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission "racist music is principally derived from the far-right skinhead movement and, through the internet, this music has become perhaps the most important tool of the international neo-Nazi movement to gain revenue and new recruits."[62][63] The news documentary VH1 News Special: Inside Hate Rock (2002) noted that Racist music (also called 'Hate music' and 'Skinhead rock') is "a breeding ground for home-grown terrorists."[64] In 2004 a neo-Nazi record company launched "Project Schoolyard" to distribute free CDs of the music into the hands of up to 100,000 teenagers throughout the U.S., their website stated, "We just don't entertain racist kids … We create them."[65] Brian Houghton, of the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, said that Racist music was a great recruiting tool, "Through music ... to grab these kids, teach them to be racists and hook them for life."[66]

Country music[edit]

American country music contains numerous images of "traditional" life, family life, religious life, as well as patriotic themes. Songs such as Merle Haggard's "The Fightin' Side of Me", and "Okie from Muskogee" have been perceived as patriotic songs which contain an "us versus them" mentality directed at the counterculture "hippies" and the anti-war crowd, though these were actually misconceptions by listeners who failed to understand their satirical nature.[67]

Classical music[edit]

Beethoven's third symphony was originally called "Bonaparte". In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor, whereupon Beethoven rescinded the dedication. The symphony was renamed "Heroic Symphony composed to Celebrate the Memory of a Great Man".[citation needed]

Verdi's chorus of Hebrew slaves in the opera Nabucco is a kind of rallying-cry for Italians to throw off the yoke of Austrian domination (in the north) and French domination (near Rome)—the "Risorgimento". Following unification, Verdi was awarded a seat in the national parliament.[citation needed]

Richard Taruskin of the University of California accused John Adams of "romanticizing terrorists" in his opera The Death of Klinghoffer (1991)[68]

In the Soviet Union[edit]

RAPM (The Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians) was formed in the early 1920s. In 1929 Stalin gave them his backing. Shostakovich had dedicated his first symphony to Mikhail Kvardi. In 1929 Kvardi was arrested and executed. In an article in The Worker and the Theatre, Shostakovich's The Tahitit Trot (from the ballet The Golden Age) was criticised; Ivan Yershov claimed it was part of "ideology harmful to the proletariat"". Shostakovich's response was to write his third symphony, The First of May (1929) to express "the festive mood of peaceful construction".[69][70]

Prokofiev wrote music to order for the Soviet Union, including Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution (1937). Khachaturian's ballet Spartacus (1954/6) concerns gladiator slaves who rebel against their former Roman masters. It was seen as a metaphor for the overthrow of the Czar.[citation needed] Similarly Prokofiev's music for the film Alexander Nevsky concerns the invasion of Teutonic knights into the Baltic States. It was seen as a metaphor for the Nazi invasion of the USSR.[citation needed] In general Soviet music was neo-romantic while Fascist music was neo-classical.[citation needed]

Music in Nazi Germany[edit]

Stravinsky stated in 1930, "I don't believe anyone venerates Mussolini more than I";[71] however by 1943 Stravinsky was banned in Nazi Germany because he had chosen to live in the USA. Beginning in 1940, Carl Orff's cantata Carmina Burana was performed at Nazi Party functions, and acquired the status of a quasi-official anthem.[72] In 1933 Berlin Radio issued a formal ban on the broadcasting of jazz. However, it was still possible to hear swing music played by German bands. This was because of the moderating influence of Goebbels, who knew the value of entertaining the troops. In the period 1933-45 the music of Gustav Mahler, a Jewish Austrian, virtually disappeared from the concert performances of the Berlin Philharmonic.[73] Richard Strauss's opera Die Schweigsame Frau was banned from 1935–1945 because the librettist, Stefan Zweig, was a Jew.[74]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d alio, nur. "Political Pop, Political Fans?". Music & Politics. 
  2. ^ http://livingearth.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/CASE-STUDY-OF-MUSIC-AS-A-TOOL-FOR-ADVOCACY-AND-AWARENESS-RAISING.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.neweasterneurope.eu/columns-blogs/new-voices/855-back-in-the-ussr
  4. ^ Adams, Noah (15 January 1999). "The History of 'We Shall Overcome'". Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  5. ^ Hajdu, David (29 March 2004). "Review: Folk Hero". The New Yorker. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  6. ^ PBS. "The Power of Song". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c http://www.dissentmagazine.org/online_articles/the-political-bob-dylan
  8. ^ "Favorites in the UK 1965". Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  9. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "There But for Fortune". Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  10. ^ http://www.furious.com/perfect/philochs2.html
  11. ^ Eyerman and Barretta, Ron and Scott. "From the 30s to the 60s: The folk music revival in the United States". Springer. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  12. ^ 30s to 60s folk music revival 1996, p. 508
  13. ^ Reuss and Reuss, Richard and Joanne. American Folk Music and Left Wing Politics. 
  14. ^ 30s to 60s folk music revival 1996, p. 502
  15. ^ 30s to 60s folk music revival 1996, p. 522
  16. ^ 30s to 60s folk music revival 1996, p. 528
  17. ^ White, John. "Seeing Red: The Cold War and American Public Opinion". Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  18. ^ 30s to 60s folk music revival 1996 p. 520
  19. ^ James, David (1989). "The Vietnam War and American Music". Social Text: 122–143. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  20. ^ http://www.elijahwald.com/joshprotest.html
  21. ^ Duberman, p. 400
  22. ^ Duberman p. 411
  23. ^ Bohlman, Philip (2002). World Music: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. 
  24. ^ World Music 2002, p. 65
  25. ^ Folk Music of China (1995) by Stephen Jones, page 55
  26. ^ Fish, Lydia (1989). "General Edward G. Lansdale and the Folksongs of Americans in the Vietnam War". American Folklore 102: 390–411. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  27. ^ http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/12/06/an-interview-with-pink-floyds-roger-waters/
  28. ^ http://rockhall.com/blog/post/crosby-stills-nash-young-ohio-kent-state-shooting/
  29. ^ http://www.redpepper.org.uk/bring-on-your-wrecking-ball/
  30. ^ http://ultimateclassicrock.com/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-steve-van-zandt/
  31. ^ http://www.tonedeaf.com.au/233089/ratm.htm#1
  32. ^ http://www.newleftproject.org/index.php/site/blog_comments/rebel_music_5_manic_street_preachers
  33. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/album/peace-sellsbut-whos-buying-mw0000650486
  34. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/music/2012/jan/17/enter-shikari-review
  35. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/08/29/system-of-a-down-serj-tankian-mitt-romney_n_1840731.html
  36. ^ a b http://www.furious.com/perfect/marcus.html
  37. ^ http://www.popmatters.com/feature/133778-revolutionary-man-john-lennon-as-political-artist/
  38. ^ http://www.furious.com/perfect/MC5/benedmonds.html
  39. ^ http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/612/what-riot-punk-rock-politics-fascism-and-rock-against-racism
  40. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/music/2012/jun/01/no-future-punk-youth-rebellion
  41. ^ http://www.marxists.org/history/erol/periodicals/theoretical-review/19801802.htm
  42. ^ http://www.uncarved.org/music/apunk/autonomia.html
  43. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/crass-mn0000129637/biography
  44. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/sex-pistols-mn0000418740/biography
  45. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/a-history-of-music-censorship-9051887.html
  46. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/dead-kennedys-mn0000786613/biography
  47. ^ http://monthlyreview.org/2003/06/01/let-fury-have-the-hour-the-passionate-politics-of-joe-strummer
  48. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/artist/the-clash-mn0000075747/biography
  49. ^ http://niceup.com/writers/carter/two_sevens_clashed
  50. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/music/2007/jul/20/urban.popandrock
  51. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/music/2011/jun/14/punk-rock-against-racism
  52. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/music/2008/apr/20/popandrock.race
  53. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/rock-against-racism-remembering-that-gig-that-started-it-all-815054.html
  54. ^ http://reason.com/blog/2009/12/08/the-politics-of-hardcore-punk
  55. ^ http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/03/20/tcbh.hwt001.full
  56. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080731120915/http://www.garry-bushell.co.uk/oi/index.asp
  57. ^ "Rock the Vote - About Rock the Vote"
  58. ^ "AT&T and Rock the Vote Team Up to Engage Young Voters via Mobile Technology Throughout 2008 Election" December 19, 2007 press release
  59. ^ Intelligence Report: a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Issues 133-136; Southern Poverty Law Center, Klanwatch Project, Southern Poverty Law Center. Militia Task Force, Publisher Klanwatch, 2009.
  60. ^ a b c Dominic J. Pulera, Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America, pages 309-311.
  61. ^ Barbara Perry, Hate Crimes, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-99569-0, ISBN 978-0-275-99569-0, 2009, pages 51-2.
  62. ^ "Racist Music: Publication, Merchandising and Recruitment", Cyber racism, Race Discrimination Unit, HREOC, October 2002.
  63. ^ Anne Rooney, Race Hate, Evans Brothers, 2006, ISBN 0-237-52717-0, ISBN 978-0-237-52717-4, page 29.
  64. ^ David Bianculli, Vh1 Special Goes Behind The (racist) Music, New York Daily News, February 18, 2002.
  65. ^ Abraham Foxman, "Hate Music: New Recruitment Tool for White Supremacists", Worldpress.org, December 17, 2004.
  66. ^ "Record Label Targets Teens With Hate Message: Sampler CD Of White Power Music Circulating In Numerous U.S. Schools", Ohio/Oklahoma Hearst Television Inc. on behalf of KOCO-TV, December 1, 2004.
  67. ^ Malone, Bill, "Country Music U.S.A," 2nd rev. ed. (University of Texas Press, Austin, 2002), p.371.
  68. ^ article in the December 9, 2001, New York Times Arts and Leisure section
  69. ^ Shostakovich and Stalin by Solomon Volkov (2004)
  70. ^ Shostakovich Studies (1995) edited by David Fanning
  71. ^ Sachs, Harvey (1988). Music in fascist Italy. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-02563-2. 
  72. ^ The Oxford History of Western Music, vol 4 (2005) by Richard Taruskin
  73. ^ Levi, Erik (1996). Music in the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12948-3. 
  74. ^ Kater, Michael (1999), The Twisted Muse, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513242-4 

Further reading[edit]

  • Brown, Courtney (2008), Politics In Music: Music and Political Transformation from Beethoven to Hip Hop, Atlanta: Farsight Press, ISBN 978-0-9766762-3-2 
  • Fanning, David (2006). Shostakovich studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-02831-0. 
  • Karakayali, Nedim (September 5, 2010). "Two Assemblages of Cultural Transmission: Musicians, Political Actors and Educational Techniques in the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe". Journal of Historical Sociology 23 (3): 343–371. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.2010.01377.x. 
  • Keller, Marcello Sorce (April 2007). "Why is Music So Ideological, and Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously? A Personal View from History and the Social Sciences". Journal of Musicological Research 26 (2-3): 91–122. doi:10.1080/01411890701361086. 
  • Jameux, Dominique (1991). Pierre Boulez. Cambridge, Massachusetts|: Harvard University Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-674-66740-9.  translated by Susan Bradshaw.
  • Moldenhauer, Hans; Rosaleen Moldenhauer (1978). Anton von Webern: A Chronicle of His Life and Work. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 
  • Pace, Ian (Fall 2006 – Spring 2007), ""The Best Form of Government...": Cage's Laissez-Faire Anarchism and Capitalism", Open Space Magazine (8/9): 91–115 
  • Schönberg, Arnold (1975). Leonard Stein, ed. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg. London: Faber & Faber. pp. 505–506.  translated Leo Black
  • Seeger, Pete (1985). Carry It On!: A History in Song and Picture of the Working Men and Women of America. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-60347-7. 
  • Strom, Yale (2002). The Book of Klezmer: the History, the Music, the Folklore. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-445-5. 
  • Volkov, Solomon (2004). Shostakovich and Stalin: The Extraordinary Relationship Between the Great Composer and the Brutal Dictator. New York: H. Holt. ISBN 0-375-41082-1. 
  • Walsh, Stephen (1999), Stravinsky: a Creative Spring: Russia and France, 1882-1934, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0-520-22749-2 
  • Whiteley, Sheila (2012). Countercultures: Music, Theories & Scenes. Volume!, n°9-1, Nantes, Éditions Mélanie Seteun. 
  • Whiteley, Sheila (2012). Countercultures: Utopias, Dystopias, Anarchy. Volume!, n°9-1�2, Nantes, Éditions Mélanie Seteun. 

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