Music of Catalonia
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (August 2012)|
|The Catalan / Valencian cultural domain|
The music of Catalonia comprises one of the oldest documented musical traditions in Europe, and has displayed a rich musical culture continuously for at least two thousand years.
In the Middle Ages, Barcelona and the surrounding area were relatively prosperous, and both music and arts were cultivated actively. Catalonia and adjacent areas were the home for some troubadours, the itinerant composer-musicians whose influence and aesthetics was decisive on the formation of late medieval secular music, and who travelled into Italy and Northern France after the destruction of Occitanian culture by the Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century. The so-called Llibre Vermell de Montserrat (red book of Montserrat) stands as an important source for 14th century music.
Renaissance polyphony flourished in Catalunya, though local composers never attained the fame of either the Spanish composers to the South and West or the French composers to the North. Joan Pau Pujol wrote four books of polyphonic masses and motets for the patron saint of Barcelona, St. George.
Performances of opera, mostly imported from Italy, began in the 18th century, but some native operas were written as well, including three by Isaac Albéniz and seven by Enrique Granados. The Barcelona opera house, Gran Teatre del Liceu, which opened in 1847, remains one of the most important in Spain; in addition, in the mid-19th century the first Barcelona Philharmonic Society was founded for the performance of orchestral music. Several symphonic orchestras exist in Catalunya today, including the Barcelona Orchestra.
Around the beginning of the 20th century, two Catalan composers--Enrique Granados and Isaac Albéniz—became the most famous composers in Spain. Francisco Tárrega and Miguel Llobet expanded the technical possibilities of guitar. Their music remains in the standard classical repertory today. Cellist Pablo Casals (known in Catalonia by his Catalan name, Pau Casals) is admired as an outstanding player. Federico Mompou (1893–1987) is known for his delicate piano works, which often have a Catalan flavor. He spent most of his life in Paris, returning to his native Barcelona only during and after World War II.
A tradition of Catalan lieder also developed, following Spanish art songs. These have been performed and promoted by Catalan artists, including a Catalan folksongs album by Los Angeles (1991), and an album of more classical songs by José Carreras (1991).
Folk and popular music
Originally from the Northern areas, Sardanes are popular dances, were especially widespread at the end of the 19th century. Currently, two main types, the original sardana curta (short sardana) style and more modern sardana llarga (long sardana), are very popular. Sardanas are danced in a circle dance. Other more strange sardanes are sardana de lluïment and sardana revessa.
The sardana's music (música de cobla, in Catalan) is played by an 11-piece band called a cobla, that includes genuine folk instruments such as the flabiol (tabor pipe) and tambori, tenora, tible which are also used in other regions of Spain. Coblas also frequently play as concert bands without the dance.
Other popular music are the ball de bastons (stick dances), galops, espunyolets, ball de panderetes, ball de gitanes and the music of gralla (music) (a kind of Catalan shawm)and drums used in cercaviles or by colles diableres, etcetera (there are so many dances and instruments like sac de gemecs similar to the Bagpipes,...)
During the end of the Franco period, a movement known as Nova Cançó emerged. Nova Cançó singers sang in Catalan, denouncing the official oppression of the language. The pioneering group of singer-songwriters Els Setze Jutges was founded in 1961 in Barcelona and came to include several singers from Catalonia, including Joan Manuel Serrat and Lluís Llach, as well as members from the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community. Grup de Folk and Esquirols were other notable cançó groups.
In the wake of Mano Negra and Manu Chao's success, Catalonia has also produced a number of popular fusion and world music bands, such as Dusminguet or Cheb Balowski. Ojos de Brujo, a band from Barcelona merging traditional flamenco with hip-hop, has also become popular.
Singing in Catalan has received a boost in the 21st due to the success of lots of Catalan indie bands that are springing up in many genres, such as pop (Antònia Font, Manel, Els Amics de les Arts, Mishima, Sanjosex), hip-hop (At Versaris, Guillamino), and so on.
References and further reading
- "Spain", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Music of Catalonia.|
- Scores for gralla
- MIDI files of folk songs collected by Palmira Jaquetti, Joan Tomàs and Joan Amades