Music of Haiti
|Music of Haiti|
|Media and performance|
|Music awards||Haitian Music Award|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|National anthem||La Dessalinienne|
The music of Haiti combines a wide range of influences drawn from the many people who have settled on this Caribbean island. It reflects French, African rhythms, Spanish elements and others who have inhabited the island of Hispaniola and minor native Taino influences. Styles of music unique to the nation of Haiti include music derived from Vodou ceremonial traditions, Rara parading music, Affranchi dance music, Twoubadou troubadour ballads, Mini-jazz rock bands, Rasin movement, Hip hop Kreyòl, the wildly popular Compas, and Méringue as its basic rhythm. Haiti hadn't had a recorded music until 1937 when Jazz Guignard was recorded non-commercially. One of the most popular Haitian artists is Wyclef Jean. His music is somewhat hip-hop mixed with world music. Haitian music is influenced mostly by European colonial ties and African migration (through slavery). In the case of European colonization, musical influence has derived primarily from the French.
One unique form of Haitian music is compas (in French) or konpa (in Creole), a complex, ever-changing music that fuses African rhythms and European ballroom dancing, mixed with Haiti's bourgeois culture. In Spanish the word compás means “beat” or “pulse.” One of the most distinctive characteristics of Konpa music is the consistent, pulsing drum beat, which makes it easy to dance to.
Haïti Chérie is a traditional patriotic and most recognizable song of Haiti that was written and composed by Dr. Othello Bayard de Cayes and was initially called Souvenir d'Haiti. It represents the pride Haitian people feel for their country and culture. Within the Haitian community, at home and abroad, it is widely considered as a second national anthem to La Dessalinienne and the song has recorded several different versions.
- 1 Folk music
- 2 Popular music
- 3 Music institutions and festivals
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Affranchi is a dance music that originated in Saint-Domingue, the modern day Haiti that was performed by both Europeans and Affranchis. Similar to tumba francesa, affranchi involved a series of straight-backed, held-torso, French style figures and then African-styled improvisation on the final set.
Méringue is a guitar-based style historically connected to merengue but without the use of the accordion. The blend of African and European cultures has created popular dance music, music played on simple acoustic instruments. Méringue has lost popularity to Konpa.
Rara music is a Lenten processional music with strong ties to the Vodou religious tradition. It has been commonly confused with Haitian Carnival since both celebrations involve large groups of dancing revelers in the streets. Rara is performed between Ash Wednesday (the day after Carnival ends) until Easter Sunday (or Easter Monday in some parts of Haiti.) Rara bands roam the streets performing religious ceremonies as part of their ritual obligations to the "lwa" or spirits of Haitian Vodou. Guédé, a spirit associated with death and sexuality, is an important spiritual presence in Rara celebrations and often possesses a houngan (male Vodou priest) or mambo (female Vodou priest) before the band begins its procession in order to bless the participants and wish them safe travels for their nightly sojourns.
Twoubadou is another form of folk music played by peripatetic troubadours playing some combination of acoustic, guitar, beat box and accordion instruments singing ballads of Haitian, French or Caribbean origin. It is in some ways similar to Son Cubano from Cuba as a result of Haitian migrant laborers who went to work on Cuban sugar plantations at the turn of the century. Musicians perform at the Port-au-Prince International Airport and also at bars and restaurants in Pétionville.
Compas (konpa) (also known as compas direct in French, or konpa dirèk in creole), is the modern méringue (mereng in creole) which was born in the 19th century. It is often incorrectly spelled as kompa when translating from French to Haitian creole, as there is no m in front of a b or p like in French and some other languages and therefore an n is used instead.
Konpa dirèk was popularized in the mid-1950s by the sax and guitar player Nemours Jean Baptiste. Its méringue soon became popular throughout the Antilles, especially in Martinique and Guadeloupe. Webert Sicot and Nemours Jean Baptiste became the two leaders in the group. Sicot then left and formed a new group and an intense rivalry developed, though they remained good friends. To differentiate himself from Nemours, Sicot called his modern méringue, Cadence rampa.
Haitian hip hop (rap kreyòl)
The local homegrown Haitian hip hop movement is rising in popularity in Haiti and other Haitian communities. It is becoming more and more popular with Haitian youth, often communicating social and political topics as well as materialism. Konpa as well as other popular local music beats are used frequently with urban sounds. Recent years have seen a rise in popularity for Haitian Hip-Hop artists such as Barikad Crew and Jimmy O. Other Haitian hip hop artists have yet to evolve.
Torch, has been rapping since the mid-1980s and has been one of the most influential contributors to German hip hop. He is "a hip hop activist, appointed by rap-godfather Afrika Bambaataa to head the first German chapter of Zulu Nation. His band Advanced Chemistry released a maxi-single in November 1992. The song, "Fremd in eigenem Land" (foreigner in your own country), made a pointed statement about the position of immigrants in German society."
Haitian rock (rock kreyòl)
Haitian rock originated as rock n roll in Haiti in the early 1960s, that were performed by rock bands called yeye bands that was short-lived when they added konpa dirèk to their repertoire in which the resultant sound was called mini-jazz. Today, Haitian rock is an alternative rock music with a blend of Caribbean flavor that was first introduced to Haiti by Yohann Doré.
Mini-jazz was formed in the mid-60s characterized by the rock bands formula of two guitars, one bass, drum-conga-cowbell, some use an alto sax or a full horn section, others use a keyboard, accordion or lead guitar. However, all these small jazz or bands had their guitars with sophisticated styles. The 1970s were dominated by mini-jazz, which still used a variant of the méringue style. One of the mini-jazz groups, Tabou Combo, became the most popular ensemble of Haiti. From Haiti the mini-jazz formula replicated in the French Antilles in the 1970s.
Censored by Haïtian military, 1992-1994
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Starting in the late 1970s (with discontent surrounding the increasing opulence of the Duvalier dictatorship), youth from Port-au-Prince (and to a lesser extent Cap-Haïtien and other urban areas) began experimenting with new types of life. François Duvalier's appropriation of Vodou images as a terror technique, the increase in U.S. assembly and large-scale export agriculture, the popularity of disco, and Jean-Claude Duvalier's appreciation of konpa and chanson française disillusioned many youth and love.
To question the dictatorship's notion of "the Haitian nation" (and thus the dictatorship itself), several men began trying a new way of living, embodied in the Sanba Movement. They drew upon global trends in black power, Bob Marley, "Hippie"-dom, as well as prominently from rural life in Haiti. They dressed in the traditional blue denim (karoko) of peasants, eschewed the commercialized and processed life offered by global capitalism, and celebrated the values of communal living. Later, they adopted matted hair which resembled dreadlocks, but identified the style as something which existed in Haiti with the term cheve simbi, referring to water spirits.
The most well-known of these were Sanba Zao (Louis Leslie Marcellin), Ayizan (Harry Sanon), Azouke (Gregory Sanon), Aboudja (Ronald Derencourt), Kebyesou Danle (Jean Raymond) and Chico (Yves Boyer). They formed a band called Sanba yo and later, Gwoup Sa. Later still, other musicians like Lolo (Theodore Beaubrun), Papa Bonga, and Eddy François joined the trend. This was the modern precursor to what would become mizik rasin. One of these groups recorded a song in the 1980s for a UNICEF campaign for vaccination which is included on the LP Konbit!.
In the 1990s, commercial success came to the musical genre that came to be known as mizik rasin, or "roots music". Musicians like Boukman Eksperyans, and Boukan Ginen, and to a lesser extent RAM, incorporated reggae, rock and funk rhythms into traditional forms and instrumentation, including rara, music from kanaval, or traditional spiritual music from the rural hamlets called lakous, like Lakou Souvnans, Lakou Badjo, Lakou Soukri, or Lakou Dereyal. Though initially the people involved followed the ways of the Sanba Movement, eventually this began to fade. Increased political and economic pressures saw many of these people emigrate (to the U.S. and Canada, primarily). Both those who stayed and those who traveled between countries began adding more non-Haitian (strictly speaking) elements and implemented a more commercial sound to earn more money and a wider audience.
Zouk or zouk-love
The Haitian cadence and its compas music has been dominating the Antilles music scene since its introduction in the late 1950s. Compas direct is a modern méringue popularized in 1955 by the Nemours Jean Baptiste, a Haitian sax and guitar player, which was appropriated by the Antilleans who labeled their version cadence-lypso and later, zouk or zouk-love.
The original zouk was zouk béton, a fast tempo jump up carnival style of music originating from the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, was popularized by the French Antilles Kassav' in the 1980's. However it was too fast, and the style lost ground in the 80's due to the strong presence of kadans or compas music, the main music of the French Antilles. The problem is the fact that musicians from Martinique and Guadeloupe have wrongly labeled compas music as zouk or zouk love; creating a big confusion in Africa, Cape Verde, Angola, Brazil, Portugal and other places. It was the Haitian musicians who taught Antilleans how to play compas and it is from them that zouk's rhythms derive in origin which some credit is due in its creation. In all account, Haitian musicians describe zouk musicians as first rate, because they are now part of the forefront of the musical scene.
Today, zouk-love (the current zouk) is the French Antilles cadence or compas music, characterized by a slow, soft and sexual rhythm.
Music institutions and festivals
The Haitian Carnival is an important part of the Haitian culture. It is also significant for Haitian musicians as an opportunity to showcase their talents and expand their audience by performing for Carnival crowds.
- "Music and the Story of Haiti". Afropop Worldwide. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Haitian music billboard". Web.archive.org. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Music of Haiti". The Kennedy Center. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Margaret Musmon; Elizabeth A. (INT) Hanley, Jacques D'Amboise (2010). Latin and Caribbean Dance (World of Dance). Chelsea House Publications. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-60413-481-0.
- Manuel, Peter with Kenneth Bilby, Michael Largey (2006). "Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae". p. 156. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Haitian Creole – English Dictionary with Basic English – Haitian Creole Appendix". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Brown, Timothy S. "‘Keeping it Real’ in a Different ‘Hood: (African-) Americanization and Hip-hop in Germany." In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 137-50. London
- Malena Kuss. Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: Volume 2 Performing the Caribbean Experience - An Encyclopedic History. The Universe of Music Inc. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-292-70951-5.
- Guilbault, Jocelyne (1993). "Zouk: World Music in the West Indies". p. 111. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): Haiti 2000. Accessed November 25, 2010.
- Manuel, Peter; Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey (2006). Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (2nd ed.). Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-463-7.
- Steward, Sue and Sean Harvey. "Compass Points". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 421–429. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
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- Haitian music community
- Experience Haitian music on Mizikpam Internet Radio Accessed May 18, 2010
- Music of Haiti at DMOZ
- BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): Music of Haiti - part 1. Accessed November 25, 2010.
- BBC Radio 3 Audio (45 minutes): Music of Haiti - part 2. Accessed November 25, 2010.