Muslim

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Dongxiang Muslim students in China

A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem,[1] is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. They also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts called hadith.[2] "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits to God". A female Muslim is sometimes called a "Muslimah".

Muslims believe that God (Arabic: اللهAllāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (monotheism). They hold that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten. They also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Ishmael and Jesus.[3] Muslims also believe that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time[4] and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God (The Final Testament).[5]

Most Muslims accept as a Muslim anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah (declaration of faith) which states:

I testify that there is no god except for the God, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.

The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam, which, in addition to Shahadah, consist of daily prayers (salat), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[6][7]

Etymology

The word muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎, IPA: [ˈmʊslɪm]; English /ˈmʌzlɨm/, /ˈmʊzlɨm/, /ˈmʊslɨm/ or moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/[8]) is the participle of the same verb of which islām is the infinitive, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".[9][10] A female adherent is a muslima (Arabic: مسلمة‎). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (مسلمون), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (مسلمات). The Arabic form muslimun is the stem IV participle[11] of the triliteral S-L-M.

Other words for Muslim

The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". It is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", which is an older spelling.[12] The word Mosalman (Persian: مسلمان‎, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central Asia.

Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.[13] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.[14]

Meaning

Afghan Muslims praying inside Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Afghanistan.

In defining Muslim, the Sufi spiritual leader Ibn Arabi said:

A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship exclusively to God...Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.[15]

Used to describe earlier prophets in the Qur'an

The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers as well as their respective followers as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Torah to Moses, the Psalms to David and the Gospel to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.

Demographics

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2009).

About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country,[16] 25% in South Asia,[16] 20% in the Middle East and North Africa,[16][17] 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-saharan Africa.[16] Sizable communities are also found in China and Russia, and parts of the Caribbean. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.

The majority of Muslims are Sunni, being over 75–90% of all Muslims.[18] The second and third largest sects, Shia and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%[19] and 1%[20] respectively. The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), and Egypt (4.9%).[21] Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Russia, Ethiopia, Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. With about 1.6 billion followers, almost a quarter of earth's population,[16][22][23] Islam is the second-largest and one of the fastest-growing religions in the world.[24][25][26]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ thefreedictionary.com: muslim
  2. ^ The Qurʼan and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad: Selections Annotated & Explained. SkyLight Paths Publishing. 2007. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-59473-222-5. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18. 
  4. ^ See: * Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiyya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it. * Esposito (1998), pp.6,12* Esposito (2002b), pp.4–5* F. E. Peters (2003), p.9* F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.  * Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. 
  5. ^ Submission.org, Quran: The Final Testament, Authorized English Version with Arabic Text, Revised Edition IV,ISBN 0-9729209-2-7, p. x.
  6. ^ Hooker, Richard (July 14, 1999). "arkan ad-din the five pillars of religion". United States: Washington State University. Archived from the original on 2010-12-03. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  7. ^ "Religions". The World Factbook. United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  8. ^ dictionary.reference.com: muslim /ˈmʌzlɨm/, /ˈmʊzlɨm/, /ˈmʊslɨm/; moslem /ˈmɒzləm/, /ˈmɒsləm/
  9. ^ Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371.
  10. ^ Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-618-08230-1.
  11. ^ also known as "infinitive", cf. Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371
  12. ^ "''Reporting Diversity'' guide for journalists" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  13. ^ See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by Ernest Gowers (Oxford, 1965)).
  14. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1969). Mohammedanism: an historical survey. Oxford University Press. p. 1. "Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian and Christianity imply the worship of Christ." 
  15. ^ Commentary on the Qur'an, Razi, I, p. 432, Cairo, 1318/1900
  16. ^ a b c d e Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. pp. 8–9, 17–19. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  17. ^ Esposito, John L. (2002-10-15). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0.  and Esposito, John (2005). Islam : the straight path (Rev. 3rd ed., updated with new epilogue. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 2, 43. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8. 
  18. ^ See: * Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" * Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world’s Muslim population" * Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" * "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-26. "They numbered about 900 million in the late 20th century and constituted nine-tenths of all the adherents of Islām."  * Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 352. ISBN 0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved December 19, 2011. "A common compromise figure ranks Sunnis at 90 percent."  * "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims."  * "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011. "The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis - estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%."  * "Sunni and Shia Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved December 17, 2011. "Sunni constitute 85 percent of the world's Muslims."  * "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 2007-09-24. Retrieved December 18, 2011. "Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite."  * "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. "Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population... Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide..."  * Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community." * Inside Muslim minds "around 80% are Sunni" * Who Gets To Narrate the World "The Sunnis (approximately 80%)" * A world theology N. Ross Reat "80% being the Sunni" * Islam and the Ahmadiyya jama'at "The Sunni segment, accounting for at least 80% of the worlds Muslim population" * A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni"
  19. From Sunni Islam: See: * Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" *"Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 8 December 2011. "Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population"  *Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world’s Muslim population" *Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" * A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" * "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims."  * "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011. "The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis - estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%."  * "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 2007-09-24. Retrieved December 18, 2011. "Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite."  * Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
  20. ^ See
  21. ^
    • Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. p. 8. Retrieved March 29, 2014 date=June 2005. "Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate" 
    • Larry DeVries, Don Baker, and Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved March 29, 2014. "The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world" 
    • Juan Eduardo Campo. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. Retrieved March 29, 2014. "The total size of the Ahmadiyya community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million" 
    • "Ahmadiyya Muslims". pbs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
    • A figure of 10-20 million represents approximately 1% of the Muslim population. See also Ahmadiyya by country.
  22. ^ "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  23. ^ "Nearly 1 in 4 people worldwide is Muslim, report says". CNN. 2009-10-12. 
  24. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 2010-12-08. 
  25. ^ According to some sources it is the third fastest-growing religion after Zoroastrianism and Bahá'í in relative numbers and second fastest-growing in absolute numbers after Christianity. Israel haven for new Bahai world order, Fastest Growing Religion
  26. ^ "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy. May 14, 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  27. ^

External links