Islam in the United States
0.8% of the U.S. population (2010)
(Pew Research Center)
|Regions with significant populations|
|New York metropolitan area, Greater Los Angeles Area, Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Detroit metropolitan area (Dearborn), Northern Virginia, Houston, Texas, and to a lesser extent Boston|
|American English, Arabic, Punjabi, Bengali, Persian, Spanish, Turkish, Bosnian, Urdu, Albanian, Kurdish, Indonesian, Sindhi, Pashto, Malaysian, Chinese, other languages|
(majority Sunni, also Shi'a, Sufi, nondenominational Muslims, Nation of Islam, 5 percenter, Quranic Movement)
|This article is part of a series on:|
Islam in the United States is a minority religion, practiced by less than 1% of the total population, according to estimates.
American Muslims come from various backgrounds, and are one of the most racially diverse religious groups in the United States according to a 2009 Gallup poll. Native-born American Muslims are mainly African Americans who make up about a quarter of the total Muslim population. Many of these have converted to Islam during the last seventy years. Conversion to Islam in prison, and in large urban areas has also contributed to its growth over the years. The immigrant communities make up the majority, with mainly people of Arab and South Asian descent.
The Muslim population of the U.S. increased dramatically in the 20th century, with much of the growth driven by rising immigration, and a comparatively high birth rate. About 72% of American Muslims are immigrants or "second generation". In 2005, more people from Islamic countries became legal permanent United States residents — nearly 96,000 — than in any year in the previous two decades. In 2009, more than 115,000 Muslims became legal residents of the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Slaves
- 3 Modern immigration
- 4 Sub-groups
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Politics
- 8 Integration
- 9 Organizations
- 10 Views
- 11 Controversy
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 Primary sources
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Pre-Columbian Islamic contact theories
The date of the first Muslim visit to the Americas, or to what is now North America, is unknown. Some historians have written theories that the first Muslims landed in, or visited the territory long before Christopher Columbus in 1492.
"The story of Islam in America antedates the European conquest of the continent. Some say that Andalusian Muslims visited the American continent long before Columbus, as reported by al-Sharif al-Idrisi in the twelfth century. Others claim that adventurers from the Muslim kingdoms of West Africa had visited the Caribbean. Furthermore, it is alleged that the Portuguese and Spanish discoverers were led by Andalusian Muslim mariners who were familiar with the high seas. Some of the discoverers were said to be Moriscos (Spanish Muslims who pretended to be Christians). Andalusian Muslim immigrants of Rabat and Salé in Morocco led the fight against Spanish and Portuguese navies in the Caribbean."
Pre American Revolution
The history of Islam in the United States can be divided into two significant periods: the post World War I period, and the last few decades, although some individual members of the Islamic faith are known to have visited or lived in the United States during the colonial era.
N. Brent Kennedy has speculated that during the period 1567-1587, Moors and Turks were brought to the present-day Carolinas, and that some of these intermarried with Native Americans, giving rise to the Melungeon communities of Southern Appalachia.
An early Egyptian immigrant is mentioned in the accounts of the Dutch settlers of the Catskill Mountains and recorded in the 1884 History of Greene County, New York. According to this tradition, an Egyptian named "Norsereddin" settled in the Catskills in the vicinity of the Catskill Mountain House. He befriended the Indian chief, Shandaken, and sought the hand of his daughter Lotowana in marriage. Rejected, he poisoned Lotowana and in consequence was caught and burned alive.
American Revolution and onwards
Peter Salem, a former slave who fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, is speculated to have Muslim connections based on his Islamic-sounding name. "Saleem" means "one who is peaceful" in Arabic and is related to the word salaam. Salem's name was said by a Jewish man to be similar to the word shalom, which also means peace. Other American Revolution soldiers with Islamic names include Salem Poor, Yusuf Ben Ali, Bampett Muhamed, Francis Saba, and Joseph Saba.
The first country to recognize the United States as an independent nation was the Sultanate of Morocco under its ruler Mohammed ben Abdallah, in the year 1777. He maintained several correspondences with President George Washington.
Bilali (Ben Ali) Muhammad was a Fula Muslim from Timbo, Futa-Jallon in present day Guinea-Conakry, who arrived at Sapelo Island during 1803. While enslaved, he became the religious leader and Imam for a slave community numbering approximately eighty Muslim men residing on his plantation. During the War of 1812, Muhammad and the eighty Muslim men under his leadership protected their master's Sapelo Island property from a British attack. He is known to have fasted during the month of Ramadan, worn a fez and kaftan, and observed the Muslim feasts, in addition to consistently performing the five obligatory prayers. In 1829, Bilali authored a thirteen-page Arabic Risala on Islamic beliefs and the rules for ablution, morning prayer, and the calls to prayer. Known as the Bilali Document, it is currently housed at the University of Georgia in Athens.
Between 1785 and 1815, over a hundred American sailors were captive in Algiers for ransom. Several wrote captivity narratives of their experiences that gave most Americans their first view of the Middle East and Muslim ways, and newspapers often commented on them. The views were generally negative. Royall Tyler wrote The Algerine Captive (1797), an early American novel depicting the life of an American doctor employed in the slave trade who becomes himself enslaved by Barbary pirates. Finally Presidents Jefferson and Madison sent in the Navy to confront the pirates, and ended the threat in 1815 during the First Barbary War. During the peace treaty that concluded the secession of hostilities, American envoys made it clear that the United States had no animosity towards any Muslim country.
On the morning of April 4, 1865 Union troops set led by Col. Thomas M. Johnston set ablaze the University of Alabama, a copy of the Quran known as the “The Koran: Commonly Called The Alcoran Of Mohammed.” was saved by one of the University's staff.
American views of Islam affected debates regarding freedom of religion during the drafting of the state constitution of Pennsylvania in 1776. Constitutionalists promoted religious toleration while Anticonstitutionalists called for reliance on Protestant values in the formation of the state's republican government. The former group won out, and inserted a clause for religious liberty in the new state constitution. American views of Islam were influenced by favorable Enlightenment writings from Europe, as well as Europeans who had long warned that Islam was a threat to Christianity and republicanism.
In 1776, John Adams published "Thoughts on Government," in which he praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a "sober inquirer after truth" alongside Confucius, Zoroaster, Socrates, and other thinkers.
In 1790, the South Carolina legislative body granted special legal status to a community of Moroccans.
In 1797, President John Adams signed the Treaty of Tripoli after the First Barbary War, declaring the United States had no "character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquillity, of Mussulmen".
In his autobiography, published in 1791, Benjamin Franklin stated that he "did not disapprove" of a meeting place in Pennsylvania that was designed to accommodate preachers of all religions. Franklin wrote that "even if the Mufti of Constantinople were to send a missionary to preach Mohammedanism to us, he would find a pulpit at his service." Franklin also wrote an anti-slavery parody piece claiming to be translation of the response of a government official at Algiers to a 17th-century petition to banish slavery there; the piece develops the theme that Europeans are specially suited for enslavement on cultural and religious grounds, and that there would be practical problems with abolishing slavery in North Africa; this satirizes similar arguments that were then made about the enslavement of Blacks in North America.
Thomas Jefferson defended religious freedom in America including those of Muslims. Jefferson explicitly mentioned Muslims when writing about the movement for religious freedom in Virginia. In his autobiography Jefferson wrote "[When] the [Virginia] bill for establishing religious freedom... was finally passed,... a singular proposition proved that its protection of opinion was meant to be universal. Where the preamble declares that coercion is a departure from the plan of the holy author of our religion, an amendment was proposed, by inserting the word 'Jesus Christ,' so that it should read 'a departure from the plan of Jesus Christ, the holy author of our religion.' The insertion was rejected by a great majority, in proof that they meant to comprehend within the mantle of its protection the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan, the Hindoo and infidel of every denomination." While President, Jefferson also participated in an iftar with the Ambassador of Tunisia in 1809.
However, not all politicians were pleased with the religious neutrality of the Constitution, which prohibited any religious test. Anti-Federalists in the 1788 North Carolina ratifying convention opposed the new constitution; one reason was the fear that some day Catholics or Muslims might be elected president. William Lancaster said:.
- Let us remember that we form a government for millions not yet in existence.... In the course of four or five hundred years, I do not know how it will work. This is most certain, that Papists may occupy that chair, and Mahometans may take it. I see nothing against it.
Many of the slaves brought to colonial America from Africa were Muslims. By 1800, some 500,000 Africans arrived in what became the United States. Historians estimate that between 15 to 30 percent of all enslaved African men, and less than 15 percent of the enslaved African women, were Muslims. These enslaved Muslims stood out from their compatriots because of their "resistance, determination and education".
It is estimated that over 50% of the slaves imported to North America came from areas where Islam was followed by at least a minority population. Thus, no less than 200,000 came from regions influenced by Islam. Substantial numbers originated from Senegambia, a region with an established community of Muslim inhabitants extending to the 11th century.
Through a series of conflicts, primarily with the Fulani jihad states, about half of the Senegambian Mandinka were converted to Islam while as many as a third were sold into slavery to the Americas through capture in conflict.
Michael A. Gomez speculated that Muslim slaves may have accounted for "thousands, if not tens of thousands," but does not offer a precise estimate. He also suggests many non-Muslim slaves were acquainted with some tenets of Islam, due to Muslim trading and proselytizing activities. Historical records indicate many enslaved Muslims conversed in the Arabic language. Some even composed literature (such as autobiographies) and commentaries on the Quran.
Some newly arrived Muslim slaves assembled for communal salat (prayers). Some were provided a private praying area by their owner. The two best documented Muslim slaves were Ayuba Suleiman Diallo and Omar Ibn Said. Suleiman was brought to America in 1731 and returned to Africa in 1734. Like many Muslim slaves, he often encountered impediments when attempting to perform religious rituals and was eventually allotted a private location for prayer by his master.
Omar Ibn Said (ca. 1770–1864) is among the best documented examples of a practicing-Muslim slave. He lived on a colonial North Carolina plantation and wrote many Arabic texts while enslaved. Born in the kingdom of Futa Tooro (modern Senegal), he arrived in America in 1807, one month before the U.S. abolished importation of slaves. Some of his works include the Lords Prayer, the Bismillah, this is How You Pray, Quranic phases, the 23rd Psalm, and an autobiography. In 1857, he produced his last known writing on Surah 110 of the Quran. In 1819, Omar received an Arabic translation of the Christian Bible from his master, James Owen. Omar converted to Christianity in 1820, an episode widely used throughout the South to "prove" the benevolence of slavery. However, some scholars believe he continued to be a practicing Muslim, based on dedications to Muhammad written in his Bible.
19th and 20th century
There are recorded instances of Muslims in the United States military during the American Civil War. Muhammad Ali ibn Said (also known as Nicholas Said), formerly enslaved to an Arab master, came to the United States in 1860 where he found a teaching job in Detroit. In 1863, Said enlisted in the 55th Massachusetts Colored Regiment in the United States Army and rose to the rank of sergeant. He was later granted a transfer to a hospital department, where he gained some knowledge of medicine. His Army records state that he died in Brownsville, Tennessee in 1882. Another Muslim soldier from the Civil War was Max Hassan, an African who worked for the military as a porter.
A Muslim named Hajj Ali (commonly spelled as "Hi Jolly") was hired by the United States Cavalry in 1856 to raise camels in Arizona and California. He would later become a prospector in Arizona. Hajj Ali died in 1903.
During the American Civil war, the "scorched earth" policy of the North destroyed churches, farms, schools, libraries, colleges, and a great deal of other property. The libraries at the University of Alabama managed to save one book from the debris of their library buildings. On the morning of April 4, when Federal troops reached the campus with order to destroy the university, Andre Deloffre, a modern language professor and custodian of the library, appealed to the commanding officer to spare one of the finest libraries in the South. The officer, being sympathetic, sent a courier to Gen. Croxton at his headquarters in Tuscaloosa asking permission to save the Rotunda. The general's reply was no. The officer reportedly said, "I will save one volume as a memento of this occasion." The volume selected was a rare copy of the Qur'an.
Alexander Russell Webb is considered by historians to be the earliest prominent Anglo-American convert to Islam in 1888. In 1893 he was the only person representing Islam at the first Parliament for the World's Religions. And the Russian-born Muslim scholar and writer Achmed Abdullah (1881–1945) was another early prominent American Muslim. 
In the year 1857, the Mughal Empire was dissolved after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and many children and grandchildren of the last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II were killed during the conflict. And in the 20th century some descendants of his surviving children emigrated to the United States.
Small-scale migration to the U.S. by Muslims began in 1840, with the arrival of Yemenis and Turks, and lasted until World War I. Most of the immigrants, from Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire, came with the purpose of making money and returning to their homeland. However, the economic hardships of 19th-Century America prevented them from prospering, and as a result the immigrants settled in the United States permanently. These immigrants settled primarily in Dearborn, Michigan; Quincy, Massachusetts; and Ross, North Dakota. Ross, North Dakota is the site of the first documented mosque and Muslim Cemetery, but it was abandoned and later torn down in the mid-1970s. A new mosque was built in its place in 2005.
- 1906: Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) in Chicago, Illinois, started the Džemijetul Hajrije (Jamaat al-Khayriyya) (The Benevolent Society; a social service organization devoted to Bosnian Muslims). This is the longest lasting incorporated Muslim community in the United States. They met in Bosnian coffeehouses and eventually opened the first Islamic Sunday School with curriculum and textbooks under Bosnian scholar Sheikh Ćamil Avdić (Kamil Avdich) (a graduate of al-Azhar and author of Survey of Islamic Doctrines).
- 1907: Lipka Tatar immigrants from the Podlasie region of Poland founded the first Muslim organization in New York City, the American Mohammedan Society.
- 1915: What is most likely the first American mosque was founded by Albanian Muslims in Biddeford, Maine. A Muslim cemetery still exists there.
- 1920: First Islamic mission station was established by an Indian Ahmadiyya Muslim missionary, followed by the building of the Al-Sadiq Mosque in 1921.
- 1929: The Ross Masjid in North Dakota was founded by Syrian Muslims, there is still a cemetery nearby.
- 1934: The first building built specifically to be a mosque is established in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The Mosque is where Abdullah Igram a notable Muslim veteran would teach the Quran, Abdullah Igram later wrote a letter to President Eisenhower persuading him to add the M option (for Muslims) on military dog tags.
- 1945: A mosque existed in Dearborn, Michigan, home to the largest Arab-American population in the U.S.
Construction of mosques sped up in the 1920s and 1930s, and by 1952, there were over 20 mosques. Although the first mosque was established in the U.S. in 1915, relatively few mosques were founded before the 1960s. Eighty-seven percent of mosques in the U.S. were founded within the last three decades according to the Faith Communities Today (FACT) survey. California has more mosques than any other state.
Chinese Muslims, known as Hui, have immigrated to the United States and lived within the Chinese community rather than integrating into other foreign Muslim communities. Two of the most prominent Chinese American Muslims are the Taiwan National Revolutionary Army Generals Ma Hongkui and his son Ma Dunjing, who moved to Los Angeles after fleeing from China to Taiwan. Pai Hsien-yung, son of the Chinese Muslim General Bai Chongxi, is a Chinese Muslim writer who moved to Santa Barbara, California after fleeing from China to Taiwan. And the Chinese Muslim artist Zhang Hongtu has become internationally known for his paintings and sculptures.
Ahmadis were among the earliest Muslim missionaries in America, and between 1921 and 1925 they converted 1025 people to the Ahmadi movement. Although at first their efforts were largely concentrated at the white community, subsequent realization of the deep-seated racial tensions made Ahmadi missionaries focus their attention towards the black community. Many Ahmadis fled Muslim-majority countries due to persecution.
Black Muslim movements
During the first half of the 20th century, a small number of African Americans established groups based on Islamic and Black supremacist teachings. The first of such groups created was the Moorish Science Temple of America, founded by Timothy Drew (Drew Ali) in 1913. Drew taught that Black people were of Moorish origin but their Muslim identity was taken away through slavery and racial segregation, advocating the return to Islam of their Moorish ancestry.
Nation of Islam
The Nation of Islam (NOI) was the largest organization, created in 1930 by Wallace Fard Muhammad. It however taught a different form of Islam, promoting Black supremacy and labeling white people as "devils". Fard drew inspiration for NOI doctrines from those of Noble Drew Ali's Moorish Science Temple of America. He provided three main principles which serve as the foundation of the NOI: "Allah is God, the white man is the devil and the so called Negroes are the Asiatic Black People, the cream of the planet earth". In 1934 Elijah Muhammad became the leader of the NOI, he deified Wallace Fard, saying that he was an incarnation of God, and taught that he was a prophet who had been taught directly by God in the form of Wallace Fard. Although Elijah's message caused great concern among White Americans, it was effective among Blacks attracting mainly poor people including students and professionals. One of the famous people to join the NOI was Malcolm X, who was the face of the NOI in the media. Also boxing world champion, Muhammad Ali. Malcolm X was one of the most influential leaders of the NOI, he advocated complete separation of blacks from whites. He left the NOI after being silenced for 90 days, he then formed his own black nationalist movement, and made the pilgrimage to Mecca, converting to Sunni Islam. He is viewed as the first person to start the movement among African Americans towards Sunni Islam.
As of today it is estimated there are at least 20,000 members. However, today the group has a wide influence in the African American community. The first Million Man March took place in Washington, D.C. 1995 and was followed later by another one in 2000 which was smaller in size but more inclusive welcoming individuals other than just African American men The group sponsors cultural and academic education, economic independence, and personal and social responsibility. The Nation of Islam has received a great deal of criticism for its anti-white, anti-Christian, and anti-semitic teachings, and is listed as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.
The main offshoot of the NOI was the Five-Percent Nation. Members in the movement, which was founded by Clarence 13X, call themselves Five Percenters. The movement was largely concentrated in New York.
The largest Quraniyoon movement in the United States is the United Submitters International. This movement was founded by Rashad Khalifa. His movement popularized the phrase: "The Qur'an, the whole Qur'an, and nothing but the Qur'an". Although he was initially well received by many, his subsequent claims of divine inspiration caused friction between him and others, and he was assassinated in 1990 by a Sunni terrorist group. Notable Americans influence by Rashad Khalifa include his son, Sam Khalifa, a retired professional baseball player, and Ahmad Rashad, a sportscaster and retired football player.
Shia Muslims have developed the largest mosque in North America, the Islamic Center of America. It is also the oldest Shia institution in the country. Hassan Al-Qazwini posts his regular sermons from the mosque online, where they are watched by Shia Muslims from across the United States. His sermons are usually hosted through the programs of the Young Muslim Association.
After the death of Elijah Muhammad, he was succeeded by his son, Warith Deen Mohammed. Mohammed rejected many teachings of his father, such as the divinity of Fard Muhammad and saw a white person as also a worshipper. As he took control of the organization, he quickly brought in new reforms. He renamed it as the World Community of al-Islam in the West, later it became the American Society of Muslims. It was estimated that there were 200,000 followers of WD Mohammed at the time.
WD Mohammed introduced teachings which were based on orthodox Sunni Islam. He removed the chairs in temples, with mosques, teaching how to pray the salat, to observe the fasting of Ramadan, and to attend the pilgrimage to Mecca.
A small number of Black Muslims however rejected these new reforms brought by Imam Mohammed, Louis Farrakhan who broke away from the organization, re-established the Nation of Islam under the original Fardian doctrines, and remains its leader.
The U.S. Census Bureau does not collect data on religious identification. Various institutions and organizations have given widely varying estimates about how many Muslims live in the U.S. Tom W. Smith, author of "Estimating the Muslim Population in the United States," said that of twenty estimates he reviewed during a five-year period until 2001, none was "based on a scientifically-sound or explicit methodology. All can probably be characterized as guesses or assertions. Nine came from Muslim organizations such as the Islamic Society of North America, the Muslim Student Association, the Council on American-Islamic Relations, the American Muslim Council, and the Harvard Islamic Society or unspecified "Muslim sources." None of these sources gave any basis for their figures."
Others claim that no scientific count of Muslims in the U.S. has been done, but that the larger figures should be considered accurate. Some journalists have also alleged that the higher numbers have been inflated for political purposes.
According to a 2001 study written by Ihsan Bagby, an associate professor of Islamic studies at the University of Kentucky, of Americans who convert to Islam, 64% are African American, 27% are White, 6% are Hispanic, and 3% are other. Around that time increasing numbers of American Hispanics converted to Islam. Many Hispanic converts in Houston said that they often had been mistaken as of being of Pakistani or Middle Eastern descent, due to their religion. Many Hispanic converts were former Christians.
Since the arrival of South Asian and Arab communities during the 1990s there has been divisions with the African Americans due to the racial and cultural differences; however, since September 11, 2001, the two groups joined together when the immigrant communities looked towards the African Americans for advice on civil rights.
According to a 2007 religious survey, 72% of Muslims believe religion is very important, which is higher in comparison to the overall population of the United States at 59%. The frequency of receiving answers to prayers among Muslims was, 31% at least once a week and 12% once or twice a month. Nearly a quarter of the Muslims are converts to Islam (23%), mainly native-born. Of the total who have converted, 59% are African American and 34% white. Previous religions of those converted was Protestantism (67%), Roman Catholicism (10%), and 15% no religion.
Mosques are usually explicitly Sunni or Shia. There are 1,209 mosques in the United States and the nation's largest mosque, the Islamic Center of America, is in Dearborn, Michigan. It caters mainly to the Shi'a Muslim congregation; however, all Muslims may attend this mosque. It was rebuilt in 2005 to accommodate over 3,000 people for the increasing Muslim population in the region. Approximately half (50%) of the religious affiliations of Muslims is Sunni, 16% Shia, 22% non-affiliated and 16% other/non-response. Muslims of Arab descent are mostly Sunni (56%) with minorities who are Shia (19%). Muslims of South Asian descent including Bangladeshis (90%), Indians (82%) and Pakistanis (72%) are mainly Sunni, other groups such as Iranians are mainly Shia (91%). Of African American Muslims, 48% are Sunni, 34% are unaffiliated (mostly part of the Community of W.Deen Mohammed), 16% other (mostly Nation of Islam and Ahmadiyya) and 2% Shia.
In many areas, a mosque may be dominated by whatever group of immigrants is the largest. Sometimes the Friday sermons, or khutbas, are given in languages like Urdu, Bengali or Arabic along with English. Areas with large Muslim populations may support a number of mosques serving different immigrant groups or varieties of belief within Sunni or Shi'a traditions. At present, many mosques are served by imams who immigrate from overseas, as only these imams have certificates from Muslim seminaries.
Education and income
Contrary to popular perceptions, the condition of Muslims in the U.S. is very good. Among South Asians in the country, the large Pakistani American community stands out as particularly well educated and prosperous, with education and income levels exceeding those of U.S.-born whites. Many are professionals, especially doctors, scientists, engineers, and financial analysts, and there are also a large number of entrepreneurs. There are more than 15,000 doctors practicing medicine in the USA who are of Pakistani origin alone and the number of Pakistani American millionaires was reported to be in the thousands. 45 percent of immigrant Muslims report annual household income levels of $50,000 or higher. This compares to the national average of 44 percent. Immigrant Muslims are well represented among higher-income earners, with 19 percent claiming annual household incomes of $100,000 or higher (compared to 16 percent for the Muslim population as a whole and 17 percent for the U.S. average). This is likely due to the strong concentration of Muslims in professional, managerial, and technical fields, especially in information technology, education, medicine, law, and the corporate world.
In 2005, according to The New York Times, more people from Muslim countries became legal permanent United States residents — nearly 96,000 — than in any year in the previous two decades. In addition to immigration, the state, federal and local prisons of the United States may be a contributor to the growth of Islam in the country. J. Michael Waller claims that Muslim inmates comprise 17-20% of the prison population, or roughly 350,000 inmates in 2003. Waller states that these inmates mostly come into prison as non-Muslims. He also claims that 80% of the prisoners who "find faith" while in prison convert to Islam. These converted inmates are mostly African American, with a small but growing Hispanic minority. Waller also asserts that many converts are radicalized by outside Islamist groups linked to terrorism, but other experts suggest that when radicalization does occur it has little to no connection with these outside interests.
According to the 2000 United States Census, the state with the largest percentage of Muslims is Michigan, with 1.2% of its population being Muslim. New Jersey has the second largest percentage with 0.9%, followed by Massachusetts with 0.8%.
New York City had the largest number of Muslims with 69,985. In 2000, Dearborn, Michigan ranked second with 29,181, and Los Angeles ranked third with 25,673; although Paterson, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, was estimated to have become home to 25,000 to 30,000 Muslims as of 2011. Of cities with at least 100,000 people, Jersey City, New Jersey rank second and third with 3% of their populations. Dearborn, which had a population of 98 thousand people, had an Arab population of 30%, the largest concentration of Muslims in the United States.
The number of mosques in the United States in 2011 was 2,106. The top five states with the most amount of mosques were: New York 257, California 246, Texas 166, Florida 118, Illinois 109, New Jersey 109.
Muslims in the United States have increasingly made their own culture; there are various Muslim comedy groups, rap groups, Scout troops and magazines, and Muslims have been vocal in other forms of media as well.
Within the Muslim community in the United States there exist a number of different traditions. As in the rest of the world, the Sunni Muslims are in the majority. Shia Muslims, especially those in the Iranian immigrant community, are also active in community affairs. All four major schools of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) are found among the Sunni community.
In the 2000 Presidential election, nearly 80 percent of Muslim Americans supported Republican candidate George W. Bush over Democratic candidate Al Gore. However, due to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq which took place under the Bush Administration, as well as increased anti-Muslim rhetoric from the Republican Party after the September 11 attacks, support for the Republican Party among American Muslims has declined sharply. By 2004, Bush's Muslim support had been reduced by at least half, who would vote for Democratic candidate John Kerry or a third party candidate. By 2008, Democratic candidate Barack Obama got 67% to 90% of the Muslim vote depending by region.
According to a 2004 telephone survey of a sample of 1846 Muslims conducted by the polling organization Zogby, the respondents were more educated and affluent than the national average, with 59% of them holding at least an undergraduate college degree. Citing the Zogby survey, a 2005 Wall Street Journal editorial by Bret Stephens and Joseph Rago expressed the tendency of American Muslims to report employment in professional fields, with one in three having an income over $75,000 a year. The editorial also characterized American Muslims as "role models both as Americans and as Muslims".
Unlike many Muslims in Europe, American Muslims overall do not tend to feel marginalized or isolated from political participation and have often adopted a politically proactive stance. Several organizations were formed by the American Muslim community to serve as 'critical consultants' on U.S. policy regarding Iraq and Afghanistan. Other groups have worked with law enforcement agencies to point out Muslims within the United States that they suspect of fostering 'intolerant attitudes'. Still others have worked to invite interfaith dialogue and improved relations between Muslim and non-Muslim Americans.
Growing Muslim populations have caused public agencies to adapt to their religious practices. Airports such as the Indianapolis International Airport, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport[not in citation given], Kansas City International Airport have installed foot-baths to allow Muslims, particularly taxicab drivers who service the airports, to perform their religious ablutions in a safe and sanitary manner.[dead link] and Denver International Airport included a mosque as part of its Interfaith Chapel when opened in 1996[dead link] although such developments have not been without criticism.
A Pew report released in 2009 noted that nearly six-in-ten American adults see Muslims as being subject to discrimination, more than Mormons, Atheists, or Jews. While Muslims comprise less than one percent of the American population, they accounted for approximately one quarter of the religious discrimination claims filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission during 2009. According to FBI statistics, hate crimes against Muslims are rare, at 6.0 per 100,000, compared to blacks at 6.7, homosexuals and bisexuals at 11.5, and Jews at 14.8.
On December 14, 1992, the Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army requested that an insignia be created for future Muslim chaplains, and the design (a crescent) was completed January 8, 1993.
One of the largest Islamic organizations is the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) which says that 27% of mosques in U.S. are associated with it. ISNA is an association of immigrant Muslim organizations and individuals that provides a common platform for presenting Islam. It is composed mostly of immigrants. Its membership may have recently exceeded ASM, as many independent mosques throughout the United States are choosing to affiliate with it. ISNA's annual convention is the largest gathering of Muslims in the United States.
The second largest is the community under the leadership of W.Deen Mohammed or the American Society of Muslims with 19% of mosques, mostly African-Americans having an affiliation with it. It was the successor organization to the Nation of Islam, once better-known as the Black Muslims. The association recognizes the leadership of Warith Deen Mohammed. This group evolved from the Black separatist Nation of Islam (1930–1975). The majority of its members are African Americans. This has been a 23-year process of religious reorientation and organizational decentralization, in the course of which the group was known by other names, such as the American Muslim Mission, W.Deen Mohammed guided its members to the practice of mainstream Islam such as salat or fasting, and teaching the basic creed of Islam the shahadah.
The third largest group is the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA). ICNA describes itself as a non-ethnic, open to all, independent, North America-wide, grass-roots organization. It is composed mostly of immigrants and the children of immigrants. It is growing as various independent mosques throughout the United States join and also may be larger than ASM at the present moment. Its youth division is Young Muslims.
The Islamic Supreme Council of America (ISCA) is a small organization representing Sufi teachings, which, according to adherents, is the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. The ISCA's stated aims include providing practical solutions for American Muslims, based on the traditional Islamic legal rulings of an international advisory board, many of whom are recognized as the highest ranking Islamic scholars in the world. ISCA strives to integrate traditional scholarship in resolving contemporary issues affecting the maintenance of Islamic beliefs in a modern, secular society. It has been linked to neoconservative thought.
The Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA) is a leading Muslim organization in the United States. According to its website, among the goals of IANA is to "unify and coordinate the efforts of the different dawah oriented organizations in North America and guide or direct the Muslims of this land to adhere to the proper Islamic methodology." In order to achieve its goals, IANA uses a number of means and methods including conventions, general meetings, dawah-oriented institutions and academies, etc. IANA folded in the aftermath of the attack of September 11, 2001 and they have reorganized under various banners such as Texas Dawah and the Almaghrib Institute.
The Muslim Students' Association (MSA) is a group dedicated, by its own description, to Islamic societies on college campuses in Canada and the United States for the good of Muslim students. The MSA is involved in providing Muslims on various campuses the opportunity to practice their religion and to ease and facilitate such activities. MSA is also involved in social activities, such as fund raisers for the homeless during Ramadan. The founders of MSA would later establish the Islamic Society of North America and Islamic Circle of North America.
The Islamic Information Center (IIC) (IIC) is a "grass-roots" organization that has been formed for the purpose of informing the public, mainly through the media, about the real image of Islam and Muslims. The IIC is run by chairman (Hojatul-Islam) Imam Syed Rafiq Naqvi, various committees, and supported by volunteers.
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established in the U.S. in 1921, before the existence of Nation of Islam, according to its members. This sect, however, is considered heretical by mainstream Muslims and not considered a part of the Ummah, or worldwide community of Muslims.
Muslim Congress is another National Muslim Organization. It is primarily a Social Welfare organization and runs many social projects, including Food Distribution to the homeless in their "No More Hunger" project and also provides Scholarship. It is under the leadership of Islamic Scholars.
Muslim political organizations lobby on behalf of various Muslim political interests. Organizations such as the American Muslim Council are actively engaged in upholding human and civil rights for all Americans.
- The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) is the United States largest Muslim civil rights and advocacy group, originally established to promote a positive image of Islam and Muslims in America. CAIR is the voice of mainstream, moderate Islam on Capitol Hill and in political arenas throughout the United States. It has repeatedly condemned acts of terrorism and has been working in collaboration with the White House on "issues of safety and foreign policy." The group has been criticized for alleged links to Islamic terrorism; its leadership strenuously denies any involvement with such activities.
- The Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) is an American Muslim public service & policy organization headquartered in Los Angeles and with offices in Washington, D.C. MPAC was founded in 1988. The mission of MPAC "encompasses promoting an American Muslim identity, fostering an effective grassroots organization, and training a future generation of men and women to share our vision. MPAC also works to promote an accurate portrayal of Islam and Muslims in mass media and popular culture, educating the American public (both Muslim and non-Muslim) about Islam, building alliances with diverse communities and cultivating relationships with opinion- and decision-makers."
- The American Islamic Congress is a small secular Muslim organization that promotes "religious pluralism". Their official Statement of Principles states that "Muslims have been profoundly influenced by their encounter with America. American Muslims are a minority group, largely comprising immigrants and children of immigrants, who have prospered in America's climate of religious tolerance and civil rights. The lessons of our unprecedented experience of acceptance and success must be carefully considered by our community." The AIC holds an annual essay writing competition, the Dream Deferred Essay Contest, focusing on civil rights in the Middle East.
- The Free Muslims Coalition states it was created to "eliminate broad base support for Islamic extremism and terrorism" and to strengthen secular democratic institutions in the Middle East and the Muslim World by supporting Islamic reformation efforts.
- Muslims for Bush was an advocacy group aiming to drum up support from Muslims for President George W. Bush. It was co-founded by Muhammad Ali Hasan and his mother Seeme, who were prominent donors to the Republican Party. In 2010, co-founder Muhammad Ali Hasan left the Republican Party. Muslims for Bush has since been reformed into the bipartisan Muslims for America.
- American Muslim Political Action Committee (AMPAC) was created in July 2012 by MD Rabbi Alam, a Bangladeshi-born American politician. This newly created organization is one of America's largest Muslim civil liberties advocacy organizations. It is headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri, with two regional offices in New York City and Madison, Wisconsin. AMPAC a bipartisan political platform for Muslim Americans to participate in political races. AMPAC presents an Islamic perspective on issues of importance to the American public, and seeks to empower the American Muslim community and encourage its social and political activism. On September 11, 2013, AMPAC organized the Million Muslim March which took place at the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
In addition to the organizations listed above, other Muslim organizations in the United States serve more specific needs. For example, some organizations focus almost exclusively on charity work. As a response to a crackdown on Muslim charity organizations working overseas such as the Holy Land Foundation, more Muslims have begun to focus their charity efforts within the United States.
- Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN) is one of the leading Muslim charity organizations in the United States. According to the Inner-City Muslim Action Network, IMAN seeks "to utilize the tremendous possibilities and opportunities that are present in the community to build a dynamic and vibrant alternative to the difficult conditions of inner city life." IMAN sees understanding Islam as part of a larger process to empower individuals and communities to work for the betterment of humanity.
- Islamic Relief USA is the American branch of Islamic Relief Worldwide, an international relief and development organization. Their stated goal is "to alleviate the suffering, hunger, illiteracy and diseases worldwide without regard to color, race or creed." They focus of development projects; emergency relief projects, such as providing aid to victims of Hurricane Katrina; orphans projects; and seasonal projects, such as food distributions during the month of Ramadan. They provide aid internationally and in the United States.
- Project Downtown is a non profit organization originated in Miami Fl. From what started as two men giving away a few sandwiches eventually turned into an array of chapters all over the United States giving away thousands of packets of food, hygiene bags, clothes, and other necessities of life to those who cannot afford it. The motto of Project Downtown is “We feed you for the sake of God alone, no reward do we seek, nor thanks.” (Quran 76:9)
There are two museums dedicated to the history of Islamic culture in the U.S. and abroad. The International Museum of Muslim Cultures in Jackson, Mississippi opened in early 2001. America's Islamic Heritage Museum in Washington, DC opened on April 30, 2011.
American populace's views on Islam
A nationwide survey conducted in 2003 by the Pew Research Center and the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life reported that the percentage of Americans with an unfavorable view of Islam increased by one percentage point between 2002 and 2003 to 34%, and then by another two percentage points in 2005 to 36%. At the same time the percentage responding that Islam was more likely than other religion to encourage violence fell from 44% in July 2003 to 36% in July 2005.
|July 2007 Newsweek survey of non-Muslim Americans|
|Muslims in the United States are as
loyal to the U.S. as they are to Islam
|Muslims do not condone violence||63%|
|Qur'an does not condone violence||40%||28%|
|Muslim culture does not glorify
|Concern about Islamic radicals||54%|
|Support wiretapping by FBI||52%|
|American Muslims more "peaceable"
than non-American ones
|Muslims are unfairly targeted by
|Oppose mass detentions of Muslims||60%||25%|
|Believe most are immigrants||52%|
|Would allow son or daughter to date
|Muslim students should be allowed
to wear headscarves
|Would vote for a qualified Muslim
for political office
The July 2005 Pew survey also showed that 59% of American adults view Islam as "very different from their religion," down one percentage point from 2003. In the same survey 55% had a favorable opinion of Muslim Americans, up four percentage points from 51% in July 2003. A December 2004 Cornell University survey shows that 47% of Americans believe that the Islamic religion is more likely than others to encourage violence among its believers.
A CBS April 2006 poll showed that, in terms of faiths
- 58% of Americans have favorable attitudes toward Protestantism/Other Christians
- 48% favorable toward Catholicism
- 47% favorable toward Judaism
- 31% favorable toward Christian fundamentalism
- 20% favorable toward Mormonism
- 19% favorable toward Islam
- 8% favorable toward Scientology
The Pew survey shows that, in terms of adherents
- 77% of Americans have favorable opinions of Jews
- 73% favorable of Catholics
- 57% favorable of "evangelical Christians"
- 55% favorable of Muslims
- 35% favorable of Atheists
American Muslims' views of the United States
|PEW's poll of views on American Society|
|Agree that one can get
ahead with hard work
|Rate their community as
"excellent" or "good"
|Excellent or good
personal financial situation
|Satisfied with the
state of the U.S.
In a 2007 survey titled Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream, the Pew Research Center found Muslim Americans to be "largely integrated, happy with their lives, and moderate with respect to many of the issues that have divided Muslims and Westerners around the world."
47% of respondents said they considered themselves Muslims first and Americans second. However, this was compared to 81% of British Muslims and 69% of German Muslims, when asked the equivalent question. A similar disparity exists in income, the percentage of American Muslims living in poverty is 2% higher than the general population, compared to an 18% disparity for French Muslims and 29% difference for Spanish Muslims.
Politically, American Muslims were both pro-larger government and socially conservative. For example, 70% of respondents preferred a bigger government providing more services, while 61% stated that homosexuality should be discouraged by society. Despite their social conservatism, 71% of American Muslims expressed a preference for the Democratic Party. The Pew Research survey also showed that nearly three quarters of respondents believed that American society rewards them for hard work regardless of their religious background.
The same poll also reported that 40% of U.S. Muslims believe that Arab Muslims carried out the 9/11 attacks. Another 28% don't believe it and 32% said they had no opinion. Among 28% who doubted that Arab Muslims were behind the conspiracy, one-fourth of those claim the U.S. government or President George W. Bush was responsible. Only 26% of American Muslims believe the U.S.-led war on terror is a sincere effort to root out international terrorism. Only 5% of those surveyed had a "very favorable" or "somewhat favorable" view of the terrorist group Al-Qaeda. Only 35% of American Muslims stated that the decision for military action in Afghanistan was the right one and just 12% supported the use of military force in Iraq.
American Muslim life after the September 11, 2001 attacks
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, America saw an increase in the number of hate crimes committed against people who were perceived to be Muslim, particularly those of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent. More than 20 acts of discrimination and violence were documented in the post 9/11 era by the U.S. Department of Justice. Some of these acts were against Muslims living here in America. Other acts were against those accused of being Muslims, such as Sikhs, and people of Arabian and South-Asian backgrounds A publication in Journal of Applied Social Psychology found evidence that the number of anti-Muslim attacks in America in 2001 increased from 354 to 1,501 following 9/11. The same year, the Arab American Institute reported an increase in anti-Muslim hate crimes ranging from discrimination and destruction of private property to violent threats and assaults, some of which resulted in deaths.
In a 2007 survey, 53% of American Muslims reported that it was more difficult to be a Muslim after the 9/11 attacks. Asked to name the most important problem facing them, the options named by more than ten percent of American Muslims were discrimination (19%), being viewed as a terrorist (15%), public's ignorance about Islam (13%), and stereotyping (12%). 54% believe that the U.S. government's anti-terrorism activities single out Muslims. 76% of surveyed Muslim Americans stated that they are very or somewhat concerned about the rise of Islamic extremism around the world, while 61% express a similar concern about the possibility of Islamic extremism in the United States.
On a small number of occasions Muslim women who wore distinctive hijab were harassed, causing some Muslim women to stay at home, while others temporarily abandoned the practice. In November 2009 Amal Abusumayah, a mother of four young girls, had her hijab pulled following derogatory comments while grocery shopping. In 2006, one California woman was shot dead as she walked her child to school; she was wearing a headscarf and relatives and Muslim leaders believe that the killing was religiously motivated. While 51% of American Muslims express worry that women wearing hijab will be treated poorly, 44% of American Muslim women who always wear hijab express a similar concern.
Some Muslim Americans have been criticized because of perceived conflicts between their religious beliefs and mainstream American value systems. Muslim cab drivers in Minneapolis, Minnesota have been criticized for refusing passengers for carrying alcoholic beverages or dogs. The Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport authority has threatened to revoke the operating authority of any driver caught discriminating in this manner. There are reported incidents in which Muslim cashiers have refused to sell pork products to their clientele.
Public institutions in the U.S. have also drawn fire for accommodating Islam at the expense of taxpayers. The University of Michigan–Dearborn and a public college in Minnesota have been criticized for accommodating Islamic prayer rituals by constructing footbaths for Muslim students using tax-payers' money. Critics claim this special accommodation, which is made only to satisfy Muslims' needs, is a violation of Constitutional provisions separating church and state. Along the same constitutional lines, a San Diego public elementary school is being criticized for making special accommodations specifically for American Muslims by adding Arabic to its curriculum and giving breaks for Muslim prayers. Since these exceptions have not been made for any religious group in the past, some critics see this as an endorsement of Islam.
The first American Muslim Congressman, Keith Ellison, created controversy when he compared President George W. Bush's actions after the September 11, 2001 attacks to Adolf Hitler's actions after the Nazi-sparked Reichstag fire, saying that Bush was exploiting the aftermath of 9/11 for political gain, as Hitler had exploited the Reichstag fire to suspend constitutional liberties. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the Anti-Defamation League condemned Ellison's remarks. The congressman later retracted the statement, saying that it was "inappropriate" for him to have made the comparison.
At Columbus Manor School, a suburban Chicago elementary school with a student body nearly half Muslim Arab American, school board officials have considered eliminating holiday celebrations after Muslim parents complained that their culture's holidays were not included. Local parent Elizabeth Zahdan said broader inclusion, not elimination, was the group's goal. "I only wanted them modified to represent everyone," the Chicago Sun-Times quoted her as saying. "Now the kids are not being educated about other people." However, the district's superintendent, Tom Smyth, said too much school time was being taken to celebrate holidays already, and he sent a directive to his principals requesting that they "tone down" activities unrelated to the curriculum, such as holiday parties.
Terrorism that involved Muslim perpetrators began in the United States with the 1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia, followed by the 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City. The latest was the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings in Massachusetts. After the September 11 attacks and the start of the Afghanistan war in 2001, there was concern about the potential radicalization of American Muslims. A 2007 Pew poll reported that 15% of American Muslims under the age of 30 supported suicide bombings against civilian targets in at least some circumstances, on the other hand 11% said it could be "rarely justified." Among those over the age of 30, just 6% expressed their support for the same. (9% of Muslims over 30 and 5% under 30 chose not to answer). A March 2010 Bipartisan Policy Center paper points out an increasing number of American Muslims are playing high-level operational roles in al-Qaeda and aligned groups, as well as a larger numbers of American Muslims who are attaching themselves to these groups.[not in citation given][irrelevant citation]
More than 80% of all convictions tied to international terrorist groups and homegrown terrorism since 9/11 involve defendants driven by a radical Islamist agenda, a review of Department of Justice statistics shows. Between 2001 and the end of 2009, there were 46 publicly reported incidents of "domestic radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism" that involved at least 125 people between 2001 and the end of 2009. There had been an average of six cases per year since 2001, but that rose to 13 in 2009.
While the seeming increase in cases may be alarming, half "involve single individuals, while the rest represent ‘tiny conspiracies,’ " according to Congressional testimony. Furthermore, a 2012 study by the University of North Carolina indicated that the yearly number of cases of alleged plots by Muslim-Americans appears to be declining. The total of 20 indictments for terrorism in 2011 is down from 26 in 2010 and 47 in 2009 (the total since 9/11 is 193). The number of Muslim-Americans indicted for support of terrorism also fell, from 27 individuals in 2010 to just eight in 2011 (the total since 9/11 stands at 462). Also in apparent decline is the number of actual attacks: Of the 20 suspects indicted for terrorism, only one was charged with carrying out a terrorist act. This number is down from the six individuals charged with attacks in 2010. The study’s author concludes that the "limited scale of Muslim-American terrorism in 2011 runs counter to the fears that many Americans shared in the days and months after 9/11, that domestic Muslim-American terrorism would escalate."
Concern could also be expressed because of the number of Muslim-Americans among terrorism suspects: Though Muslims represent about 1% of the American population, they constitute defendants in 186 of the 228 cases DOJ lists. However, they also are significantly represented among those who tip authorities off to alleged plots: Muslim-Americans have given 52 of the 140 documented tips regarding individuals involved in violent terrorist plots since 9/11.
Islamic extremism in the United States
At least one American not of recent immigrant background, John Walker Lindh, has been imprisoned, convicted on charges of working with the Taliban and carrying weapons against American soldiers. He had converted to Islam while in the United States, moved to Yemen to study Arabic, and then went to Pakistan, where he was recruited by the Taliban.
Another American that was not of recent immigrant background, José Padilla (prisoner), of Puerto Rican decent and the first Hispanic-American to be imprisoned and convicted on suspicion of plotting a radiological bomb ("dirty bomb") attack. He was detained as a material witness until June 9, 2002, when President George W. Bush designated him an enemy combatant and, arguing that he was not entitled to trial in civilian courts, had him transferred to a military prison. He had converted to Islam while serving his last jail sentence in prison, and went to Pakistan where he was recruited into Al-Qaeda.
The Buffalo Six: Shafal Mosed, Yahya Goba, Sahim Alwan, Mukhtar Al-Bakri, Yasein Taher, Elbaneh Jaber. Six Muslims from the Lackawanna, New York area were charged and convicted for providing material support to al Qaeda.
In October 2003, Iyman Faris was sentenced to 20 years in prison for providing material support and resources to al Qaeda and conspiracy for providing the terrorist organization with information about possible U.S. targets for attack.
Ahmed Omar Abu Ali
Ahmed Omar Abu Ali In November 2005 he was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for providing material support and resources to al Qaeda, conspiracy to assassinate the President of the United States, conspiracy to commit air piracy and conspiracy to destroy aircraft.
- List of American Muslims
- List of Islamic and Muslim related topics
- List of mosques in the United States
- Latino Muslims
- United States military chaplain symbols (including images of U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force Muslim Chaplain insignia)
- The Future of the Muslim Population - United States Pew Forum.
- Tweed, Thomas A. "Islam in America: From African Slaves to Malcolm X". National Humanities Center. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
- Curtis, Muslims in America, p. 119
- Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas (1998)
- Edward E. Curtis, Muslims in America: A Short History (2009) ch 1
- "Muslim Americans Exemplify Diversity, Potential". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Judiciary.senate.gov[dead link]
- Wakin, Daniel J. (2002-01-02). "Ranks of Latinos Turning to Islam Are Increasing; Many in City Were Catholics Seeking Old Muslim Roots". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. January 27, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2011.
- Wilgoren, Jodi (2001-10-22). "A Nation challenged: American Muslims; Islam Attracts Converts By the Thousand, Drawn Before and After Attacks". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Elliott, Andrea (2006-09-10). "Muslim immigration has bounced back". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Migration Information Source - The People Perceived as a Threat to Security: Arab Americans Since September 11". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "The Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030" The Pew Research Center. January 27, 2011.
- Dirks, Jerald F. (2006). Muslims in American History: A Forgotten Legacy. United States. ISBN 0-5900-8044-0 Check
|isbn=value (help). Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- María Rosa Menocal (2000). Culture in the Time of Tolerance: Al-Andalus as a Model for Our Time, Berkeley Electronic Press.
- Ali al-Masudi (940). Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Mas'udi (transl) (born Muruj Adh-Dhahab (The Book of Golden Meadows), Vol. 1, p. 138.
- S. A. H. Ahsani (July 1984). "Muslims in Latin America: a survey", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 5 (2), p. 454-463.
- "Precolumbian Muslims in the Americas". By Dr. Youssef Mroueh, Preparatory Commitee for International Festivals to celebrate the millennium of the Muslims arrival to the Americas (1996 CE). Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "Muslim Discovery of America before Columbus". Professor Mohammed Hamidullah. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- Professor Mohammed Hamidullah (Winter 1968). "Muslim Discovery of America before Columbus", Journal of the Muslim Students' Association of the United States and Canada 4 (2), p. 7-9. Muhammad al-Idrisi (1100-1166) wrote: "The Commander of the Muslims Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin sent his admiral Ahmad ibn Umar, better known under the name of Raqsh al-Auzz to attack a certain island in the Atlantic, but he died before doing that. [. . . ] Beyond this ocean of fogs it is not known what exists there. Nobody has the sure knowledge of it, because it is very difficult to traverse it. Its atmosphere is foggy, its waves are very strong, its dangers are perilous, its beasts are terrible, and its winds are full of tempests. There are many islands, some of which are inhabited, others are submerged. No navigator traverses them but bypasses them remaining near their coast. [. . . ] And it was from the town of Lisbon that the adventurers set out known under the name of Mugharrarin [seduced ones], penetrated the ocean of fogs and wanted to know what it contained and where it ended. [. . . ] After sailing for twelve more days they perceived an island that seemed to be inhabited, and there were cultivated fields. They sailed that way to see what it contained. But soon barks encircled them and made them prisoners, and transported them to a miserable hamlet situated on the coast. There they landed. The navigators saw there people with red skin; there was not much hair on their body, the hair of their head was straight, and they were of high stature. Their women were of an extraordinary beauty."
- Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam. Barron's Educational Series. p. 322. ISBN 0-7641-2226-6. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- Koszegi (1992), pg. 3
- Kennedy, N. Brent; Robyn Vaughan Kennedy (1997). The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People: An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing in America. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. pp. 118–122, 159. ISBN 0-86554-516-2. "In fact, it is likely that the Melungeons are a blend of the Powhatans, the Lumbees, and the Santa Elena colonists, with a strong Moorish/Turkish element"
- Beers, Frederick L. (1884). History of Greene County, New York: with biographical sketches of its prominent men. New York: J.B. Beers & Co. pp. 20–22.
- Skinner, Charles Montgomery (1896). Myths and legends of our own land, Volume 1. New York: J. B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 24–25.
- "1700's". Muslims In America. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Capitalizing on the Morocco-US Free Trade Agreement: a road map for success by Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Claire Brunel p.1
- Thomas Jefferson's Iftar, U.S. Department of State, 29 July 2011, retrieved 2013-02-12
- By Editor, on November 25th, 2009 (2009-11-25). "History of American Muslims (2) « Middle East Studies Online Journal". Middle-east-studies.net. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Muslim roots of the blues, Jonathan Curiel, San Francisco Chronicle August 15, 2004
- Robert Battistini, "Glimpses of the Other before Orientalism: The Muslim World in Early American Periodicals, 1785-1800," Early American Studies Spring 2010, Vol. 8#2 pp 446-474
- "Savages of the Seas: Barbary Captivity Tales and Images of Muslims in the Early Republic," Journal of American Culture Summer 1990, Vol. 13#2 pp 75-84
- Frank Lambert, The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World (2007)
- Charles D. Russell, "Islam as a Danger to Republican Virtue: Broadening Religious Liberty in Revolutionary Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania History, Summer 2009, Vol. 76 Issue 3, pp 250-275
- Hutson, James H. "The Founding Fathers and Islam (May 2002) - Library of Congress Information Bulletin". Loc.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Treaty of Peace and Friendship Article 11. The Avalon Project. Yale Law School.
- "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin - Chapter 10". Earlyamerica.com. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Sniggle.net". Sniggle.net. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Home - Thomas Jefferson - Subject Research Guides at UVa Library". Etext.virginia.edu. 2011-04-21. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Remarks at the Annual State Department Iftaar Dinner". State.gov. 2009-09-15. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Denise A. Spellberg, " Could a Muslim Be President? An Eighteenth-Century Constitutional Debate, Eighteenth-Century Studies 39#4 (2006) pp 485-506
- Robert J. Allison, The Crescent Obscured: The United States and the Muslim World, 1776–1815 (1995) pp 57-59
- Samuel S. Hill, Charles H. Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson (2005). Encyclopedia of religion in the South. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-86554-758-0.
- Koszegi, Michael; Melton, J. Gordon (1992). Islam in North America: A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Publishing Inc. pp. 26–27.
- "Bound To Africa — The Mandinka Legacy In The New World" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- Gomez, Michael A. (November 1994). "Muslims in Early America". The Journal of Southern History (Southern Historical Association) 60 (4): 682. doi:10.2307/2211064. JSTOR 2211064.
- Gomez, Michael A. (November 1994). "Muslims in Early America". The Journal of Southern History (Southern Historical Association) 60 (4): 692, 693, 695. doi:10.2307/2211064. JSTOR 2211064.
- Thomas C. Parramore, "Muslim Slave Aristocrats in North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review, April 2000, Vol. 77 Issue 2, pp 127-150
- In 1991, a masjid in Fayetteville, North Carolina renamed itself Masjid Omar Ibn Said in his honor. Omar ibn Said Davidson Encyclopedia Tammy Ivins, June 2007
- "History of Muslims In America". Talkingaboutislam.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "1800's". Muslims In America. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Brief History of Islam in North America" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- SKSM.edu, History of Islam in the United States.
- Ishaq Zahid. "American Muslim History". Islam101.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- M'Bow, Amadou Mahtar; Kettani, Ali (2001). Islam and Muslims in the American continent. Beirut: Center of historical, economical and social studies. p. 109.
- Edward E. Curtis, Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History, Facts on File, Inc., 2010, pg. 198
- "Religion: Ramadan". Time. 1937-11-15. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- Queen, Edward L., Stephen Prothero and Gardiner H. Shattuck Jr. 1996. The Encyclopedia of American Religious History. New York: Facts on File.
- Ghazali, Abdul Sattar. "The number of mosque attendants increasing rapidly in America". American Muslim perspective
- Islam in the African-American Experience - Page 262, Richard Brent Turner - 2003
- Jacob Neusner (2003). pp.180-181. ISBN 978-0-664-22475-2.
- Moorish Science Temple of America Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2009-11-13.
- "The Muslim Program". Noi.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Omar Sacirbey (2006-05-16) Muslims Look to Blacks for Civil Rights Guidance Pew Forum. Retrieved on 2009-07-29.
- Farrakhan backs racial harmony BBC News (BBC). 2000-10-16. Retrieved on 2009-09-08.
- Dodoo, Jan (May 29, 2001). "Nation of Islam". University of Virginia.
- "Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2006". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- John Esposito (2008-09-10) W.D. Mohammed: A Witness for True Islam The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2009-06-21.
- Imam W. Deen Mohammed 1933 ~ 2008 - Chicago Tribune CAIR Chicago. Retrieved on 2009-11-12.
- Richard Brent Turner (2003). Islam in the African-American experience. pp. 225-227. ISBN 978-0-253-21630-4.
- Nation of Islam leader dies at 74 MSNBC. Retrieved on 2009-06-21.
- Warith Deen Mohammed: Imam who preached a moderate form of Islam to black Americans The Independent. 15 September 2008. Retrieved on 2009-04-22.
- "Paterson Social Security Attorney or Advocate". Social Security Disability Help. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Tom W. Smith, Estimating the Muslim Population in the United States, New York, The American Jewish Committee, October 2001". Ajc.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- CAIR website, American Muslims: Population Statistics
- Number of Muslims in the United States at Adherents.com. Retrieved on 6 January 2006
- Private studies fuel debate over size of U.S. Muslim population - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 28 October 2001
- Dooley, Tara. "Muslims gain Hispanic converts." Houston Chronicle at The Victoria Advocate. Saturday September 28, 2002. 2D and 3D. Retrieved from Google Books (45-46 of 51) on November 9, 2011.
- Andrea Elliot (2007-03-11) Between Black and Immigrant Muslims, an Uneasy Alliance The New York Times. Retrieved on 2009-07-23.
- Portrait of Muslims - Beliefs & Practices Pew Research Center
- Detroit Islamic Center Open Largest Mosque in United States Brittany Sterrett. June 2, 2005 Accessed August 19, 2007.
- Profile of the U.S. Muslim population, Dr Barry A. Kosmin & Dr Egon Mayer, 2 October 2001
- "Darul Uloom Chicago" (PDF). Shari'ah Board of America. p. 2. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- Jacoby, Jeff (January 10, 2007). "The Boston mosque's Saudi connection". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- "Schumer: Saudis playing role in spreading main terror influence in United States". United States Senator Charles Schumer. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- Alexiev, Alex. "Terrorism: Growing Wahhabi Influence in the United States". Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- "Vision" Examined at AMA’s Third Annual Convention
- "Muslims in America – A Statistical Portrait". America.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "American Muslim Demographics - Muslim American Populations Outreach Programs". Allied-media.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- United State Senate, Committee on the Judiciary , Testimony of Dr. J. Michael Waller October 12, 2003
- Federal Bureau of Investigation - Congressional Testimony[dead link]
- United State Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Testimony of Mr. Paul Rogers, President of the American Correctional Chaplains Association, October 12, 2003 Judiciary.senate.gov
- "Special Report: A Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons' Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers - Full Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Journal: THE FUTURE OF THE GLOBAL MUSLIM POPULATION by Pew Forum
- Justo Bautista (December 13, 2011). "Paterson Muslims to picket Lowe’s for pulling ads from TV series". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Patricia Smith. "Islam in America", New York Times Upfront. New York: Jan 9, 2006. Vol. 138, Iss. 8; pg. 10
- Brian Beutler. "GOP Muslims Fear Failure Of Bush Outreach Efforts After Anti-Mosque Furor | TPMDC". Tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Smears against Obama energized Muslim voters: experts". Reuters. 2008-11-06.
- "Zogby phone survey". Projectmaps.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Stars, Stripes, Crescent - A reassuring portrait of America's Muslims. The Wall Street Journal, 24 August 2005
- The Diversity of Muslims in the United States - Views as Americans - United States Institute of Peace. February 2006
- For Muslims at AZ Airport, a Place to Wash Before Prayers, Arizona Republic, May 20, 2004
- Indy Star Retrieved on 2008.
- Few find quiet chapel at DIA, Shannon Hurd, Boulder Daily Camera, April 20, 2002
- Shariah in the West, Steven Shwartz, Center for Islamic Pluralism, Retrieved on 2010.
- "Muslims in the military: Crescents among the crosses at Arlington Cemetery". altmuslim. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Among U.S. Religious Groups, Muslims Seen as Facing More Discrimination". Reuters.com. 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Muslims report rising disrcrimination at work". Postbulletin.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Emerson, William K.,"Encyclopedia of United States Army Insignia and Uniforms, 1996, University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 268, internet link retrieved May 15, 2011.
- The Mosque In America CAIR. Retrieved on 2010-08-04.
- Islamic Society of North America Official Website.
- "Islamic Circle of North America Official Website". Icna.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Islamic Supreme Council of America: Our Mission.
- Islamic Assembly of North America Official Website.
- "Muslim Student Association Official Website". Msa-natl.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Islamic Information Center Official Website.
- Category: Misc (2011-11-05). "Official site". Ahmadiyya.us. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "reference at end". Foxnews.com. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Muslim Public Affairs Council Official Website
- The American Islamic Congress Statement Of Principles[dead link]
- "Free Muslims Coalition". Freemuslims.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/Million-Muslim-March-Christian-Protesters-White-House-Sept-11-2013-223315411.html "Million Muslim March" Attendees Confronted by Christian Protesters on National Mall
- http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/11/million-muslim-march_n_3906303.html 'Million Muslim March' Shaping Up To Be More Like A Few Hundred People Walking Down The Street: Kevin Barrett at the March Leading
- "Inner-City Muslim Action Network Official Website". Imancentral.org. 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Islamic Relief Official Website". Irw.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Ann Walter Sieber, , Saudi Aramco World, January/February 2006
- Arlene Borenstein, , NBC Washington, July 28th, 2011
- Views of Muslim-Americans hold steady after London Bombings - Pew Research Center. 26 July 2005
- "NEWSWEEK Poll: Americans Are Mixed on U.S. Muslims". New York: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Restrictions on Civil Liberties, Views of Islam, & Muslim Americans - Cornell University. December 2005
- Poll news CBS.
- "Muslim Americans are optimistic despite discrimination, new poll says". CSMonitor.com. 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- PDF (656 KB), Pew Research Center, 22 May 2007
- "Major poll finds U.S. Muslims Mostly Mainstream". VOA News (Voice of America). 1 June 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
- "Gallup Poll: Most Muslim-Americans Loyal to US". Newsmax.com. 2011-08-02. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Civil Rights Division Post-9/11 Enforcement and Outreach". U.S. Department of Justice.
- Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
- "Humanitykingdom.com" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Nieves, Evelyn (2001-10-06). "Slain Arab-American May Have Been Hate-Crime Victim". The New York Times.
- Siddiqui, Habib (2005-01-08). "Home / Articles / Is there a solution to racism? - Media Monitors Network (MMN)". Usa.mediamonitors.net. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Ahmed Rehab: Hijab Case: Why Bigoted Battery Makes For A Hate Crime". Huffingtonpost.com. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Tolerance.org: Violence against Arab and Muslim Americans: Alabama to Massachusetts
- Tolerance.org: Violence against Arab and Muslim Americans: Michigan to Wisconsin
- "All-American Muslim: All-American Muslim: TLC". Tlc.howstuffworks.com. 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Minnesota's Muslim cab drivers face crackdown". Reuters. April 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- "Target shifts Muslims who won’t ring up pork products". MSNBC. March 17, 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Startribune.com[dead link]
- Gao, Helen (2007-07-02). "Muslim prayers in school debated | The San Diego Union-Tribune". Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Bush like Hitler, says first Muslim in Congress The Telegraph
- Congressman Admits 9/11 Error, Associated Press, July 18, 2007
- Sun Times Retrieved on 2008.
- "Assessing The Terrorist Threat" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Islamists Dominate DOJ's List of Terror Prosecutions". Investigativeproject.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Threat of Homegrown Islamist Terrorism". Cfr.org. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Jenkins, Brian Michael (May 2010). "No Path to Glory: Deterring Homegrown Terrorism". RAND Corporation.
- "Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11". JournalistsResource.org, retrieved 20 March 2012
- Kurzman, Charles (February 2012). "Muslim-American Terrorism in the Decade Since 9/11". Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security.
- Fact Sheet: Department of Justice Anti-Terrorism Efforts Since Sept. 11, 2001, U.S. Department of Justice, September 5, 2006
- Curtis IV, Edward E., ed. Columbia Sourcebook of Muslims in the United States (2007), 472pp table of contents
- Curtis IV, Edward E. Muslims in America: A Short History (2009)
- Curtis IV, Edward E. Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History (2010), 715pp
- GhaneaBassiri, Kambiz. A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order (Cambridge University Press; 2010) 416 pages; chronicles the Muslim presence in America across five centuries.
- Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, Jane I. Smith, and Kathleen M. Moore. Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today (2006)
- Kabir, Nahib . Muslims in Australia: Immigration, Race Relations and Cultural History, London: Routledge ISBN 978-0-7103-1108-5 (2005)
- Kidd, Thomas. S. American Christians and Islam - Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2008 ISBN 978-0-691-13349-2
- Koszegi, Michael A., and J. Gordon Melton, eds. Islam In North America (Garland Reference Library of Social Science) (1992)
- Marable, Manning; Aidi, Hishaam D, eds. (2009). Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-8400-X.
- Smith, Jane I; Islam in America (2nd ed. 2009)
- Islam on Capitol Hill (Internet home of Islam affirmation event at Capitol Hill on September 25, 2009)
- Islamic Center of Beverly Hills
- Muslim American Outreach
Guides and reference listings
- GaramChai.com: Mosques (listings of mosques in the United States)
Academia and news
- The Muslim Journal
- Allied Media Corporation: Muslim American Market: MUSLIM AMERICAN MEDIA
- The As-Sunnah Foundation of America: The Islamic Community In The United States: Historical Development
- DinarStandard: The Untapped American Muslim Consumer Market
- Euro Islam.info: Islam in the United States
- Internet Archive: An Oral History of Islam in Pittsburgh (2006)
- OnIslam.net: What Goes First for American Muslims: A Guide to A Better-engaged Community
- OnIslam.net: Politicking U.S. Muslims: How Can U.S. Muslims Change Realities - Interview with Dr. Salah Soltan
- OnIslam.net: US Muslims: The Social Angle - Interview with Dr. Mazen Hashem
- Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: How many Muslims are there in the U.S. and the rest of the world?
- The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life: Muslims Widely Seen As Facing Discrimination
- Pew Research Center: Publications: Muslim Americans: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream
- The Pluralism Project at Harvard University: Distribution of Muslim Centers in the U.S.
- Qantara.de: African-American Muslims: The American Values of Islam
- San Francisco State University: Media Guide to Islam: Timeline of Islam in the United States
- Social Science Research Network: What Every Political Leader in America and the West should Know about the Arab-Islamic World
- Spiegel.de, A Lesson for Europe: American Muslims strive to become model citizens
- United States Institute of Peace: The Diversity of Muslims in the United States: Views as Americans
- TIME: Muslim in America (photo essay)
- Valparaiso University: Muslims as a Percentage of all Residents, 2000
- Growing Up in 9/11 Shadow OnIslam.net
- In 9/11 Memory, U.S. Faiths Urge Unity OnIslam.net