Muslim holidays

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There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha. Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion. Eid Al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah and lasts for four days, during which Muslims usually sacrifice an animal and distribute its meat among family, friends, and the poor.

Both holidays occur on dates in the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, which is lunar, and thus their dates in the Gregorian calendar, which is solar, change each year. The Gregorian calendar is based on the orbital period of the Earth's revolution around the Sun, approximately 36514 days, while the Islamic calendar is based on the synodic period of the Moon's revolution around the Earth, approximately 2912 days. The Islamic calendar alternates months of 29 and 30 days (which begin with the new moon). Twelve of these months constitute an Islamic year, which is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian year.

Eid holidays[edit]

Main articles: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha

Religious practice[edit]

Fasting[edit]

Main article: Ramadan

Ramadan is the month in which Muslims must fast from dawn to sunset. This is meant to feel how the poor people are without food or water. In addition, Muslims fast by denying themselves both food and drink. This, they believe in turn allows for the nourishment of the soul. In addition, there are culture-specific beliefs regarding the watching of television, listening to music, and the perusal of any secular vice that does not in some way enhance spirituality.

Pilgrimage[edit]

Further information: Hajj

Hajj[edit]

Main article: Hajj

Umrah[edit]

Main article: Umrah

Dates of holidays and other days of note[edit]

Hijri date 1434 AH[1][2] 1435 AH[3][4] 1436 AH[5][6] 1437 AH[7][8] 1438 AH[9][10]
Islamic New Year 1 Muḥarram 15 Nov. 2012 4 Nov. 2013 25 Oct. 2014 14 Oct. 2015 2 Oct. 2016
Day of Ashura 10 Muḥarram 24 Nov. 2012 13 Nov. 2013 3 Nov. 2014 23 Oct. 2015 11 Oct. 2016
Arba'een[a] 20 Ṣafar 2 Jan. 2013 23 Dec. 2013 12 Dec. 2014 2 Dec. 2015 20 Nov. 2016
Mawlid an-Nabī[b] 12 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Sunnis) 24 Jan. 2013 13 Jan. 2014 3 Jan. 2015 23 Dec. 2015 11 Dec. 2016
17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Shias) 29 Jan. 2013 18 Jan. 2014 8 Jan. 2015 28 Dec. 2015 16 Dec. 2016
Birthday of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib[a] 13 Rajab 23 May 2013 12 May 2014 2 May 2015 20 Apr. 2016 10 Apr. 2017
Laylat al-Mi'raj 27 Rajab[c] 6 June 2013 26 May 2014 16 May 2015 4 May 2016 24 Apr. 2017
Laylat al-Bara'at 15 Sha‘bān 24 June 2013 13 June 2014 2 June 2015 22 May 2016 11 May 2017
Birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdī[d] 15 Sha‘bān 24 June 2013 13 June 2014 2 June 2015 22 May 2016 11 May 2017
First day of Ramaḍān 1 Ramaḍān 9 July 2013 29 June 2014 18 June 2015 6 June 2016 27 May 2017
Laylat al-Qadr 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, or 29 Ramaḍān[e] between
28 July & 6 Aug. 2013
between
17 & 26 July 2014
between
7 & 16 July 2015
between
25 June & 4 July 2016
between
15 & 24 June 2017
Chaand Raat[f] 29 or 30 Ramaḍān[g] 7 Aug. 2013 27 July 2014 16 July 2015 5 July 2016 24 June 2017
Eid al-Fitr 1 Shawwāl 8 Aug. 2013 28 July 2014 17 July 2015 6 July 2016 25 June 2017
Hajj 8–13 Dhū al-Ḥijja 13–18 Oct. 2013 2–7 Oct. 2014 21–26 Sep. 2015 9–14 Sep. 2016 30 Aug. – 4 Sep. 2017
Day of Arafa 9 Dhū al-Ḥijja 14 Oct. 2013 3 Oct. 2014 22 Sep. 2015 10 Sep. 2016 31 Aug. 2017
Eid al-Adha 10 Dhū al-Ḥijja 15 Oct. 2013 4 Oct. 2014 23 Sep. 2015 11 Sep. 2016 1 Sep. 2017
Eid al-Ghadeer[a] 18 Dhū al-Ḥijja 23 Oct. 2013 12 Oct. 2014 1 Oct. 2015 19 Sep. 2016 9 Sep. 2017
  1. ^ a b c Primarily observed by Shias.
  2. ^ Not observed by some Sunnis.
  3. ^ There is some disagreement about this date; see Isra and Mi'raj.
  4. ^ Primarily observed by Twelver Shias.
  5. ^ Most often observed on 27 Ramaḍān; see Laylat al-Qadr.
  6. ^ Primarily observed in South Asia.
  7. ^ Observed on the last evening of Ramaḍān; see Chaand Raat.

Some Gregorian dates may vary slightly from those given, and may also vary by country. See Islamic calendar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2013 Special Islamic Days". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Gregorian/Hijri Calendar for 1434". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "2014 Special Islamic Days". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "Gregorian/Hijri Calendar for 1435". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "2015 Special Islamic Days". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Gregorian/Hijri Calendar for 1436". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "2016 Special Islamic Days". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "Gregorian/Hijri Calendar for 1437". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  9. ^ "2017 Special Islamic Days". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Gregorian/Hijri Calendar for 1438". Islamic Finder. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Leaman, Oliver, "Festivals of Love", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 197-199.

External links[edit]