List of Muslim philosophers

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Muslim philosophers both profess Islam and engage in a style of philosophy situated within the structure of Islamic culture, though not necessarily concerned with religious issues.[1] Theoretical questions were raised from the beginning of Islam, questions which could to a certain extent be answered by reference to Islamic texts such as the Quran, the practices of the community and the traditional sayings of the Prophet and his Companions. The sayings and works of the companions of the Prophet, however, include little discussion of philosophical questions.[a][3] This is because the Arabs were not familiar with philosophical thought, until during the 8th century, when they saw examples of it through translation of certain philosophical works into Arabic.[3]

In the beginning of the 10th century Philosophy was revived by al-Farabi. Later on as a result of the works Avicenna, Peripatetic philosophy reached its full development. Then, in the 12th century the philosophy of illumination was systematized by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi. Thereafter, philosophy declined significantly among the Muslim majority in the Sunni world and so there was no notable philosopher in that part of the Islam world, except in Andalusia where Averroes attempted to revive the study of philosophy at the end of the 12th century.[2][3]

Although after Averroes philosophy disappeared in the Sunni world, it continued to live among Shiites through works of great philosophers such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mir Damad, and Mulla Sadra. It is said that the element which was instrumental in development of philosophical thought in Shiism, and through Shiism in other Islamic circles, was the existence of this same teachings inherited from the Shiite Imams.[3][4] According to Corbin, "The monumental work of Mulla Sadra includes an invaluable commentary on the corpus of the Shiite traditions of al-Kulayni."[2] Ali's Nahj al-Balagha is also regarded as a main source of the doctrines professed by Shiite thinkers such as Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra, their pupils and their pupils' pupils:Ahmad al-Alawi, Mohsen Fayz Kashani, Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji, Qazi Sa’id Qumi, etc.[2]Thus, the new developments of philosophical thought, at a time when it declined significantly in Sunni world, was due to treasury of knowledge left behind by the Shiite Imams.[b][2][4]

Full Name /Short Name Image Period CE Branch Philosophy
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī /Al-Kindi Al-kindi.jpeg 801–873 Al-Kindi was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is considered as the "father of Islamic or Arabic philosophy"[5][6][7] for promotion of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy in the Muslim world.[8] One of al-Kindi's central concerns was to show compatibility of philosophy with speculative theology. However, he would prefer the revelation to reason as he thought it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover.[9]
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi Zakariya Razi 001.JPG 854–925 Other than being the discoverer of alcohol and sulfuric acid),[10] he was a great philosopher. His theory of the soul, explained in The Metaphysics, was derived from Islam in which he declared that God, out of pity for the desires of the eternal soul, created a physical playground for it. Once the soul fell into the new realm which God made, it became lost and required a further gift of intellect from God in order to find its way once more to salvation and freedom.[11] In his Philosophical Biography, al-Razi defended his philosophical lifestyle, emphasizing that, rather than being self-indulgent, man utilize his intellect, and apply justice in his life. He also issued a strong defense against his critics in Al Syrat al Falsafiah (The Philosophical Approach).[11][12]
Abū Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Fārābī /Al-Farabi Al-Farabi.jpg 872–951 Acording to Henry Corbin Al-Farabi was a shi'a philosopher.[c] Al-Farabi as well as Ibn Sina and Averroes have been recognized as Peripatetics (al-Mashsha’iyun) or rationalists (Estedlaliun) among Muslims.[13][14][15] However, he tried to gather the ideas of Plato and Aristotle in his book "The gathering of the ideas of the two philosophers".[16] According to Adamson, his work was singularly directed towards the goal of simultaneously reviving and reinventing the Alexandrian philosophical tradition, to which his Christian teacher, Yuhanna bin Haylan belonged. His success should be measured by the honorific title of "the second master" of philosophy (Aristotle being the first), by which he was known.[17]
Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani ?-971 Shiite He was deeply inspired by neoplatonism. His cosmology and metaphysics develop a concept of God as the one beyond both being and non-being. Intellect is the first existent being, originated by God. In contrast to many other Islamic philosophers, al-Sijistani insists that intelect does not divide or separate. It remains a whole and is universal. Only one intellect engenders by procession the soul. The soul falls therefore on its higher side within the lower horizon of intellect whereas its own lower aspect is nature, a semi-hypostatic being between the spiritual and the physical realm. The goal of religion and prophecy is to reorient the soul toward its true higher self and ultimately to return to its original state.[18][19][20]
Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri ?-992 He was a Muslim theologian and philosopher of Persian origin, who attempted to defend Islam against a form of philosophy which was regarded as independent of revelation. He consistently sought to find areas of agreement and synthesis between disparate Islamic sects.[21][22] Chapter 1 and 7 of his book al-I'lam bi manaqib al-Islam (An Exposition on the Merits of Islam) has been translated into English under the titles The Quiddity of Knowledge and the Appurtenances of its Species [23] and The Excellences of Islam in Relation to Royal Authority.[24] His other book Kitab al-amad 'ala'l-abad (On the Afterlife) [25] also has an English translation.
Ebn Meskavayh 932–1030 As a neo-platonist, his influence on Islamic philosophy is primarily in the area of ethics.[26] He was the author of the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics, entitled Tahdhib al-akhlaq (Refinement of Morals), focusing on practical ethics, conduct, and refinement of character. He separated personal ethics from the public realm, and contrasted the liberating nature of reason with the deception and temptation of nature.[26]
Abul ʿAla Al-Maʿarri / Al-Maʿarri 973–1058 He was a controversial rationalist of his time, attacking the dogmas of religion and has been described as a pessimistic freethinker.[27] His work Unnecessary Necessity (Luzūm mā lam yalzam) shows how he saw the business of living. In his other work The Epistle of Forgiveness (Risālat al-ghufrān) he visits paradise and meets the Arab poets of the pagan period, contrary to Muslim doctrine which holds that only those who believe in God can find salvation. Because of the aspect of conversing with the deceased in paradise, the Resalat Al-Ghufran has been compared to the Divine Comedy of Dante[28] which came hundreds of years after.
Abū Ali Sīnā / Avicenna Avicenna TajikistanP17-20Somoni-1999 (cropped).png 980–1037 A Persian[29][30][31][32] polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.[33] Avicennism was also influential in medieval Europe, particular his doctrines on the nature of the soul and his existence-essence distinction, along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe. This was particularly the case in Paris, where Avicennism was later proscribed in 1210. Nevertheless, his psychology and theory of knowledge influenced William of Auvergne, Bishop of Paris and Albertus Magnus, while his metaphysics had an impact on the thought of Thomas Aquinas.[34]
Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani 996–1021 He was one of the most learned Ismaili theologians and philosophers of the Fatimid period. Al-Kirmani rose to prominence during the reign of Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Hakim.[35] His major philosophical treatise, the Rahat al-aql (Peace of Mind), was finished in 1020. In this work, Al-Kirmani intended to provide the reader an opportunity to understand how to obtain the eternal life of the mind, the paradise of reason, in a constantly changing world. Al-Aqwal al-dhahabiya, (refuting al-Razi's argument against the necessity of revelation) and Kitab al-riyad(a book that propounds the early Isma'ili cosmology) are also among his prominent works.[35]
Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī /Nasir Khusraw Насир Хосров.JPG 1004–1088 Shiite He was a Persian poet,[36][37] philosopher, Isma'ili scholar and traveler. Knowledge and Liberation is the first of his doctrinal treatises to be translated into English. Consisting of a series of 30 questions and answers, it addresses some of the central theological and philosophical issues of his time, ranging from the creation of the world and the nature of the soul to the questions of human free will and accountability in the afterlife.[38] His two larger mathnavis, includ theRawshana-i-nama (Book of Enlightenment), and the Sa'datnama (Book of Felicity).
Ibn Bâjja /Avempace 1095–1138 Sunni His chief philosophical tenets seem to have included belief in the possibility that the human soul could become united with the Divine. This union was conceived as the final stage in an intellectual ascent beginning with the impressions of sense objects that consist of form and matter and rising through a hierarchy of spiritual forms (i.e., forms containing less and less matter) to the Active Intellect, which is an emanation of the deity. His most important philosophical work is Tadbīr al-mutawaḥḥid (The Regime of the Solitary).[39]
Afdal al-Din Kashani ?- 1213 He was a Persian[40] poet and philosopher.[41] His major concern is to explain the salvific power of true knowledge, i.e., self-knowledge.[41] His philosophy is an autology (Persian: ḵhod-šenāsī). That is: "To know oneself is to know the everlasting reality that is consciousness, and to know it is to be it."[41] His ontology is interconnected simultaneously with his epistemology, because according to him, full actualization of the potentialities of the universe can only take place through the self-awareness of human beings.[41]
Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī /Al-Ghazali 1058–1111 His main workThe Incoherence of the Philosophers marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. His encounter with skepticism led al-Ghazali to embrace a form of belief that all causal events are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God. Later on, in the next century, Averroes drafted a lengthy rebuttal of al-Ghazali's Incoherence entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence.[42]
Abū l-Walīd Muḥammad bin ʾAḥmad bin Rušd /Averroes BAE09705.jpg 1126–1198 He has been described as the "founding father of secular thought in Western Europe"[43][44] and was known by the sobriquet the Commentator for his detailed emendations to Aristotle.His most important original philosophical work was The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa). His other works were the Fasl al-Maqal and the Kitab al-Kashf.[43][44]
Ibn Tufail 1105–1185 Sunni His work Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, is known as The Improvement of Human Reason in English and is a philosophical and allegorical novel which tells the story of aferal child named Hayy who is raised by a gazelle and is living alone without contact with other human beings. In this story Ibn Tufail determines that certain trappings of religion are necessary for the multitude though they may also be distractions from the truth. This work is considered as both a continuation of Avicenna's version of the story and as a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which had criticized many of Avicenna's views.[45]
Najmuddin Kubra 1145–1220 As the founder of the Kubrawiyya Sufi order and exemplary of a "golden age" of Sufi metaphysics,[46], he is remembered as a pioneer of the Sufi tradition. He wrote books discussing dreams and visionary experience, including a Sufi commentary on the Quran.[47]
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi 1149–1209 Sunni His major work Tafsir-e Kabir contains much of philosophical interest, one of which was the self-sufficiency of the intellect. He believed that proofs based on tradition (hadith) could never lead to certainty (yaqin) but only to presumption (zann). Al-Razi's rationalism undoubtedly "holds an important place in the debate in the Islamic tradition on the harmonization of reason and revelation.[48]
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi\ Suhrawardi 1155–1191 He was the founder of Illuminationism, an important school in Islamic mysticism. The "light" in his "Philosophy of Illumination" is a divine and metaphysical source of knowledge which was to have far-reaching consequences for Islamic philosophy and a strong influence on subsequent esoteric.[49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]
Ibn Arabi Ibn Arabi.jpg 1165–1240 He was an Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic. His book Fusus al-Hikam (The Ringstones of Wisdom) can be characterized as a summary of his teachings and mystical beliefs, which deals with the role played by various prophets in divine revelation.[57][58][59]
Khawaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi /Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Al-Tusi Nasir.jpeg 1201–1274 Shiite He was a supporter of Avicennian logic and was described by Ibn Khaldun as the greatest of the later Persian scholars.[60] Corresponded with Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, the son-in-law of Ibn al-'Arabi, he thought mysticism, as propagated by Sufi masters of his time, was not appealing to his mind and so he composed his own manual of philosophical Sufism in the form of a small booklet entitled Awsaf al-Ashraf (The Attributes of the Illustrious).
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī / Rumi Molana.jpg 1207–1273 Described as the "most popular poet in America",[61] he was an evolutionary thinker in that he believed that all matter in the universe after devolution from the divine Ego undergoes an evolutionary process by which it comes nearer and nearer to the same divine Ego,[62] which is due to an inbuilt urge (which Rumi calls "love"). Rumi's major work is the Maṭnawīye Ma'nawī (Spiritual Couplets) regarded by some Sufis[63] as the Persian-language Qur'an.[64] His other work, Fihi Ma Fihi (In It What's in It), includes seventy-one talks given on various occasions to his disciples.[65]
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Ibn al-Nafis) Ibn al-Nafis.jpg 1213–1288 His Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah orTheologus Autodidactus is arguably the first theological novel in which he attempted to establish that the human mind is capable of deducing the natural, philosophical and religious truths of the universe through reasoning.[66] He described the book as a defense of "the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world".[67]
Qotb al-Din Shirazi Ghotb2.jpg 1217–1311 He was a Sufi from Shiraz who was famous for the commentary on Hikmat al-ishraq of Suhrawardi. His most famous work is the Durrat al-taj li-ghurratt al-Dubaj (Pearly Crown) which is an Encyclopedic work on philosophy and includes philosophical outlook on natural sciences, theology, logic, public affairs, ethnics, mystiicsm, astronomy, mathematics, arithmetic and music.[41]
Abu Mohammed Abd el-Hakh Ibn Sabin (Ibn Sabin) 1236–1269 Sunni He was a Sufi philosopher, the last philosopher of the Andalus in the west land of Islamic world. He was known for his replies to questions sent to him by Frederick II, ruler of Sicily. His school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts."[68]
Sayyid Haydar Amuli Sayyid haydar mir haydar amuli.jpg 1319–1385 Shiite He was an early representative of Persian Imamah theosophy and main commentators of the mystic philosopher Ibn Arabi. Among his major ideas was that the Imams who were endowed with mystical knowledge were not just guides to the Shiite community but also the Sufi community. Amuli was both a critic of Shiites (who limited their religion to a legalistic system) and Sufis who denied certain principles that originated from the Imams.[69] He also explained the differences between pure monotheism (tawḥīd olūhī) and the inner tawḥīd woǰūdī, which says nothing else exists except for God.[69] He states that the tawḥīd woǰūdī will be proved with the arrival of the twelfth Imam, Mahdi.[69]
Taftazani 1322–1390 Sunni Al-Taftazani's treatises, even the commentaries, are "standard books" for students of Islamic theology. His papers have been called a "compendium of the various views regarding the great doctrines of Islam".[70]
Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn Al-Hadrami (Ibn Khaldun) Ibn Khaldun.jpg 1332–1406 Sunni He is known for his The Muqaddimah which Arnold J. Toynbee called it "a philosophy of history which is undoubtedly the greatest work of its kind."[71] Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government, "an institution which prevents injustice other than such as it commits itself", the best in the history of political theory.[72] His theory of social conflict explains the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life and the inevitable loss of power that occurs when desert warriors conquer a city.[73]
Abdul Karim Jili 1366–1424 Sunni Jili was the foremost systematizer and one of the greatest exponents of the work of Ibn Arabi. Universal Man is his explanation of Ibn Arabi’s teachings on the structure of reality and human perfection, which is considered as one of the masterpieces of Sufi literature.[74][75] Jili conceived of the Absolute Being as a Self, a line of thinking which later influenced the 20th century Indian Muslim philosopher and poet Allama Iqbal.[76]
Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami (Jami) Jami poet.jpg 1414–1492 Sunni His Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) includes seven stories, one of which Salaman and Absal tells the story of a carnal attraction of a prince for his wet-nurse,[77] through which Jami uses allegorical symbols to depict the key stages of the Sufi path such as repentance.[78][79] One of his most profound ideas was the mystical and philosophical explanations of the nature of divine mercy, which was a result of his commentary to other works.[80]
Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī / Shaykh‐i Bahāʾī Sheik bahayi.jpg 1547–1621 Regarded as a leading scholar and mujaddid of the seventeenth century,[41] he composed works on tafsir, hadith, grammar and fiqh (jurisprudence).[41] In his work Resāla fi’l-waḥda al-wojūdīya (Exposition of the concept of "Unity of Existences"), he states that the Sufis are the true believers, calls for an unbiased assessment of their utterances, and refers to his own mystical experiences.[41]
Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi / Mir Damad  ?-1631 Shiite Professing in the Neoplatonizing Islamic Peripatetic traditions of Avicenna and Suhrawardi, he was the foremost figure (together with his student Mulla Sadra), of the cultural renaissance of Iran undertaken under the Safavid dynasty. As such he was the central founder of the School of Isfahan, noted by his students and admirers as the Third Teacher (mu'alim al-thalith) after Aristotle and al-Farabi.[81] Taqwim al-Iman (Calendars of Faith), Kitab Qabasat al-Ilahiyah (Book of the Divine Embers of Fiery Kindling), Kitab al-Jadhawat (Book of Spiritual Attractions) and Sirat al-Mustaqim (The Straight Path) are among his 134 works.[81]
Mir Fendereski 1562–1640 Shiite He was trained in the works of Avicenna and Mulla Sadra studied under him.[82] His best-known work is titled al-Resāla al-ṣenāʿiya, an examination of the arts and professions within an ideal society. The importance of this treatise is that it combines a number of genres and subject areas: political and ethical thought, metaphysics, and the critical subject of the classifications of the sciences.[41]
(Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī) / Mulla Sadra 1571–1641 Shiite According to Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra is the most important influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years.[83][84] He is considered the master of Ishraqi school of Philosophy, a seminal figure who synthesized the many tracts of the Islamic Golden Age philosophies into what he called the Transcendent Theosophy or al-hikmah al-muta’liyah. He brought a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality and created a major transition from essentialism to existentialism in Islamic philosophy.[85]
Qazi Sa’id Qumi 1633–1692 Shiite He was the pupil of Rajab Ali Tabrizi, Muhsen Feyz and Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji. He left a notebook of annotations on the Theology attributed to Aristotle, a work which Muslim philosophers have always continued to read. His commentaries on al-Tawhid by al-Shaykh al-Saduq is also famous.[86]
Qutb-ud-Dīn Ahmad ibn 'Abdul Rahīm /Shah Waliullah 1703–1762 Sunni He attempted to reassess Islamic theology in the light of modern changes. His master work The Conclusive Argument of God is about Muslim theology and is still frequently referred to by new Islamic circles. Al-Budur al-bazighah (The Full Moons Rising in Splendor) is another work of him in which he attempts to explain the fundamentals of faith in light of rational and traditional arguments.[87][88]
Allama Muhammad Iqbal Iqbal.jpg 1877–1938 Other than being an eminent poet, he is highly acclaimed "Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times".[89] He wrote two books on the topic of The Development of Metaphysics in Persia and The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam[90] In which he revealed his thoughts regarding Islamic Sufism and that it activates the searching soul to a superior perception of life.[90] God, the meaning of prayer, human spirit and Muslim culture are among the other issues discussed in these works.[90]
Allameh Seyed Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei Allame-Tabatabai-youth.jpg 1892–1981 Shiite He is famous for Tafsir al-Mizan, the Quranic exegesis. His philosophy is focused upon the sociological treatment of human problems.[91] In his later years he would often hold study sessions with Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, in which the classical texts of divine wisdom and gnosis along with what Nasr calls comparative gnosis were discussed. Shi'a Islam, The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism (Persian: Usul-i-falsafeh va ravesh-i-ri'alism‎) and Dialogues with Professor Corbin (Persian: Mushabat ba Ustad Kurban‎) are among his works.[91]
Abul A'la Maududi / Maududi Abul ala maududi.jpg 1903–1979 Sunni His major work is The Meaning of the Qur'an in which he explains that The Quran is not a book of abstract theories and cold ideas, but a Book which contains a message which generates a movement.[92] Islam, he believes, is not a 'religion' in the sense this term is commonly understood, but a system encompassing all fields of living.[93] In his book Islamic Way of Lifehe largely expanded on this view.
Henry Corbin 1903–1978 He was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris where he encountered Louis Massignon, and it was he who introduced Corbin to the writings of Suhrawardi whose work was to profoundly affect the course of Corbin's life.[94] In his History of Islamic Philosophy, he disproved the common view that philosophy among the Muslims came to an end after Averroes, showed rather that a lively philosophical activity persisted in the eastern Muslim world – especially Iran – and continues to our own day.[94]
Rasheed Turabi AllamahRasheed1.jpg 1908–1973 Shiite He was an Islamic scholar of fiqh, tafseer and kalam who was a student of Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Ayatullah Hakeem Tabatabai, Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei and Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari and obtained Ijazah from these luminaries to serve as an authentic interpreter of the Islamic intellectual tradition.[95]
Abdel Rahman Badawi 1917–2002 He adopted existentialism since he wrote his "Existentialist Time" in 1943. According to his own description, his version of existentialism differs from Heidegger's and other existentialists in that it gives priority for action rather than thought. Later on, in his book Humanism And Existentialism In Arab Thought, he tried to root his ideas in his own culture.[96][97]
Morteza Motahhari/ Ustad Motahhari Motahari.jpg 1919–1979 Shiite Considered among the important influences on the ideologies of the Islamic Republic,[98] he started from the Hawza of Qom. Then he taught philosophy in the University of Tehran for 22 years. Between 1965 and 1973, however, he gave regular lectures at the Hosseiniye Ershad in Northern Tehran, most of which have been turned into books on Islam, Iran, and historical topics.[99]
Mohammad-Taqi Ja'fari / Allameh Ja'fari Məhəmməd Təği Cəfəri.jpg 1923–1998 Shiite He wrote many books on variety of fields, the most prominent of which are his 15-volume Interpretation and Criticism of Rumi's Masnavi, and his unfinished, 27-volume Translation and Interpretation of the Nahj al-Balagha. These works shows his ideas in fields like anthropology, sociology, moral ethics, philosophy and mysticism. Intelligible Life which is translated into English is also among his works.[100]
Mawlana Muhammad Atta-ullah Faizani /Mawlana Faizani 1923– ? (possibly living) He discusses 20th century faith arguing that one must use science and the creation as experienced through the five senses, in order to be able to establish belief and certainty in God. Man and the Secrets of Nearness is among his works.[101]
Mohammed Arkoun Arkoun.jpg 1928–2010 He wrote on Islam and modernity trying to rethink the role of Islam in the contemporary world. His works presented a welcome counterpoint to the ideological debate about Islam in both Muslim and non-Muslim world.[102] In his book Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers he offers his responses to several questions for those who are concerned about the identity crisis which left many Muslims estranged from both modernity and tradition.[103] The Unthought In Contemporary Islamic Thought] is also among his works.
Israr Ahmed 1932–2010 He is the author of Islamic Renaissance: The Real Task Ahead in which he explained the abstract idea of the Caliphate system, arguing that it would only be possible by reviving Iman and faith among the Muslims in general and intelligentsia in particular. This would, he says, remove the existing contrast between modern sciences, and Islamic revealed knowledge.[104]
Abdollah Javadi-Amoli Ayatollah-Abdollah-Javadi-Amoli.jpg 1933– Shiite He advocates Islamic philosophy and in particular Sadra Mutahillin's transcendent school of philosophy.[85] Tafsir Tasnim is his exegesis of the Quran in which he follows Tabatabaei's al-Mizan, in that he tries to interpret a verse based on other verses.[105] His other work As-Saareh-e-Khelqat is a discussions about the philosophy of faith and evidence of the existence of an almighty God.
Hossein Nasr Hossein nasr.jpg 1933– Shiite He Is an Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and renowned scholar of comparative religion, a lifelong student of Frithjof Schuon, and writes mostly in the fields of Islamic esoterism and Sufism. Author of over fifty books and five hundred articles(number of which can be find in the journal Studies in Comparative Religion)), Professor Nasr is a well known and highly respected intellectual figure both in the West and the Islamic world.[106]
Sadiq Jalal al-Azm Sadik at UCLA 5-10-06.JPG 1934– His main area of specialization has been the works of Immanuel Kant, though now places a greater emphasis on the Islamic world and its relationship to the West. He is also known as a human rights advocate and a champion of intellectual freedom and free speech.[107]
Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi 1934– Shiite He is an Islamic Faqih who has also studied works of Avicenna and Mulla Sadra. He advocates Islamic philosophy and in particular Mulla Sadra's transcendent school of philosophy. His book Philosophical Instructions: An Introduction to Contemporary Islamic Philosophy is translated into English.[108]
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr.jpg 1935–1980 Shiite He was an Iraqi Shia philosopher and ideological founder of the Islamic Dawa Party. His book Falsafatuna (Our Philosophy) is a collection of basic notions concerning the world, and his way of considering it. These concepts are divided into two investigations: The theory of knowledge, and the philosophical notion of the world.[109]
Mohammed Abed al-Jabri 1935–2010 He is a critical rationalist in the tradition of Avincenna and Averroes. In his book Democracy, Human Rights and Law in Islamic Thought while he points out the distinctive nationality of the Arabs, he reject the philosophical discussion which have tried to ignore its democratic deficits. He emphasizes that concepts such as democracy and law cannot rely on old traditions in the history of Arabs, nor could be import. Rather, he says, a new tradition will have to be created by today's Arabs themselves.[110] The Formation of Arab Reason: Text, Tradition and the Construction of Modernity in the Arab World is also among his works.
Hosein Haj Faraj Dabbagh / Abdolkarim Soroush Oostad 020.jpg 1945– Shiite He is primarily interested in the philosophy of religion, the philosophical system of Rumi and comparative philosophy. In his book ‘the evolution and devolution of religious knowledge’ he argues that "

a religion (such as Islam) may be divine and unchanging, but our understanding of religion remains in a continuous flux and a totally human endeavor."[111][112]

Geydar Dzhemal 1947– He Is a Russian Islamic revolutionist and philosopher whose political analysis can be characterized as Islamic Marxism. In Dzhemal's writing, Marxism and Islam are both characterized by eschatology, and the Islamic umma play the messianic role of Marx's proletariat in directing to the final stage of history.[113]
Amir Dastmalchian Being interested in philosophy of religion and inter-religious dialogue, his major work is Religious Diversity in Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. It talks about the challenge that religious diversity poses to religious belief.[114]
Gary Carl (Muhammad) Legenhausen / Gary Legenhausen 1953– Islam and Religious Pluralism is among his works in which he advocates "non-reductive religious pluralism".[115] In his paper "The Relationship between Philosophy and Theology in the Postmodern Age" he is trying to examine whether philosophy can agree with theology.[116]
Mostafa Malekian 1956– Shiite He is working on Rationality and Spirituality in which he is trying to make Islam and reasoning compatible. His major is about spirituality and wisdom, called A Way to Freedom.[117]
Hamid Vahid Dastjerdi Shiite He is a Professor of Philosophy and the Head of the Analytic Philosophy Faculty at the Institute for Fundamental Sciences](IPM) in Tehran.[118] He is the author of Epistemic Justification and the Skeptical Challenge and The Epistemology of Belief along with many published works in English journals. In his paper "Islamic Humanism: From Science to Extinction" he is critical of Abdulkarim Sorush's Thesis of the evolution and devolution of religious knowledge.[112]
Tariq Ramadan Tariq Ramadan Profile Image.png 1962– Sunni Ramadan works primarily on Islamic theology and the position of Muslims in the West,[119] believing that Western Muslims must create a "Western Islam" which take into account cultural differences.[120] Meaning western Muslims should reexamine the fundamental texts of Islam and interpret them in light of their own cultural background.[121]


  1. ^ It is only Ali's Nahj al-Balagha which after the Quran and the [[[hadith]] of the Prophet, is considered to be the most important book for its both religious and philosophical thought.[2][3]
  2. ^ An example of this could be the conversations of Ali with his follower Kumayl ibn Ziyad in which Ali answers to the questions like 'What is truth?', or that he describes the esoteric succession of the Sages in this world. And if it is combined with the Logia of other Shiite Imams, it would be clear why the new developments of philosophical thought should have taken place in the Shiite world.[2]
  3. ^ See Corbin, Henry (2014). History of Islamic Philosophy. p. 158

See also[edit]


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  3. ^ a b c d e Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. SUNY press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 
  4. ^ a b Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present. SUNY Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7914-6799-2. 
  5. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2006). Islamic philosophy from its origin to the present : philosophy in the land of prophecy. State Univ. of New York Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-7914-6799-6. 
  6. ^ Abboud, Tony (2006). Al-Kindi : the father of Arab philosophy. Rosen Pub. Group. ISBN 1-4042-0511-X. 
  7. ^ Greenberg, Yudit Kornberg (2008). Encyclopedia of love in world religions 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 405. ISBN 1-85109-980-8. 
  8. ^ Klein-Frank, F. Al-Kindi. In Leaman, O & Nasr, H (2001). History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge. p 165
  9. ^ Klein-Franke, p166-167
  10. ^ History of civilizations of Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-1596-3, vol. IV, part two, p. 228.
  11. ^ a b Fakhri, Majid (2004). A History of Islamic Philosophy. Columbia University Press. 
  12. ^ Iqbal, Mohammad (2005). The Development of Metaphysics in Persia, a Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. 
  13. ^ Motahhari, Morteza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.166
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  16. ^ Motahhari, Mortaza, Becoming familiar with Islamic knowledge, V1, p.167
  17. ^ Reisman, D. Al-Farabi and the Philosophical Curriculum In Adamson, P & Taylor, R. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p55
  18. ^ Corbin, Henry (1949). Kashf al-mahjub (Revealing the Concealed). Tehran and Paris. 
  19. ^ Walker, P. (1994). The Wellsprings of Wisdom: A study of Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani's Kitab al-yanabi‘. Salt Lake City. 
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  27. ^ By Philip Khuri Hitti Islam, a way of life p. 147
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    من چه گویم وصف آن عالیجناب — نیست پیغمبر ولی دارد کتاب

    مثنوی معنوی مولوی — هست قرآن در زبان پهلوی

    What can I say in praise of that great one?
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    The Spiritual Masnavi of Mowlavi
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