Caliph of Islam
|Reign||29 May 1807 – 28 July 1808|
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire|
|Royal house||House of Osman|
|Father||Abdul Hamid I|
|Mother||Baş İkbal Nükhet-Sedâ/Nūkhat-Sazā Hanım Efendi; Valide Sultan: Ayşe Seniyeperver, adoptive mother|
|Born||8 September 1779|
|Died||15 November 1808(aged 29)|
Born in Constantinople, Mustafa IV was the child of Sultan Abdülhamid I (1774–1789) and Baş İkbal Nükhet-Sedâ/Nūkhat-Sazā Hanım Efendi. His mother was responsible for his education, but Mustafa preferred to live a life of pleasure instead of focusing on his studies.
Both he and his brother, Mahmud II, were the last remaining male members of the house of Osman I after their cousin, the reformist Sultan Selim III (1789–1807). They alone were therefore eligible to inherit the throne from Selim, by whom they were treated favorably. Since Mustafa was the eldest, he took precedence over his brother to the throne. During his short reign, Mustafa would both save his cousin's life, and order him murdered. Mustafa was Sultan Selim III's favourite crown prince, but he deceived his cousin and co-operated with the rebels to take his throne.
Mustafa came to the throne in the wake of the turbulent events that led to the fatwa against Selim for "introduce[ing] among the Moslems the manners of infidels and show[ing] an intention to suppress the Janissaries." Selim fled to the palace, where he swore fealty to his cousin as the new sultan, and attempted to commit suicide. Mustafa spared his life by smashing the cup of poison that his cousin attempted to drink.
Mustafa's brief reign was turbulent. Immediately upon ascending to the throne, the janissaries rioted throughout Constantinople, looting and murdering anyone who appeared to support Selim. More threatening, however, was a truce signed with the Russians, which freed Mustafa Bayrakdar, a pro-reformist commander stationed on the Danube to march his army back to Constantinople in an effort to restore Selim. With the aid of the Grand Vizier of Adrianople, the army marched on the capital and seized the palace.
Attempting to secure his position by positing himself as the only surviving heir of Osman, Mustafa ordered both Selim and his brother Mahmud murdered at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople. He then ordered his guards to show the rebels Selim's body, and they promptly tossed it into the inner courtyard of the palace. Mustafa then ascended his throne, assuming that Mahmud was also dead, but the prince had been hiding in the furnace of a bath. Just as the rebels demanded that Mustafa "yield his place to a worthier," Mahmud revealed himself, and Mustafa was deposed. The failure of his short reign prevented the efforts to undo the reforms, which continued under Mahmud. Mustafa was later killed on Mahmud's orders.
During his regency, Ayşe Seniyeperver (previously a Baş Kadın Efendi-Head Desire), his adoptive mother and the eleventh wife of Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid-i Awwal Khan served as Valide Sultan at Topkapı Palace. His wives were: ŞevriNur Kadınefendi, Dilpezir Kadınefendi, Seyyare Kadınefendi and Peykidil Kadınefendi. He had two children, a boy named Şehzade Ahmed, who was raised by her adoptive mother, Ayşe Seniyeperver Sultan and a girl named Emine Sultan who died in 1808 when six months old.
- Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 395, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2
- Lord Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire, Perennial, 1977, p. 437. ISBN 0-688-03093-9.
- Kinross, p. 433.
- Goodwin, p. 291.
- Kinross, p. 434.
Media related to Mustafa IV at Wikimedia Commons
Mustafa IVBorn: 8 September 1779 Died: 15 November 1808
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
29 May 1807 – 15 November 1808
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
29 May 1807 – 15 November 1808