Mutesa II of Buganda

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Mutesa II of Buganda
Kabaka of Buganda
Ugandan kings at Toro ceremony late 1950s.jpg
Mutesa II (second from right) at the signing of an agreement in Kabarole, Toro, Uganda between the Omukama of Toro and the British governor of Uganda, Sir Frederick Crawford, late 1950s.
Reign 1939–1969
Coronation 19 November 1942 at Buddo
Predecessor Daudi Chwa II of Buganda
Successor Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda
Spouse 1. Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka
2. Lady Edith Kasozi
3. Omubiitokati Beatrice Kabasweka
4. Lady Kate Ndagire
5. Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule
6. Muzaana Nalwooga
7. Lady Nesta M. Rugumayo
8. Lady Kaakako Rwanchwende
9. Lady Winifred Keihangwe
10. Lady Ngatho
11. Lady Catherine Karungu
Father Daudi Chwa II of Buganda
Mother Namasole Irene Drusilla Namaganda
Born 19 November 1924
Makindye, Uganda
Died 21 November 1969(1969-11-21) (aged 45)
Rotherhithe, London, United Kingdom
Burial Kasubi Nabulagala

Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Mutesa II KBE (19 November 1924 – 21 November 1969), was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda from 22 November 1939 until his death. He was the thirty-fifth Kabaka of Buganda and the first President of Uganda. He was often referred to as King Freddie, by the foreign press, a name rarely used in Uganda.[1]


Early life[edit]

Mutesa was born at the house of Sir Albert Cook in Makindye, Kampala, on 19 November 1924, the fifth son of Sir Daudi Chwa II KCMG KBE, Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned between 1897 and 1939. His mother was Lady Irene Drusilla Namaganda, of the Nte clan. He was educated at King's College Budo, a prestigious school in Uganda.

At the age of fifteen, upon the death of his father on 22 November 1939, he was proclaimed Kabaka, and was installed outside the Lubiri at Mengo on 26 November 1939. Thereafter he reigned under a Council of Regents until he came of age and assumed full powers.[2]

Education[edit]

He attended King's College Budo before he went to England to complete his education at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he joined the University Officer Training Corps and was subsequently commissioned as a captain in the Grenadier Guards.[3]

Reign[edit]

Mutesa was crowned at Buddo, on 19 November 1942, his eighteenth birthday. At that time, Buganda was still part of the British protectorate of Uganda.

The years between 1945 and 1950 saw widespread protests against both the Governor of Uganda's and King Mutesa's governments. In the early 1950s the British Government floated the idea of uniting British East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanganyika) into a federation. Africans feared that this would lead to their coming under the control of Kenya's white settler community, as had happened in Rhodesia. The Baganda, fearing they would lose the limited autonomy they had under British rule, were particularly opposed. Mutesa himself opposed the proposal, and thus came into conflict with the British Governor, Sir Andrew Cohen. In 1953, the Lukiiko (Parliament) of Buganda sought independence from Uganda, with Mutesa himself demanding that Buganda be separated from the rest of the protectorate of Uganda and transferred to Foreign Office jurisdiction. Cohen's response was to depose and exile the Kabaka, creating massive protests among the Baganda. Mutesa's forced departure made him a martyr in the eyes of the Baganda, whose latent separatism set off a storm of protest. Cohen could find no one among the Baganda willing and able to mobilise support for his schemes. After two years of unrelenting Ganda hostility and obstruction, Cohen was forced to reinstate "Kabaka Freddie", who returned to Kampala on 17 October 1955 under a negotiated settlement which made him a constitutional monarch and gave the Baganda the right to elect representatives to the kingdom's parliament, the Lukiiko. Mutesa's standing up to Cohen greatly boosted his popularity in the kingdom.[4]

In 1962 Uganda became independent from Britain under the leadership of Milton Obote. Under the country's new constitution, the Kingdom of Buganda became a semi-autonomous part of a new Ugandan federation. The federal Prime Minister was Obote, the leader of the Uganda People's Congress, which entered a governing coalition with the dominant Buganda regional party, Kabaka Yekka. The post of Governor General was abolished with the attainment of republican status and replaced by a non-executive President, a post first held by Mutesa.

In 1964 the coalition between Mutesa and Obote's parties collapsed over the question of a referendum which transferred two counties from Buganda to Bunyoro. In 1966 Mutesa's estrangement from Obote merged with another crisis. Obote faced a possible removal from office by factional infighting within his own party. He had the other four leading members of his party arrested and detained, and then suspended the federal constitution and declared himself President of Uganda in February 1966, deposing Mutesa. The Buganda regional Parliament passed a resolution in May 1966 declaring that de jure Buganda's incorporation into Uganda had ended with the suspension of the constitution and requesting the federal government to vacate the capital city, which was in Buganda. Obote responded with an armed attack upon the King's palace, sending Mutesa into exile in the United Kingdom via Burundi, and in 1967 a new constitution abolished all of Uganda's kingdoms, including Buganda.[5]

Married life[edit]

Mutesa married Lady Damali in 1948 and is said to have fathered many children with her and twelve other women:[6]

  1. Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka, daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Wedding on 19 November 1948 at St. Paul's Cathedral Namirembe.
  2. Edith Kasozi
  3. Omubiitokati (Princess) Beatrice Kabasweka, a Mutoro from Toro.
  4. Kate Ndagire. Married in 1950
  5. Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule, Omuzaana Kabejja, sister of the Naabagereka, and daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Married in 1954.
  6. Muzaana Nalwooga. She died in 2003.
  7. Nesta M. Rugumayo, a Mutoro, from Toro
  8. Kaakako Rwanchwende, a Munyankole princess from Ankole.
  9. Winifred Keihangwe, a Munyankole princess from Ankole. She was imprisoned by Milton Obote and released only shortly before going into labour, in 1966.
  10. Lady Ngatho, a Kikuyu, from Nairobi, Kenya.
  11. Catherine Karungu, a Munyankole princess from Ankole
  12. Muzaana Naome Nanyonga, of Nsenene clan from Masaka Buddu died in 2006.
  13. Muzaana Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County.

Offspring[edit]

Mutesa is recorded to have fathered at least eleven sons and seven daughters:

  1. Prince Kiweewa Luswaata. The very first son of Kabaka Muteesa II. He was born in Wakiso. He lived and studied in France. He died in the early 1990s and buried at Kasubi Tombs, Nabulagala.
  2. Prince Robert Masamba Kimera, whose mother was Nesta M. Rugumayo. He was born in Kampala in 1950. He was educated at St. Mary's College Kisubi, King's College Budo and in Canada. He worked as a geologist with the Swaziland Department of Geology, between 1980 and 1983. He was a Lecturer at the Nakawa Vocational School from 1991 until 1992. In 1993, he settled in Canada.
  3. Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II, whose mother was Sarah Nalule
  4. Prince (Omulangira) Suuna Frederick Wampamba, whose mother was Edith Kasozi. He was a commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the Uganda Army. He was killed on the orders of Idi Amin, at Bombo in 1972. He is buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
  5. Prince (Omulangira) Henry Kalemeera, whose mother was Damali Nnakawombe. He was educated at King's College, Budo and Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. He is an aeronautical engineer. He settled in the United States. Worked or still works as a Flight Engineer with American Airlines.
  6. Prince (Omulangira) George Michael Ndawula, whose mother was Muzaana Nalwooga.
  7. Prince (Omulangira) Richard Walugembe Bamweyana, whose mother was Sarah Nalule. He was born in 1956, educated at Achimota School, Ghana and worked in the fashion and advertising industries. He died in the 2000s. He was buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
  8. Prince (Omulangira) Katabaazi Mukarukidi, whose mother was Damali Nnakawombe. He is an airline pilot in Nigeria.
  9. Prince (Omulangira) Patrick Nakibinge, whose mother was Sarah Nalule. He died in the 2000s and is buried at Kasubi Nabulagala.
  10. Prince (Omulangira) Daudi Golooba. He was educated at King's College Budo and Makerere University. He is an accountant. He is a founder member and Chairman of the Buganda Heritage Association of UK and Ireland (Founded in 1998). He settled in the United Kingdom.
  11. Prince (Omulangira) Herbert Kateregga, whose mother was Kaakako Rwanchwende. He settled in the United Kingdom.
  12. Prince (Omulangira) Daudi Kintu Wasajja, whose mother was Winifred Keihangwe. He was born in Kampala in May 1966, after his father had left Uganda. He was educated at Nottingham University in the UK, graduating with a BA. He worked as an Executive Underwriter for Pan World Insurance Company and as Regional Retail Manager for Celtel (Uganda) Limited (now Airtel Uganda Limited). He is a member of Buganda Land Board, Kabira Country Club, Hash Harriers Athletic Club and others. Lives in Kampala, Uganda.[7]
  13. Princess (Omumbejja) Dorothy Kabonesa Namukaabya, Nassolo, whose mother was Damali Nakawombe. She was born at the Mengo Palace in 1951. She is a graduate of the University of Nairobi. Lives in Kampala, Uganda.
  14. Princess (Omumbejja) Dina Kigga Mukarukidi, whose mother was Beatrice Kabasweka. She works at the headquarters of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  15. Princess (Omumbejja) Anne Sarah Kagere Nandawula, whose mother is Kate Ndagire. Born at Mengo in 1951.
  16. Princess (Omumbejja) Catherine Agnes Nabaloga, whose mother was Kate Ndagire. She was installed as the Lubuga at the coronation of her brother Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II, the thirty-sixth Kabaka of Buganda, who has reigned since 1993 until today. Princess Nabaloga is the Patron of Buganda Heritage Association in Denmark. The association was founded in 1998. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Linguistics.[8]
  17. Princess (Omumbejja) Alice Mpologoma Zaalwango, whose mother was Edith Kasozi. She was born in 1961. She was educated at Gayaza Junior School, Kibuli High School and Makerere University. She died in Pretoria, South Africa from breast cancer on 23 March 2005. She is buried at Kasubi.[9]
  18. Princess (Omumbejja) Stella Alexandria Ndagire. Born in Nairobi, Kenya, whose mother was Lady Ngatho, a Kikuyu. She was raised in Kampala and Nairobi. Settled in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.[10]
  19. Princess (Omumbejja) Jane Mpologoma Nabanakulya. Born in Sunga Village, Buyaga County, Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, on 12 April 1964 by Omuzaana Naome Nanyonga. Naome Nanyonga was a midwife and is the founder of Sunga Maternity Hospital. Princess Mpologoma grew up with her mother throughout her childhood and she never saw her father. At one time taken care of by Arafayiri Musoke, a well known farmer in Sunga and an old friend of the late Kabaka. The princess was regularly visited by Prince(Omulangira) Juuko Walugembe of Bugerere. Mopologoma attended Aga Khan Primary School in Kampala and later on she joined Ngora Nursing School in Ngora, Teso sub-region, in Eastern Uganda. She relocated to Athens, Greece, where she continued her studies in nursing. Later, she moved to Stockholm, Sweden. In 2003 she moved to London, England, where she lives with her husband, David Segawa Mukasa.
  20. Princess (Omumbejja) Gertrude Christine Nabanakulya Tebattagwabwe. Was born at Mengo Hospital on 20 August 1964. Her mother is Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County. Grew up in Uganda until age 9 years, when she relocated to London in the United Kingdom. Studied to become an accountant. Moved back to Uganda in May 2013.[11] (Luganda)
  21. Princess (Omumbejja) Diana Balizza Muggale Teyeggala. She is the youngest child of the late Kabaka. She was born in Kampala in October 1966, after her father had gone into exile. Her mother is Catherine Karungu, an Ankole princess. Teyeggala never saw her father alive. She resides in Kampala.

The final years[edit]

While in exile, Mutesa wrote a published autobiography, The Desecration of My Kingdom.

Mutesa died of alcohol poisoning in his London flat, No. 28 Orchard House in Rotherhithe, in 1969.[12] Identified by the British police as suicide, the death has been viewed as assassination by those who claim Mutesa may have been force-fed vodka by agents of the Obote regime. Mutesa was interviewed in his flat only a few hours before his death by the British journalist John Simpson, who found that he was sober and in good spirits. Simpson reported this to the police the following day on hearing of Mutesa's death, although this line of inquiry was not pursued.

After Mutesa's body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley,[13] it was returned to Uganda in 1971 after the overthrow of Obote and given a state funeral at Kasubi Nabulagala.[14] Ironically, the new President who ordered the state funeral was Idi Amin, who as Army Commander had led the assault on Mutesa's palace in 1966. It is said that while in exile in London, King Freddie lived in poverty.[12]

Succession table as Kabaka[edit]

Preceded by
Sir Daudi Chwa II
as Kabaka
Head of Royal House of Buganda
as Kabaka

22 November 1939 – 21 November 1969
Vacant
Title next held by
Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II
as Kabaka

Succession table as Head of State[edit]

Preceded by
Elizabeth II
as Queen of Uganda
Head of State of Uganda
as President

9 October 1963 – 2 March 1966
Succeeded by
Milton Obote
as President

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mutesa II of Buganda". New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  2. ^ "The Early Life of Edward Frederick Walugembe Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "Edward Frederick Mutesa II: First President of Uganda". About.com - African History. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  4. ^ The Editors, . "Mutesa II: King of Buganda". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Kavuma-Kaggwa, JM (15 November 2013). "Tracing The Life And Legacy of Sir Edward Muteesa II". The Independent (Uganda). Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "The Consorts of Sir Edward Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  7. ^ Serunjogi, Titus (18 May 2006). "Meet The Kabaka's Illustrious Brothers". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Serunjogi, Titus (27 April 2006). "Traditional And Modern: Meet The Kabaka's Sisters". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Kalema, Ndawula (10 April 2005), Farewell To The People's Princess, New Vision (Kampala), retrieved 6 October 2014 
  10. ^ "List of The Children of Sir Edward Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Anthony Ssempereza, and Herbert Musoke (10 February 2014). "Here Is The Previously Missing Child of King Edward Frederick Walugembe Muteesa II". Bukedde Newspaper (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Mutesa II". Oxford DNB. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "In Memoriam Desmond C. Henley". Internet. Christopher Henley Limited 2008 – 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "Sir Edward Muteesa II Is Buried At Kasubi". Buganda.com. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 

External links[edit]