Muzaffargarh

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مُظفّرگڑھ
City
Muzaffargarh
مُظفّرگڑھ is located in Pakistan
مُظفّرگڑھ
مُظفّرگڑھ
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°4′13″N 71°11′36″E / 30.07028°N 71.19333°E / 30.07028; 71.19333Coordinates: 30°4′13″N 71°11′36″E / 30.07028°N 71.19333°E / 30.07028; 71.19333
Country Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Muzaffargarh District
Number of Tehsil 4
Union councils 5
Government[1][2]
 • Nazim
Area
 • Total 8,435 km2 (3,257 sq mi)
Elevation 122 m (400 ft)
Population (2012)[citation needed]
 • Total 3,826,000
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Area code(s) 066
Website www.mugarh.com/

Muzaffargarh (Urdu: مُظفّرگڑھ‎) is a city in southwestern Punjab, Pakistan, located on the bank of the Chenab River. It is capital city of Muzaffargarh District.

History[edit]

Muzaffargarh region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Muzaffargarh region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Muzaffargarh District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The British took over Muzaffargarh District in 1848.

The Town of Muzaffargarh was founded in 1794 by the Governor of Multan Nawab Muzaffar Khan. The Meaning of Muzaffargarh is "Fort of Muzaffar" because the old town lies inside the walls of a fort built by Nawab Muzaffar Khan of Multan. Prior to that the place was known by a shop called "Musan Hatti", on the road leading from Multan to Dera Ghazi Khan. The city was founded in the sixteenth century. In 1864 it became the headquarters of Muzaffargarh District.[3]

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Muzaffargarh District.

Muzaffargarh spreads over an area of 8,249 km2 and forms a strip between the Chenab River on its east and Indus River on its west. Muzaffargarh is one of oldest districts of Punjab. The city is famous for sweet mangoes and nuts. Wheat, cotton and sugarcane are major crops of this area. Muzaffargarh was especially hard hit by the 2010 Pakistan floods, given its position between the Chenab and Indus rivers.[4]

Language[edit]

Dialects of Punjabi

Following are the demographics of the Muzafargarh district, by spoken language:

Inhabitants of Muzafargarh District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects.

  • Thalochi (Mainly)
  • Majhi or standard (Sizeable population in cities also in newly cultivated areas)
  • Raangri (A mixture of Punjabi and Urdu spoken by sizeable population in cities)
  • Chinawari/Jhangvi (North Border areas near Khanewal district)
  • Derawali (West Border areas near DG khan & Rajan pur districts)
  • Multani (East Border areas near Multan district)
  • Riyasti (South Border areas near Rahim yar khan district)

Other Languages include:

  • Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
  • English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.
  • Pashto is also spoken by very few people in the cities.

Religion[edit]

Nearly 99% of the population of Muzaffargarh is Muslim. Majority of Muslims belong to Sunni Hanafi Fiqh while there is small minority following Shia Ithna ashari Fiqh.

Main towns[edit]

The district's towns include 'Basti Malik Wala,Taliri',JHOK MAITLA,,""Baqir Shah Shumali"" QASBA GURMANI, Zafar colony, Bhutta pur, Arshadabad(Mouza Sadan Wali), Basti maharan, Taliri,Mauza Bahadur Dawana, Dawana Bahadur Peer Jahanian, jalal abad, Peer Rajan Bukhsh, Arshadabad, Mahrha khas, Khangarh, Rohilanwali, Shahr Sultan, Seetpurسِيت پُور, Rangpur, Gujrat, Mehmoodkot, Sinawan, Thermal Power Station Colony Muzaffargarh, Thatta Gurmani, Adda rind wala, moza Dewala, Daira Din Panah, Chauk Sarwar Shaheed, Shah Jamal, Mahr pur, Baseera, Moza Fazil Kalroo, Wasandaywali, Jalwala Pir Amir, Binda Ishaq, Ehsan Pur, Bakaini, Muradabad, (Ghazi Ghat is famous and beautiful village of south punjab) and Karam Dad Quresh & Douna, Basti dasti Wala, Basti Daood Shah Wala, Basti jaangla, kalar wali, Chauk Parmat, jhugi wala, Rampur, Basti Allah Bakhsh, Belay Wala, Bait Mir Hazar, Lundi Pitafi, Julu Sahoo, Alipur and Jatoi.Moza Fazil Kalroo, Bait Qaim Shah, Nabi Bukhsh colony, Rawan Wala, Ruken Wali

Geography and climate[edit]

Muzaffargarh
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
7.2
 
21
5
 
 
9.5
 
23
8
 
 
20
 
29
14
 
 
13
 
36
20
 
 
9.8
 
40
24
 
 
12
 
42
29
 
 
61
 
39
29
 
 
33
 
38
28
 
 
11
 
37
25
 
 
1.7
 
35
18
 
 
2.3
 
29
11
 
 
6.9
 
23
6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization

The city of Muzaffargarh is located in southern Punjab province at almost the exact centre of Pakistan. The closest major city is Multan. The area around the city is a flat, alluvial plain and is ideal for agriculture, with many citrus and mango farms. There are many canals that cut across the Muzaffargarh District, providing water from nearby farms. This makes the land very fertile. However usually land close to the Chenab are usually flooded in the monsoon season.

Muzaffargarh features an arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. The city witnesses some of the most extreme weather in the country. The highest recorded temperature is approximately 54 °C (129 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is approximately −1 °C (30 °F). The average rainfall is roughly 127 millimetres (5.0 in). Dust storms are a common occurrence within the city.

Transportation[edit]

Muzaffargarh has connections with other cities by a variety of means of transportation. The district has concrete road reaching up to 983.69 km. The district is linked with D.G. Khan, Layyah and Multan districts through concrete roads. Buses to Multan leave frequently, since it is located closely to the city. There are a variety of buses travelling farther from the city. Many of them are now air-conditioned with a fairly good safety record. The N-5 connects the city to connect to all parts of Pakistan. The road otherwise, known as GT Road, allows connections to Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore as well as Bahawalpur. Coach services such as Faisal Movers Express, Niazi Express, Khan brothers transport, Nadir flying coach, Punjab Tourism Department, Skyways AC Coaches and New Khan Bus Service are some of the most reliable coach companies operating out of Multan.

Muzaffargarh is connected by rail with all parts of the country and lies on the Branch track between Rawalpindi, Multan, Mianwali and Attock. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Multan district.

The people of Muzaffargarh use Multan International Airport because it is nearer to Muzaffargarh and a 25 minute drive. Multan International Airport is an airport situated 10 km away from the city centre of Multan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, and Pakpattan to mainly to other points within Pakistan as well as the Middle East. Flight are currently operated by the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. However, since the growth of air travel within the region, there has been speculated interest from other private carriers. The rise in air-travel has also led to the expansion of the current airport with a new runway and terminal.

Educational institutions[edit]

Muzaffargarh is one of the oldest and largest districts of Pakistan by area and population. The literacy rate is one of the lowest in the country. However, regardless of this hapless scenario, the beacons of light still spread throughout the country from this region through its well-known academic educational institutions at the secondary level. There are many schools and colleges. Main education institutions are as under:

  • Campus of Virtual University of Pakistan
  • Govt. College for Boys, Muzaffargarh (one of oldest school in Muzaffargarh)
  • Government High School GURMANI
  • Govt. College for Women
  • Govt. College for Boys
  • Govt. College of Commerce
  • Jevan Peramedical College
  • Sardar Kaurey Khan Public Higher Secondary School
  • The Country School
  • Dar-e-Arqam
  • Workers Welfare School
  • Punjab Group of Colleges
  • Rise College
  • The Nelson School
  • Alla Public School
  • Govt. Comprehensive Higher Secondary School
  • Govt. Normal higher Secondary School for Girls
  • Govt. Model High School Girls And Boys Mahrha Khas

Muzaffargarh has some famous academies which includes

  • Superior Science Secondary School
  • Misali Zikriya Higher Secondary School
  • Misali Middle School
  • Shakir Science Higher Secondary Scohool
  • Abdalian Science Higher Secondary School
  • IBN-E-BASHIR ACADEMY RAWVELAY WALA

Agriculture[edit]

Cotton Farm near Ghazi Ghat

Major crops[edit]

Wheat, sugarcane and cotton are the main crops grown in the district. Rice, jawar, bajra, moong, mash, masoor, ground nuts, maize and oil seeds such as rape / mustard and sunflower are also grown in minor quantities in the district.

Fruits[edit]

Mangoes, dates, citrus and pomegranate are the main fruits grown in the district. Dates, jaman, pears, phalsa and bananas are also grown in minor quantities in the district.

Date trees Ghazi Ghat

Vegetables[edit]

Onions, carrots, cauliflower and peas are the main vegetables grown in the district. Ladyfinger, turnips, tomatoes, potatoes, garlic and chillies are also grown in the district in minor quantities.

Fish Farming[edit]

Muzaffar Garh is the leading district in Pakistan in fish farming. About 15000 acres of land are under fish farming. Mainly Indian Major Carps are cultured. Now some progressive farmers are turning to Tilapia farming as well.

Forests[edit]

An area of 100,864 acres is forested in the district. There is also linear plantation of 1250 A.V. mile the roads/rails/canals in the district. Trees grown in the area are kikar, shisham, millbury and eucalyptus.

Major industries[edit]

The district's major industries include cotton ginning and pressing, flour mills, jute textile, oil mills, paper/paperboard articles, petroleum products, polypropylene bags, power generation, readymade garments, solvent extraction, sugar, textile composite and textile spinning.

PARCO[edit]

Pak-Arab Refinery (PARCO)'s Mid-Country Refinery is the country's latest, largest and most complex refinery and employs critical processes involved in refining. Commissioned in the year 2000, Pak-Arab Refinery’s 100,000 barrels per day, state-of-the-art Mid-Country Refinery (MCR) at Qasba Gujrat in Muzaffargarh, represents about 35% of Pakistan’s refining capacity. It helps substitute import of refined, value-added oil products to the tune of US$ 100 million per year. The MCR mainly processes crude oil of Upper Zakum from Abu Dhabi and light Arabian crude from Saudi Arabia.

KAPCO[edit]

Kot Addu Power Company (KAPCO) was incorporated in 1996 with the purpose of contributing economic power to the national grid. KAPCO has shown exceptional results in the area of plant maintenance, availability, quality standards and financial performance. In April 2005 KAPCO was formally listed on all the three Stock Exchanges of Pakistan. The total generation capacity of KAPCO is 1600 MW.

AES Lalpir[edit]

Lal Pir Power owns and operates Lal Pir Thermal Power station, the most efficient power plant in Pakistan. It is located in Muzaffargarh. The total generation capacity of Lal Pir is 362 MW.

TPS Muzaffargarh[edit]

A turbine at the Muzaffargarh Thermal Power Station

The Thermal Power Station Muzaffargarh consists of 3 oil-fired steam-operated units of 210 MW, each with provision of adding another 3 units of same or more capacity. The total generation capacity of TPS is 1350 MW. This Power Station is a vital and major thermal power generating installation connectedwith National grid system in Pakistan. This Power Station was constructed in different Phaseshaving total capacity of 1370 MW. It consists of:

  • Three Russian units of 210 MW each
  • Two Chinese units of 200 MW each
  • One Chinese unit of 320 MW

The total power generation of these three plants add up to 3300 MW.

Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power Complex[edit]

According to the Wall Street Journal, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) plans to install three Chinese nuclear reactors at Muzaffargarh and the site is now being prepared.[5] Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power Complex would have 1100 MW Nuclear reactor.[6]

Prominent Places[edit]

Prominent places of Muzaffargarh are as under:

  • Fayyaz Park
  • Qinwan Chowk
  • Kachahry Chowk
  • Tailry ByPass
  • Jhang Mord
  • Chenab River
  • ghazi ghat on the bank of indus river

Picnic Points[edit]

There is only one place which is called picnic point of Muzaffargarh, that is River Chenab, 8 Kilometer from Muzaffargarh city.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]