Muzaffarpur

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Muzaffarpur district.
Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
मुज़फ्फरपुर
مظفر پور
Metropolitan City
Muzaffarpur Railway Junction
Muzaffarpur Railway Junction
Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India is located in Bihar
Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
Location in Bihar, India
Coordinates: 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45Coordinates: 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45
Country  India
State Bihar
District Muzaffarpur district
Government
 • Mayor, Dept Mayor Varsha Singh, Syed Majid Hussain
Area
 • Total 3,172 km2 (1,225 sq mi)
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,11,209
 • Density 929/km2 (2,410/sq mi)
Languages
 • Spoken Hindi, Maithili, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 842001-03
Telephone code 0621
Vehicle registration BR-06
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) 890 /
Literacy 85.06%
Lok Sabha constituency Muzaffarpur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Muzaffarpur
Website www.muzaffarpur.biharurban.in

Muzaffarpur About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in Muzaffarpur district in Bajjikanchal region of Bihar. It also serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut Division [1] (Tirhut).

Muzaffarpur is the second most popular and populous city after Patna in Bihar. Muzaffarpur, famous for Shahi lychees,[2] is the largest city of northern Bihar. It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Someshwar Hills [3] of Himalayas. Muzaffarpur is one of the many gateways to Nepal. Clothes and food-grains are traded between Nepal and Muzaffarpur.

Geography[edit]

Muzaffarpur is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E / 26.12°N 85.4°E / 26.12; 85.4.[4] The city lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost.[5] It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glacier-fed and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas. The soil of the town is highly fertile, well drained and sandy, white coloured and very soft. The landscape is green all year round. The town is surrounded by the flood plain dotted with ponds and oxbow lakes, with sparkling sandy river banks and clean air and water. Numerous private fruit orchards and idyllic rivers are also nearby. The city has a water-table just 20 ft. below ground level.

Muzaffarpur now is a rapidly growing city. The unplanned growth in the last decade has been phenomenal. Thousands of villagers migrated to this City from nearby villages in the rapid urbanisation of post-independence India, and this has created serious infrastructure problem. The drainage system and garbage disposal system is disorderly and practically non-existent.

The downtown areas of Muzaffarpur are Tilak Maidan Road, Kalyani and Saraiyaganj and Motijheel. These areas are densely populated with small shops as well as branded shops selling a plethora of goods and services. Motijheel is the main shopping area.

Chakkar Maidan has a small encampment of members of the Territorial Army[6] non-departmental unit 151 Inf Bn (TA) JAT.

Muzaffarpur City has old temples like Baba Garib Nath (Shiva Temple) [7] and Devi Mandir Durga, Chaturbhuj-sthan,which has also a red light area, Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali (Durga)build by Darbhanga Maharaj and Kalibari, the Kali temple. There are also Hazrat Bilal Mosque Brahampura Data Kammal Shah Majaar Purani Bazaar, Kothiya Shareef Kanti Several large and small places of worship.

History[edit]

Main article: Muzaffarpur district

Muzaffarpur City was established by and named after an Afghan Md. Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer). The district is bounded by the East Champaran, Sitamarhi, Vaishali, Saran, Darbhanga and Samastipur districts. It has won international encomiums for its delicious Shahi(Royal) and China Lychee species.

While the history of this City is not available fully but that of the recorded history of the district dates back to the rise of the Vrijjan Republic, when the center of political power shifted from Mithila to Vaishali. The Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighbouring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred Ganges river, and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali.

From the visit of the Hieuen Tsang until the rise of the Pala dynasty, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Maharaja Harsha Vardhan, a powerful sovereign of North India. After 647 A.D. the district passed to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings gained control over Tirhut and kept it until 1019 A.D.The sixty-sixth descendents of the Palas are the Pauls in Muzaffarpur. Samiran Kumar Paul, the eminent scholar, teacher and Poet is one of them. Chedi kings of Central India also exercised their influence over Tirhut until they were replaced by the rulers of the Sena dynasty towards the close of the 11th century.

Sometime between 1211 and 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, became the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. However, he could not succeed in conquering the kingdom, merely extorting tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district.

The history of Muzaffarpur would be incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder, Nanyupa Deva, who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal. During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims.

Towards the close of the 14th century the whole of North Bihar, including Tirhut, passed to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century, until Sikandar Lodi of Delhi defeated the king of Jaunpur. Meanwhile, Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and, with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed, the petty chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area until the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur, and after his fall, a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty, with Tirhut forming a part of it.

The victory of East India Company in 1764 at the battle of Buxar gave them control over the whole of Bihar and they succeeded in subduing the entire district. The success of the insurgency in Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. Muzaffarpur played its role and was the site of the famous bombing case of 1908. The young Bengali revolutionary, Khudiram Bose, a boy of barely 18 years, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, who was mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After independence, a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffarpur, which still stands. The political awakening in the country after the First World War stimulated nationalist movement in Muzaffarpur district as well. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi first time in Bihar to the house of Pt. Ambika Datta Sharma in village Gyanpur, now Bhojpur on the Ninth April 1917 when Pandit Sharma along with some other persons lead the Mahatma to Acharya J.B. Kriplani, professor of GBB College, Muzaffarpur. This was the first visit of Mahatma MK Gandhi in Muzaffarpur on the 10th. April 1917; next he visited Muzaffarpur in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had tremendous political effect in arousing the latent feelings of the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country's struggle for freedom.

Muzaffarpur played a very significant role in the history of North-Eastern India. The peculiarity of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilisation arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most vibrant spiritual influences. To this day, it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. All sorts of modified institutions, representing mutual assimilation, rise along this border line. It has undoubtedly been this highly diversified element within her boundaries that has so often made Muzaffarpur the birthplace of geniuses.

In January 1934, a colossal 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck the area, completely demolishing part of the city. The region was shaken strongly again in the 1988 Bihar earthquake.

Climate[edit]

The summer, between April and June, is extremely hot and humid (28/40 °C,90% Max.) and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 °C. The air pollution is lower than in other areas, so the air is comparatively clean. The best months to visit are October through March. It is best to avoid visits in the summer and the monsoon season (Mid June to September) due to the heat, and heavy rains in the District.

Climate data for Muzaffarpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22
(72)
26
(79)
32
(90)
37
(99)
38
(100)
36
(97)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
29
(84)
24
(75)
31.2
(88.2)
Average low °C (°F) 9
(48)
12
(54)
17
(63)
22
(72)
25
(77)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
22
(72)
15
(59)
10
(50)
19.8
(67.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.47)
17
(0.67)
7
(0.28)
16
(0.63)
42
(1.65)
185
(7.28)
339
(13.35)
259
(10.2)
242
(9.53)
39
(1.54)
17
(0.67)
7
(0.28)
1,182
(46.55)
Source: Muzaffarpur Weather

Economy[edit]

Muzaffarpur is the largest commercial tax payer in Bihar after Patna.It is famous for exporting lychee. Long ago, the area was famous for hand-woven textiles, sugar cane, and other products. The district has a few sugar mills, which are now old and dilapidated. It is the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market of Mumbai, Surat and Ahmedabad. Textile mills in the famous Marwari community dominate Suta Patti. The commercial hub of the City is Motijheel, Kalyani Chowk, Purani Bazaar, SarriyaGanj, Jawaharlal Road, Harisabha Chowk, Bela Industrial Area, Club Road, Islampur, Shafi Daudi Market, Andi Gola, Chata Bazar, Company Bagh, Tilak Maidan Road, Juran Chapra, Bank Road, Mithanpura, Aam Gola & Many more.

Lychee.
Lychee of Muzaffarpur

The land use around Muzaffarpur is mainly agricultural and horticultural. While litchee and mangoes are abundantly grown, principal crops are rice, wheat, pulses, jute, maize and oil seeds. Vegetables like cauliflower, cabbage, onion, tomato, radish, carrot, beetroot, among others, are also grown. Sugar cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown.

The main livestock of the town are cattle, buffalo, goats, and poultry.

Muzaffarpur City has several industries, big and small. The railway wagon industry is one of the City landmarks. Muzaffarpur is an important centre for the wholesale cloth trade.

Bihar has emerged as brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Vijay Mallya group- United Breweries Group, is setting up a production unit to make litchi-flavoured wine, in Muzaffarpur in 2012. The company has leased litchi gardens.[8]

Lychee[edit]

The litchi crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts, in an area of about 25,800 hectare producing about 300,000 tonnes every year. Lychee is exported to big cities like Bombay, Kolkata and to other countries. India's share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%. The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China. The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.[9]

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2011 India census,[10] Muzaffarpur had a population of 3,93,724. Males constituted 52.96%(208,509) of the population and females 47.04%(1,85,215). Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 85.07%. Male literacy was 88.77%, and female literacy was 80.91%.[11] Seventeen percent of the population was under 6 years of age.[clarification needed]

Languages[edit]

Being as the hub of Bajjikanchal (Western Mithila), Vajjika is spoken by the natives of the district. However, Hindi is the language used for official documentation. Urdu is the second official language. It is dialect of Maithili and belongs to western part of Mithila region.

Cuisine[edit]

There is no specific, authentic and purely Muzaffarpur cuisine as such most of the cuisine can at best be termed regional cuisine. The basic ingredients are rice, wheat flour, lentils(green and yellow), root and leafy vegetables, Indian spices, ground nut oil, Mustard seed oil, ghee, sugar and jaggery, among others. The traditional breakfast includes [( "Chura-Dahi and Chini", "Flattened Rice, Curd and Sugar")] is one of the most popular break fast combination of Bajjika area equally popular both among urban and rural population being most hygienic and ready made, jalebi, poori, Samosa or potato Curry served hot with any of a variety of Chutney and finished with Milk Tea. Indian-Chinese dishes such as noodles, Tandoori dishes and South Indian like Dosa, Idaly dishes are also eaten. Most of the ethnic cuisine and special dishes like Thekua, Purukia, Tilkut, Bundia etc. are cooked during festivals, religious functions and marriages. In modern Muzaffarpur, ethnic cuisines have given way to the oily, hot and spicy foods of the Pan-Indian type.

Toddy(Taari) is a fermented juice of the Palm tree which has about 5%–8% alcohol and is very popular as "Poor Man's Beer" in Muzaffarpur.

A variety of spicy dry, baked, fried, deep fried or curried Mutton, chicken, fish and shellfish are prepared and eaten. Mughalai and a few Continental dishes, such as Macaroni or Spaghetti, duly Indianised, are home cooked and relished by some people. Pre- and post-dinner Betel nut (Paan) chewing is very popular, along with chewing tobacco.

Transport[edit]

Railways[edit]

Muzaffarpur Railway Station is a major railway junction, with two suburban stations, Ram Dayalu Nagar and Narayanpur Anant (Sherpur). It is served by over 43 pairs of trains each day and virtually all major Indian cities and towns are connected by daily or weekly trains.

Within Bihar, it is well connected to cities like Bagaha, Narkatiaganj, Bettiah, Raxaul, Motihari, Sitamarhi, Darbhanga, Jaynagar, Samastipur, Hajipur, Chhapra, Siwan,Saharsa, Barauni, Begusarai, Khagaria, Naugachia, Katihar, Kishanganj, Patna, Bhagalpur and Munger.

It is also very well connected to most major railway junctions in neighboring Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and West Bengal.

To Delhi there are 69 weekly connections, and to Kolkata 62.

There are also daily (or multiple daily) trains to Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Ambala, Agra, Kanpur, Bareilly, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Jhansi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Katni, Satna, Bikaner, Jaipur, Mumbai, Gondia, Raipur, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Tatanagar, Asansol, Durgapur, Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, Cooch Behar, Guwahati, Tinsukia, Dimapur and many other stations.

Direct multiple weekly or weekly trains are available for Jammu,Chandigarh, Dehradun, Ajmer, Udaipur, Bhopal, Pune, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Surat, Valsad, Porbandar, Rourkela, Sambalpur, Bhubaneswar, Puri, Dibrugarh, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Vishakapatnam, Bangalore, Mysore, Palakkad, Ernakulam, Coimbatore, Erode, Chennai and many other stations.

Local and inter-state buses start from Imli Chatti and Bairiya Bus Station. The airport, Muzzafarpur Airport, had regular flights to some cities but does not operate any commercial flights now.

Roads[edit]

National Highway 57 (India) comes via Gorakhpur, Motihari and crosses Muzaffarpur and National Highway 57 via PURANA STAFF LINE HOTEL, ETWARPUR TAAJ (India) goes to Darbhanga, Purnia. The EAST-WEST CORRIDORS crosses Muzaffarpur thus connecting it to all the major towns and cities in India. The National Highway 77 (India) starting from Hajipur passes through Muzaffarpur and connects Muzaffarpur to Sitamarhi. Recently, the National Highway 102 (India) has been constructed which connects Muzaffarpur to Chhapra. The National Highway 28 (India) connects Muzaffarpur to Barauni. All 6 National Highways having junction here. Currently, a Ring Road is under construction all around Muzaffarpur and a new bridge over Burhi Gandak river. Bus, Taxi, Rickshaw, Auto Rickshaws, etc. are used for local transportation.

Education[edit]

Muzaffarpur is the second leading centre of education in Bihar after Patna. It has a medical and an engineering college, and has one of the oldest universities of Bihar (Bihar University, now known as B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University). The first president of the Indian Republic, Dr Rajendra Prasad was a teacher in the Langat Singh College, Muzaffarpur. District Institute of Education and Training College (DIET) Rambagh,Muzaffarpur

Notable people of Muzaffarpur[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://tirhut-muzaffarpur.bih.nic.in
  2. ^ Destinations :: Vaishali ::Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation. Bstdc.bih.nic.in. Retrieved on 2011-01-09.
  3. ^ "bihar". Scribd.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  4. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Muzaffarpur
  5. ^ Bihar India Earthquake Movie, January 15, 1934. Harappa.com (15 January 1934). Retrieved on 2011-01-09.
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ "ニキビ跡を消す方法まとめ!". Garibnathdham.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  8. ^ "Bihar emerging as brewery hub". Economic Times. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "7. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN INDIA". Fao.org. 1992-05-31. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  11. ^ Muzaffarpur City Census 2011 data Census2011.co.in

External links[edit]