Mycobacterium bohemicum

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Mycobacterium bohemicum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Suborder: Corynebacterineae
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Genus: Mycobacterium
Species: M. bohemicum
Binomial name
Mycobacterium bohemicum
Reischl et al. 1998, CIP 105808

Mycobacterium bohemicum is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.

Type strain: strain CIP 105808 = CIP 105811 = DSM 44277 = JCM 12402

Mycobacterium bohemicum is a nontuberculos bacterium that has been isolated from human tissue, animals, and the environment. M. bohemicum affects soft tissue in animal cells.[1] Mycobacterium bohemicum was identified in 1998 when isolated from sputum that was produced by a 53 year old Down's Syndrome patient with tuberculosis[2] M. bohemicum has been reported and documented in 9 patients world wide.[3] Reports of the bacterium have been recorded from Finland and Austria. In children, M. bohemicum has induced laterocervical and submandibular lymphadenitis.[4] The excision of the subjects lymph nodes along with antimicrobial therapy increased the health of the subjects in less than 12 months (1).

The lymph nodes of the subjects were minced and stained according to the Ziehl-Neelsen technique.[5] Within 12–17 days a culture was produced that could be analyzed on a molecular level "Richter". M. bohemicum' contains combinations of α-, keto-, metoxy-, and dicarboxy-mycolates that are not commonly found in slow-growing bacteria[3] . Other distinct characteristics of M. bohemicum is identifiable by its unique 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence as well as its variation in the ITS sequence region of 16S-23S.[6]

Phenotypic Features[edit]

  • Sensitive to compounds such as prothionamide, cycloserine, clarithromycin, gentamicin, amikacin (1).
  • Resistant to compounds such as isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, rifampin, and ciprofloaxin (1).
  • Optimum temperature is around 37 degrees Celsius (1).
  • Enzymatic activity- weak positive test for urease (1).

Genotypic Features[edit]

  • To identify M. bohemicum, its resulting sequence was isolated and compared to the international database (7).
  • M. bohemicum has been phenotypically misidentified as M. scrofulaceum, however on the molecular level, the genetic makeup distinguishes the two starins of bacteria.[7]
  • Increased cases may surface as a result of improvemnt microbiological diagnostic analysis (1).

References

1.^ Huber, J.; E.Richter,L. Binder, (July 2008). • Table. Characteristics of 4 children with cervical lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium bohemicum, Austria, 2002–2006. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080142.

2.^ Reischl, U.; Emler S,Horak Z, Kaustova J, Kroppenstedt R M, Lehn N, Naumann L. (1998). "Mycobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., a new slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 48: 1349-1355.
3.^ Yassin, A.F.; Binder C, Schaal K P. (1993). "Identification of mycobacterial isolates by thin-layer and capillary gas-liquid chromatography under diagnostic routine conditions". Zentbl Bakteriol 278: 34-48.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Huber, J.; E.Richter,L. Binder, (July 2008). "• Table. Characteristics of 4 children with cervical lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium bohemicum, Austria, 2002–2006". doi:10.3201/eid1407.080142. 
  2. ^ Reischl, U.; Emler S; Horak Z; Kaustova J; Kroppenstedt R M; Lehn N; Naumann L. (1998). "Mycobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., a new slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium.". Int J Syst Bacteriol 48: 1349–1355. doi:10.1099/00207713-48-4-1349. 
  3. ^ Tortoli, E.; Kirschner P; Springer B; Bartoloni A; Burrini C; Mantella A (1997). "Cervical lymphadenitis due to an unusual mycobacterium.". . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 16: 308–311. doi:10.1007/bf01695636. 
  4. ^ Schulzke, S.; Adler H; Bar G; Heininger U; Hammer J. (2004). "Mycobacterium bohemicum—a cause of paediatric cervical lymphadenitis.". Swiss Med Wkly. 134: 221. 
  5. ^ Richter, E.; Niemann S; Rüsch-Gerdes S; Hoffner S (1999). "Identification of Mycobacterium kansasii by using a DNA probe (AccuProbe) and molecular techniques.". J Clin Microbiol. 37: 964–970. 
  6. ^ Torkko, P; Suutari M, Suomalainen S, Paulin L, Larsson L, Katila M-L. (1998). "Separation among species of Mycobacterium terrae complex by lipid analyses: comparison with biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing.". J Clin Microbiol 36: 499–505. 
  7. ^ Patel, JB; Leonard DG; Pan X; Musser JM (2000). "Sequence-based identification of Mycobacterium species using the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system.". J Clin Microbiol. 38: 246–251. 

REISCHL (U.), EMLER (S.), HORAK (Z.), KAUSTOVA (J.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), LEHN (N.) and NAUMANN (L.): Mycobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., a new slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1349-1355. PMID 9828436