Myitsone Dam

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Myitsone Dam
Rendition of Myitsone Dam.jpg
Rendition of Myitsone Dam
Myitsone Dam is located in Burma
Myitsone Dam
Location of Myitsone Dam
Official name မြစ်ဆုံ တာတမံ
Location Kachin, Burma
Coordinates 25°41′23″N 97°31′4″E / 25.68972°N 97.51778°E / 25.68972; 97.51778Coordinates: 25°41′23″N 97°31′4″E / 25.68972°N 97.51778°E / 25.68972; 97.51778
Construction began 2009
Opening date 2017 est.
Construction cost US$ 3.6 billion
Owner(s) the Ministry of Electric Power No.1 of Myanmar, China Power Investment Corporation, Asia World Company Limited
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Concrete faced rock-fill dam
Impounds Irawaddy River(Ayeyawady River)
Height 139.6 m (458.0 ft)[1]
Length 1,310 m (4,297.9 ft)
Reservoir
Creates Myitsone reservoir
Total capacity 13.282 billion m3
Surface area 447 km2 (172.6 sq mi)
Max. water depth 121 m (397.0 ft)
Power station
Installed capacity 6,000 MW
Annual generation 30.86 billion kWh

The Myitsone Dam (Burmese: မြစ်ဆုံ တာတမံ [mjɪʔsʰòʊɴ tàtəmàɴ]; lit. the Confluence Dam) is a large dam and hydroelectric power development project on the Irawaddy River (Ayeyawady River) in Burma (Myanmar). If completed as planned in 2017, it will be the fifteenth largest hydroelectric power station in the world. The dam, planned to be 1,310 m (4,297.9 ft) long and 139.6 m (458.0 ft) high, is being built by Burmese government contractors (Asia World)[2] and the China Power Investment Corporation (CPI). It is expected to provide between 3,600 to 6,000 megawatts of electricity primarily for Yunnan, China.[3]

The dam project has been controversial in Burma due to its enormous flooding area, environmental impacts, location on the Sagaing fault line and uneven share of electricity output between the two countries. The Burmese public regards the Irrawaddy River as the birthplace of Burmese civilization and protests against growing Chinese influence in Burma, which they perceive as "exploitative" to the country hitherto isolated by Western economic sanctions.[4] Even the government officials gave divided opinions on the project.[3]

On 30 September 2011, amid of democratic reforms in the country, President Thein Sein announced that the Myitsone dam project was to be suspended during his tenure. Because the government appears to have taken the public opinion into account, the unexpected decision is seen as a reversal to the authoritarian rule since the coup in 1962.[5]

Location[edit]

Irawaddy River below the dam site at Myitkyina
Myitsone Dam under construction

The dam site is located 3.2 km (2.0 mi) mile below the confluence of the Mali River and the N'Mai River about 42 kilometres (26.1 mi) north of Myitkyina, the capital of Kachin State, in northern Burma.[6] The source of both the N'mai and Mali Rivers is the Himalaya glaciers of northern Burma in the vicinity of 28° N. The easternmost of the two, N'mai river, is the larger stream and rises in the Languela Glacier north of Putao. It is unnavigable because of the strong current whereas the smaller western river, the Mali, is navigable, despite a few rapids.[7]

The project location is in the politically unstable Kachin State. Since 1962, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) has been waging war against Burmese military. Despite ceasefire in 1994, clashes and bomb explosions occasionally occur near the dam site. In 2011, clashes between Burmese military and KIA intensified and the Burmese military ordered airstrikes in Northern Kachin State.[8]

History[edit]

The Myitsone Dam is part of the Confluence Region Hydropower Project (CRHP), which includes seven dams with a total installed capacity of 20,000 MW. CRHP alone accounts for 41 percent of the total power capacity called for by a 30-year strategic plan. Outlined in 2001, the plan includes 64 hydropower plants and three coal power plants with combined installed capacity of more than 40,000 MW.[9]

The Myanmar Electrical Power Enterprise and the Agriculture and Irrigation Ministry scheduled the Irawaddy Myitsone Dam Multipurpose Water Utilization Project in 2001. The survey phase was initiated in 2003. First the government contracted the Japanese Kansai Electric Power Company to build a small weather station at Tang Hpre village, near the confluence. Chinese and Burmese contractors, including Yunnan Machinery Equipment Import & Export Company (YMEC), Kunming Hydropower Institute of Design, surveyed the dam site. In 2006, Suntac Technologies Co. Ltd., a Burmese Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping contractor set up an office at the monastery in Tang Hpre village. They also set up a temporary camp at Washawng village to facilitate transport of survey equipment from the YMEC company in China. In October, the Asia World Company built a project implementation camp on a hill top at the dam site 3 mi (4.8 km) downstream from the confluence. when the camp was complete, Chinese inspectors stayed and surveyed the area for five months. In December 2006, the Ministry of Electric Power No. 1 and the China Power Investment Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a 6,000 MW project at Myitsone and a 3,400 MW project at Chibwe.

The design phase began in 2007. The Changjiang Design Institute of China sent several groups of design personnel and conducted geological drilling, reservoir inspection and hydrological measuring near the dam site. To supply electricity for dam construction projects, a small 99 MW, Chibwe Nge hydropower project was built in April 2007. In May, the New Light of Myanmar reported that the Ministry of Power No. 1 and CPI would build seven hydropower dams on the N'Mai and Irawaddy rivers.

On 16 June 2009, Myanmar Ambassador Thein Lwin and President of China Power Investment Corporation Lu Qizhou signed a Memorandum of Agreement between the Department of Hydropower Implementation and the China Power Investment Corporation for the Development, Operation and Transfer of the hydropower Projects in Maykha, Malikha and Upstream of Irrawaddy-Myitsone River Basins.[10] The official opening ceremony of the dam construction phase was held on December 21.[11][12]

Economics[edit]

The majority of total US$3.6 billion cost was to be covered by the China Power Investment Corporation in a joint venture with the Ministry of Electric Power No.1 of Myanmar and the Asia World Company.[13] The Burmese government would get ten percent of the electricity generated and fifteen percent of the project shares for land use. In addition, the government would charge a withholding tax and an export tax on exported electricity to China.[14] After a fifty-year period, the government would totally own the project. The Burmese government would earn about $54 billion by means of tax payment, power and shares, accounting for 60 percent of the total revenue of the Irrawaddy projects during the contracted 50 years, more than CPI's return on investment during the fifty years Chinese operation period according to the President of CPI.[15][16] However, the government economic calculations have been criticized for not considering potential environmental and societal impacts.

Design[edit]

Computerised drawing of Myitsone

The dam was planned to be a concrete faced rock-fill dam 139.6 m (458.0 ft) high and 1,310 m (4,297.9 ft) long, and projected to produce 6,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity by 2017.[3] This is equivalent to 27% of the 22,500 MW output of the Three Gorges Dam In China, the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.[17]

Minister of Electric Power Zaw Min claimed that the dam was designed to withstand an earthquake of 8.0 Richter Scale, a scale that has never been recorded to have occurred in that region, and the most devastating flood of a millennium.[18]

Power generation[edit]

The Myitsone Dam is the largest of the seven large dams currently planned on the Mali River, the N'Mai River and the Irawaddy rivers. The China Power Investment Corporation is project manager of the Confluence Region Hydropower Projects.[19] The seven dams combined total design installed capacity is 20,000 MW of electricity.

The dam is to provide electricity primarily to the China Southern Power Grid via its subsidiary, the Yunnan Power Grid Company, in Yunnan Province and then on to the power hungry eastern coastal areas of China, in conformity with the Chinese central Government's 'West to East Transmission Policy'.[3][20] The hydropower project was being implemented under an agreement signed in late 2006 with the state-owned China Power Investment Corporation and Burma’s Ministry of Electric Power No 1. The dam and reservoir planning and construction is managed by the Burmese government in cooperation with the China Southern Power Grid and several subcontractors.[21]

The dam would also supply ten percent of its generated electricity to the Myanmar Power Grid if needed.[8] The Chipwi Nge Hydropower Project, which was installed to provide electricity for construction projects, began supplying electricity to Myitkyina, Chipwi, and the Myitsone Resettlement Village. However, few villagers have electrical devices. "We don’t need to buy candles, this is the only useful thing" a villager told. They prefer to have their productive land back.[22]

Social impact[edit]

One of the relocated villages
Tang Hpre village, after relocation, supplied with electricity and new concrete roads.

The dam was expected to flood 447 km2 (172.6 sq mi) including 47 villages near the construction site and about 11800 local people would be relocated in the newly built resettlement villages. The activists in exile stated that the dam would submerge historical temples, churches and cultural heritage sites important to Kachin identity and history and the natural heritage of the Kachin people in Myitsone area would be lost.[21]

In response, the government reported in the state-run New Light of Myanmar that relocated villages from the project area had been provided with all forms of aids including water, electric power and buildings and that the government also helped in relocation of religious buildings.[23] CPI reported a total expense of 4.1 billion kyats in compensation and 25 million U.S. dollars in resettlement.[24] In addition, the government stated that the remote region would benefit greatly from the new roads and access to electricity.[23]

Local communities pointed out other issues such as the dam's location on earthquake-prone zone. They opposed the dam site because it is less than 100 km (62.1 mi) from the major Sagaing fault line, posing a risk to basin inhabitants if an earthquake weakened the dam or caused landslides in the reservoir. If the Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam broke during an earthquake, it would endanger the lives of hundred of thousands of people downstream in Kachin State’s largest city, Myikyina.[25]

In response, the government said that the dam would withstand an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 Richter scale. In an interview with Xinhua News, Lu Qizhou, President of China Power Investment Corporation said that Myitsone Hydropower Station follows the standard of fortification intensity 9, two points above the intensity of Zipingbu Hydropower Station that withstood 2008 Sichuan earthquake of 8.0 Richter scale.[15] On the other hand, Burmese scientists who carried out the environmental assessment, recommended to build two smaller dams farther upstream instead of building on earthquake-prone zone.[26]

Environmental impact[edit]

Livestock near the project area. The area is expected to flood after the dam completion

As with other large dam projects, the Myitsone Dam construction would have altered the hydrological characteristics of the river and prevent sediment from enriching the historically highly productive agricultural floodplains downstream.[27] This can affect fertility as far downstream as the Irrawaddy Delta, the major rice-producing area of Myanmar. The government responded that officials had taken sediment accumulation into consideration, and that the Myitsone dam would have capabilities to discharge the accumulated sediment.

Other consequences of flooding by the reservoir include loss of farmland and loss of spawning habitat as some migratory fish will be able to swim upstream after dam completion. This would lead to lost income for fishermen according to Kachin environmental activist groups in exile.[28] On the other hand, research by Biodiversity And Nature Conservation Association (BANCA) contradicts the activists' statement. BANCA's research asserts that commercial fishing is not reported from the project area. But it confirms that some resident aquatic species will be affected by the change in hydrological conditions.[29]

Ecological concerns focus on the inundation of an area that is the border of the Indo-Burma and South Central China biodiversity hotspot. The Mali and N'mai River confluence region falls within the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rainforests. Nevertheless, the dam would increase the shipping capacity of Irrawaddy River. The floods, currently an annual occurrence, would only occur once every twenty years. Since the hydropower is the renewable and green energy, the energy produced by the dam would decrease the need for air-polluting sources of energy such as fossil fuels. The construction and the maintenance of the dam would have employed a large number of people.

Opposition[edit]

Relocation of religious buildings is one of the reasons that lead to opposition
News reports such as Aung San Suu Kyi's campaign against the Myitsone Dam are not censored

In Burma, the Irrawaddy river, on the bank of which major historic cities such as Bagan were built, is considered as the birthplace of Burmese civilization. For that reason, The Burmese public protests against the dam project, which would inevitably alter hydrological characteristics of the historic river. Moreover, the growing Chinese influence in Burma is seen as exploitative by Burmese people, due to its association with previous military junta.[8]

On the other hand, local villages have opposed the project since its proposal in 2001. According to the environmental organization International Rivers based in the US, in 2007, 12 local leaders from Kachin State sent a letter to Senior General Than Shwe and the junta’s Ministry of Electric Power, asking for the project to be cancelled.[6] The Burma Rivers Network also sent a letter to the Chinese government asking Chinese companies operating in Burma to conduct environmental and social impact assessments, to release information publicly, and to consider opinions of affected communities in the decision-making process.[21] In a parliamentary session, government minister Zaw Min responded that environmental impact had been carried out by the Biodiversity And Nature Conservation Association (BANCA) at a cost of $1.25 million and stated that Myitsone Dam Project was started only when the government had studied the possible environmental impacts.[30] However, the results of BANCA's assessment were not disclosed publicly.[31]

Outside Burma, activists in exile have actively carried out protests in various countries. In February 2010, the UK-based Kachin National Organization (KNO) protested against construction of the dam in front of the Burmese Embassies in the UK, Japan, Australia, and the United States.[11] Leaked United States diplomatic cables by Wikileak revealed that U.S. embassy in Yangon funded some of the activist groups.[32][33]

Within the country an activist has been detained for what local authorities said were unrelated charges. Land rights activist and politician Daw Bauk Ja was arrested for medical negligence in 2013, though the case against her had been withdrawn years earlier.[34]

Skirmishes have been broken out between Kachin Independence Army and Burmese military over the dam issue since June 2011.[35] On April 17, 2010, three bombs exploded close to the site of dam, reportedly killing four Chinese workers.[36] The Burmese government blamed Kachin Independence Army for planting the bombs. KIA has denied having anything to do with the Myitsone bombing.

Domestic campaigns against the project are brought together by political activists including Nobel peace prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi who called for reevaluation, conservationists, scholars, poets and journalists.[37] Local media openly criticized the lack of transparency in dam project. Journalists argued that the deal was agreed by previous government without considering public opinions.[35]

Despite the opposition, Minister Zaw Min for the Ministry of Electric Power responded to the press that the government would continue this project up to the completion.[38] But, in September 2011 he conceded that despite promised benefits from the project, it may be appropriate to minimize the environmental impacts by redesigning the tunnel, shortening the dam's height and reducing the water storage capacity, relocating to the upstream, and reassessing environmental impacts. He also agreed that final decision should depend on the environment impact assessment report by the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry and the study by the Engineer Group.[18]

Suspension[edit]

On 30 September 2011, in an address to the parliament, Burma's president Thein Sein announced that the Myitsone Dam project would be halted during the term of his government.[5] The letter from the president consisted of ten points including,

As our government is elected by the people, it is to respect the people’s will. We have the responsibility to address public concerns in all seriousness. So construction of Myitsone Dam will be suspended in the time of our government. Other hydropower projects that pose no threat will be implemented through thorough survey for availability of electricity needed for the nation. I would like to inform the Hluttaws that coordination will be made with the neighbouring friendly nation, the People’s Republic of China, to accept the agreements regarding the project without undermining cordial relations.

—Thein Sein, Letter to the parliament[39]

The decision was universally acclaimed by environmentalists, political activists and the locals alike.[39] It is considered as "a rare reversal" in that for the first time, the government had listened to the people in face of public opposition.[37][40] Western nations including EU and the United States welcome the President's decision.[41][42]

In response, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei stated that the Chinese government has urged the Burmese government to protect the legal and legitimate rights and interests of Chinese companies.[43] He reminded that the Myitsone Dam is a jointly invested project between China and Myanmar, and one that has been thoroughly examined by both sides.[44] He also confirmed that the matters would be resolved through friendly consultation.[45] The president of CPI, Lu Qizhou, has warned that a halt in construction could lead to legal action.[15]

In October 2011, Myanmar Foreign Minister traveled to Beijing to settle the dispute.

Aftermath[edit]

On 2 April 2012, Weekly Eleven news, a private Burmese news journal, broke news of ongoing activities by CPI and Asia World on the Myitsone project site.[46] In April 2012, a leaked government document stated that work on the dam has continued, with work to officially resume within 6 months.[47] The letter is a request for the Kachin State government to provide temporary ID cards for 500 engineers and the tax-free import of 10,000 tons of construction equipment (cement, trucks, bulldozers, excavators).[48][49] The Kachin State government responded that the letter is a forgery.[50] However, uncertainties exist as Chinese workers remain present in the area.

In March 2012, villagers who had been evicted from the dam work site in 2009 to 2010 and had returned to reclaim their original homes, were forcibly evicted by the Burmese army.[51]

Analysis[edit]

Although the President Thein Sein's decision has been widely applauded, experts caution that Sino-Burma relation could be ultimately harmed by the suspension. Nicholas Farrelly, a Southeast Asia specialist at the Australian National University in Canberra said that while there would inevitably be some short-term damage to bilateral relations, pragmatism would override any potential for long-term animosity.[52] The issue is further exacerbated by the massacre of 13 Chinese sailors near Burma-Thailand border.[53] However, should the project be terminated entirely, the Burmese government would face legal and financial liability associated with the investments and prior agreements.[8]

Internationally, the suspension is considered as one of the democratic reforms along with other engagements such as dialogues with pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi and release of some political prisoners.[54] Marie Lall, a BBC South Asia analyst attributes Burma's bid for the ASEAN chair in 2014, the needs to reform the economy for ASEAN Free Trade Area and the government's desire to win the election in 2015 as the main motives of the reforms.[55]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Myitsone Dam project will continue: Power Minister". Kachin Development Networking Group. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "US embassy cables: how Rangoon office helped opponents of Myitsone dam". The Guardian (London). 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Libre, Ryan (February 1, 2010). "Proposed dam to flood Burma, while powering China". MinnPost.com. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  4. ^ The Economist, "Relations with Myanmar: Less thunder out of China", 6 October 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Burma dam: Work halted on divisive Myitsone project". BBC. 30 September 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam". Burma. International Rivers. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  7. ^ James R Penn (2001) Rivers of the World. Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.] ABC-Clio ISBN 1-57607-042-5, ISBN 978-1-57607-042-0. Page 115 paragraph 2, retrieved d.d. July 16, 2009/
  8. ^ a b c d Yun Sun. "China, Myanmar face Myitsone dam truths". Asia Times. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  9. ^ "President halts dam". MM times. Retrieved October 8, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Memorandum of Agreement on N’Mai/Mali/Irrawaddy Dams Signed". Excerpts from New Light of Myanmar. Burma Rivers Network. 2009-06-21. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Kachin News Group (2010-01-27). "Exiled Kachins urge China to stop Irrawaddy Myitsone dam project". Burma News International. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  12. ^ "Resisting the Flood". Kachin Development Networking Group. October 2009. pp. 12, 13. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
  13. ^ http://elevenmyanmar.com/politics/4585-cpi-has-the-lion-s-share-of-myanmar-s-controversial-myitsone-project
  14. ^ Ei Ei Toe Lwin and Aye Thidar Kyaw (September 19–25, 2011). "Despite protest, minister vows govt will continue dam project". MM times. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c "Myitsone Hydropower Project mutually beneficial". Xinhua News. October 4, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011. 
  16. ^ http://www.irrawaddy.org/business/cpis-social-responsibility-report-slammed-propaganda.html
  17. ^ "top-100-pt-4". Industcards.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01. 
  18. ^ a b "Myitsone Hydropower Project to be reviewed: Report". Eleven. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  19. ^ SupervisoryOffice of Confluence Region Hydropower Project Opened on the Myanmar Information Website May 7, 2007. Paragraph 4. Retrieved d.d. September 17, 2009
  20. ^ Staff, KEO, Execuative Summary
  21. ^ a b c Naing, Saw Yan (2010-02-15). "Irrawaddy Dam Construction Begins, Human Rights Abuses Begin". The Irrawaddy / News. Irrawaddy Publishing Group. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  22. ^ "Chinese firm claims Myitsone restart will be transparent". Kachin News. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "In future, large hydropower projects must be implemented successfully with domestic industrial products, national experts and national skilled workers only". New Light of Myanmar. 22 January 2001. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Resettlement work". China Power Investment. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  25. ^ Rachel Harvey (August 31, 2011). "Burma dam: Why Myitsone plan is being halted". BBC. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Controversy Over Dam Fuels Rare Public Outcry in Myanmar". New York Times. September 21, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  27. ^ William L. Graf (1999) Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts page 5, published Water Resources Research, Vol. 35, No. 4, pages 1305-1311, April 1999
  28. ^ Staff, KEO, p 23
  29. ^ EIA report, pp 27
  30. ^ "Myitsone Hydropower Project will not be discarded anyhow despite objections from any sources: Electric Power Minister". Eleven Media Group. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  31. ^ Hein Min Latt. "BANCA Chairman advocates transparency on EIA report". Eleven Media Group. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  32. ^ Wikileak (30 September 2011). "US embassy cables: how Rangoon office helped opponents of Myitsone dam". United States government (London: Gurdians). Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  33. ^ "WikiLeaks cables: Americans funded groups that stalled Burma dam project". The Guardian. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  34. ^ "Kachin activist Daw Bauk Ja arrested over 2008 death". Myanmar Times. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  35. ^ a b "Myanmar govt shelves $3.6 bln mega dam - officials". Reuters. 30 September 2011. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  36. ^ http://www.dvb.no/news/kachin-dam-bombing-kills-four/8640
  37. ^ a b Rachel Harvey (August 31, 2011). "Burma dam: Why Myitsone plan is being halted". BBC. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  38. ^ "Myitsone Hydropower Project will not be discarded anyhow despite objections from any sources: Electric Power Minister". Aung Khin. Eleven Media Group. 11 September 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  39. ^ a b "President Thein Sein sent a letter to parliament for cancellation of Myitsone dam project". Eleven Media Group. August 31, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  40. ^ HANNAH BEECH (August 31, 2011). "In a Rare Reversal, Burma's Government Listens to Its People and Suspends a Dam". Time Online. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  41. ^ "EU Welcomes Burmese Decision on Myitsone Dam". VOA. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  42. ^ "US welcomes Myanmar decision to halt dam". Taiwan News. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  43. ^ "China wants talks after Myanmar halts dam project". AP. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  44. ^ Ben Blanchard (Oct 1, 2011). "China calls for talks over shelved Myanmar dam". Reuters. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  45. ^ "A reporter asked Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei". Government of China. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  46. ^ "နိုင်ငံတော်သမ္မတက မြစ်ဆုံစီမံကိန်း ရပ်ဆိုင်းကြောင်း ဆုံးဖြတ် ထားသော်လည်း CPI နှင့် အေးရှားဝေါလ် ကုမ္ပဏီဝန်ထမ်းများ မြစ်ဆုံစီမံကိန်း ဧရိယာအတွင်း လှုပ်ရှားမှုများရှိနေကြောင်း အထောက်အထားများအရ သိရ" (in Burmese). Eleven Media Group. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  47. ^ Hindstrom, Hanna (4 April 2012). "Leaked document reveals Myitsone dam set to reopen". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  48. ^ "Chinese border office requests permission to bring in 500 engineers and materials for Myitsone Hydropower Project". Kachin Development Networking Group. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  49. ^ 字永剛 (26 March 2012). "အကြောင်းအရာ။ မြစ်ဆုံရေအားလျှပ်စစ်စီမံကိန်းပြည်လည် စတင်ရန်အတွက် လိုအပ်သော ပစ္စည်းများကို သယ်ယူပို့ဆောင်ရန် ခွင့်ပြုပေးနိုင်ရန် အစီရင်ခံတင်ပြခြင်း". Tengchong-Myitkyina Liaison Office (in Burmese). Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  50. ^ "မြစ်ဆုံစီမံကိန်း ပြန်လည်စတင်ရန် အကြောင်းကြားစာနှင့် ပတ်သက်၍ မဟုတ်မှန်ကြောင်း ကချင်ပြည်နယ် ပြည်နယ်ဝန်ကြီးချုပ် တရားဝင်ငြင်းဆို" (in Burmese). Eleven Media Group. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  51. ^ Maung, Thomas (22 March 2012). "Burma army sent to Myitsone dam site to enforce evictions". Kachin News Group. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  52. ^ San Oo. "China, Myanmar close in on agreement to settle dispute over Myitsone suspension". MM Times. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  53. ^ Blanchard, Ben (30 October 2011). "Myanmar reassures China after dam blocked, sailors killed". Reuters. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  54. ^ Thaung Tun. "Major steps in Myanmar's transformation". Today. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  55. ^ Marie Lall (7 November 2011). "Viewpoint: Has a year of civilian rule changed Burma?". BBC. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 

References[edit]