Περιφερειακή ενότητα / Δήμος
|• Total||105.2 km2 (40.6 sq mi)|
|• Density||96/km2 (250/sq mi)|
|Postal codes||846 00|
Mykonos (//, //; Greek: Μύκονος [ˈmikonos]) is a Greek island, part of the Cyclades, lying between Tinos, Syros, Paros and Naxos. The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres (33.0 sq mi) and rises to an elevation of 341 metres (1,119 feet) at its highest point. There are 10,134 inhabitants (2011 census) most of whom live in the largest town, Mykonos, which lies on the west coast. The town is also known as Chora (i.e. the Town in Greek, following the common practice in Greece when the name of the island itself is the same as the name of the principal town).
Archaeological findings suggest the presence of the Neolithic tribe Kares on the island in 3000 BC. These may, or may not be related to the Carians.
The first recorded settlers seem to be the Ionians from Athens in the early 11th century BC. There were many people living on the neighbouring island of Delos, just 2 km (1.2 miles) away, which meant that Mykonos became an important place for supplies and transit. The island was poor with limited agricultural resources, and two towns. Its inhabitants were pantheists and worshiped many gods.
Mykonos came under the control of the Roman Empire. Then it became part of the Byzantine Empire until the 12th century. In 1204, with the fall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, Mykonos was occupied by the Ghizi overlord, a relative of the Doge of Venice. The island was ravaged by the Catalans at the end of the 13th century and finally given over to the Venetians in 1390.[clarification needed]
In 1537, while the Venetians still reigned, Mykonos was attacked by Barbarossa, an admiral of Suleiman the Magnificent. An Ottoman fleet established itself on the island. The Ottomans, under the leadership of Kapudan Pasha, imposed a system of self-governance comprising a governor and an appointed council of ‘syndics’. When the castle of Tinos fell to the Ottomans in 1718, the last of the Venetians withdrew from the region.
Up until the end of the 18th century, Mykonos prospered as a trading centre, attracting immigrants from nearby islands, in addition to regular pirate raids.
As a result of sailing and merchant activity, the island’s economy improved. It declined again during the late 19th century; especially after the opening of the Corinth Canal in 1904 and the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century. Many Mykonians left the island to find work in mainland Greece and many foreign countries, especially the United States.
Tourism soon came to dominate the local economy. This owed a lot to the publicity generated by the excavations of the French School of Archaeology, which began work in Delos in 1873.
In the 1930s many famous artists, politicians and wealthy Europeans began spending their vacations on the island. Temporarily suspended during the Second World War, tourists once again began visiting Mykonos’ shores in the 1950s.
Mykonos is known for being a gay-friendly holiday destination beginning in the early 1970s.
In Greek mythology, the Mykonos was named after its first ruler, Mykons, the son or grandson of the god Apollo and a local hero. The island is also said to have been the location of a great battle between Zeus and Titans and where Hercules killed the invincible Giants having lured them from the protection of Mount Olympus. It is even said that the large rocks all over the island are the petrified corpses of the Giants.
The island spans an area of 85.5 square kilometres (33.0 sq mi). It rises to an elevation of 341 metres (1,119 feet). It is situated 150 kilometres (93 miles) east of Athens in the Aegean Sea. The island has seasonal streams, two of which have been converted into reservoirs.
The island is composed mostly of granite and the terrain is very rocky with many areas eroded by the strong winds. High quality clay and barite, which is a mineral used as a lubricant in oil drilling, were mined on the eastern side of Mykonos until the late 1900s.
The island relies on the desalination of sea water in order to meet the needs of its population.
The sun shines for up to 300 days a year and it only rains between February and March. This arid climate means that there is very little natural vegetation.
Temperatures can rise to 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer months. Strong[clarification needed] winds means average temperatures are usually around 28 °C (82 °F). Winters average temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F).
There are two main types of wind in Mykonos. One hits the island during the winter. It arrives from the south and is sometimes accompanied by electrical storms. The “Sirocco”, a southern wind, carries sands from the desserts that boarder the Mediterranean. In the summer the wind comes from the north and the “Meltemi”, which blows during July and August, cools the days.
Vegetation grows around the beginning of winter and ends in mid-summer.
Mykonos is a separate regional unit of the South Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Mykonos was created out of part of the former Cyclades Prefecture. The municipality, unchanged at the Kallikratis reform, also includes the islands Delos, Rineia and several uninhabited islets. The total area of the municipality is 105.2 km2 (41 sq mi)
There are 10,134 inhabitants (2011) most of whom live in the largest town, Mykonos, also known as Chora (i.e. the Town in Greek, a common denomination in Greece when the name of the island itself is the same as the name of the principal town).
- Municipal Library - an 18th-century mansion housing over 8,000 volumes and a vast collection of 18th and 19th century photographs, documents and Cycladic coins and old seals. The Municipal Library is located on Ayia Kyriaki Square in the main town of Chora.
- Petros the Pelican - an old celebrity of the town's waterfront, "Petros" has been the official mascot of Mykonos for over 50 years. He took up permanent residence on the island after a storm in 1954 and after his death the islanders elected a successor to carry on his legacy until today.
- Mykonos windmills - they are a defining feature of the Mykonian landscape, many of them built in the 16th century. Most are concentrated in the main town of Chora and all are north-facing to harness the strong Northern winds. The most famous are the Kato Mili in Chora which stand strategically on a hill overlooking the sea. The windmills are symbols of an important aspect of the history of the island and many of them have been refurbished and restored. No windmills are in operation today but many serve as homes to locals or as museums and storage spaces.
- Little Venice - rows of fishing houses line the waterfront with their balconies hanging over the sea. The first of these was constructed in the mid-18th century. They originally belonged to rich merchants or captains and the little basement doors that provided direct access to the sea and underground storage areas led people to believe that the owners were secretly pirates. Some of the houses have now been converted into bars and cafes and little shops and galleries.
- Armenistis Lighthouse - is a fully functioning lighthouse. It is located in Fanari, which means lantern in Greek, 6.5 km (4.0 miles) from Chora.
- Tria Pigadia - are three identical wells standing in a row in the middle of the main town, Chora. They were built in 1722 to provide the town with water. Unlike most modern wells which are over 30 metres (98 ft) deep, the Tria Pigadia are only 5–6 metres (16.4–19.7 ft) deep as they were constructed into sand where water was more easily accessible.
- Archaeological Museum - it was built in 1905 to house the findings from the Putrification Pit of 425/6 CB, discovered in 1898 on the islet of Rheneia by D. Stavropoulos. It is one of the oldest museums in Greece and funded by the Ministry of Education and the Archaeological Society of Athens. The land as donated by the Municipality of Mykonos. The original Neoclassical building underwent refurbishments and expansions in the 1930s and 1960s and the large eastern room was added in 1972. The museum contains artifacts from the neighbouring island Rhenia, including 9th-8th century BC ceramic pottery from the Cyclades and 7th-6th century works from other areas in the Aegean. Its most famous item is the large vase produced in Tinos, showing scenes from the fall of Troy.
- Aegean Maritime Museum - it was founded in 1983 by the Mykonian George M. Drakopoulos and it opened in 1985 with the goal of preserving and promoting the study of Greek maritime history and tradition, in particular the evolution and activities of the merchant ship in the Aegean Sea. Drakopoulos’ has been awarded with the Athens Academy Award and with the World Ship Trust’s award for Individual Achievement for his work with the museum. This was the first museum in Greece to rescue and restore historical exhibits to operate as they were originally designed and built. In addition to original pieces, there are also replicas of famous historical ships and collections of coins with nautical scenes from the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD and a variety of elaborate shipping instruments.
- Folklore Museum - the oldest house on the island houses a collection of 19th century furniture, jewellery, ceramics embroideries, marble sculptures, tombstones and a variety of other trinkets. The museum also pays tribute to Mykonos' traditional nautical roots with models of 19th century Mykonian ships, maps and an anchor and canons used during the Greek War of Independence.
- Lena's House - this 19th century traditional Mykonian residence with its original furniture belonged to a wealthy shipping family. The house operates as a museum.
- Agricultural Museum - (also known as the Bonis Mill) old tools and machinery are displayed in one of Mykonos’ famous windmills and, located above the main town of Chora in Ano Myloi (meaning Upper Windmills), it offers a spectacular view.
- Panagia Paraportiani - (the Church of Our Lady) one of the most famous architectural structures in Greece. The church received its name Paraportiani, which means "standing next to the entrance / door", because it was located next to the entrance of the ancient castle, or kastro door. The neighbourhood of Kastro, where it is situated, used to be the site of a medieval castle – in those days a castle was a strong fortification surrounding a settlement – constructed in 1207 by the Gisi family, who controlled the island a the time. The castle was destroyed in the 16th century and its remnants covered up by new buildings when Chora began to expand in the 18th century.
It took around 200 years to build the church. Construction began in the 15th century and was not completed until the 17th century. Its architectural quirkiness makes it one of the most photographed places in the world.
- Catholic Church - the only Catholic church on the island was constructed in 1668 and renovated in 1677 by bishop Leandros Zanthakis. The icon of the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus between Saint Domenicus and Saint Catherine of Sienna was transported to Mykonos from Venice in 1715. A terrible fire on 1 May 1991 damaged part of the church. By October 1997 the church was restored and re-open to the public.
Mykonos Airport is located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) southeast of the town of Mykonos and it is served by international flights during summer.You can fly to the island from a number of international destinations. The flight from Athens to Mykonos is only 25 minutes.
Mykonos is also accessible by boat and ferries and high speed vessels travel there daily from the surrounding islands and from Athens.
On the island you can travel around by taxi, bus or boat. There are three main bus depots in Mykonos. The northern one is situated behind Remezzo Club above the old Port and provides regular service to Ano Mera, Elia and Kalafatis. A few hundred meters below, at the Old Port, lays another Depot focusing on the northern destinations of Tourlos (New Port) and Agios Stefanos. The southern Bus Depot is at the town "entrance", called Fabrika and it provides regular service to Ornos, Agios Yannis, Plati Gialos, Psarou, Paraga, and Paradise Beach. Small boats travel to and from the many beaches.
- Agios Ioannis
- Agios Stefanos
- Ano Mera
- Mykonos or Chora
- Platys Gialos
- Louza (similar to the Cypriot lountza)
- Amygdalota (dessert)
- Lazarakia (dessert)
- Melopita (dessert)
- Seattle Indie band Fleet Foxes have a 2009 single, Mykonos, which is named after the island.
- The movies Shirley Valentine and Wog Boy 2: Kings of Mykonos are set on the island.
- In the video game Sonic Unleashed, one of the areas (Apotos) is based on the island.
- Stereo Love, a 2009 music video recorded by Romanian musicians Edward Maya and Vika Jigulina has been entirely shot in this island.
- The fictional Portokalos Family from My Big Fat Greek Wedding is from Mykonos, as explained by Aunt Voula.
Monument to Manto Mavrogenous
- Dictionary Reference: Mykonos
- Tom Masters, Europe on a shoestring, 2008
- Duncan Garwood, Mediterranean Europe, 2009
- Lloyd E. Hudman, Richard H. Jackson, Geography of travel and tourism, 2003
- Harry Coccossis, Alexandra Mexa, The challenge of tourism carrying capacity assessment: theory and practice, 2004
- Christopher Street. That New Magazine, Incorporated. 1995. p. 19. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Tsakos, Konstantinos (1998). Delos-Mykonos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology. Delos Island: Hesperos.
- "Gay Tourism". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- John Freely (4 June 2006). The Cyclades: Discovering the Greek Islands of the Aegean. I.B.Tauris. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-84511-160-1. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Mykonos Island Geography". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Mykonos Weather". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Simon Rogers (2012-05-06). "Greece election results mapped. Infographic | News". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Mykonos Municipal Library". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Petros the Pelican". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Windmills of Mykonos". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Little Venice".
- "Armenistis Lighthouse". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "The Three Wells".
- "Archaeological Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "The Aegean Maritime Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Folklore Museum of Mykonos".
- "Lena's House". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Agricultural Museum". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Panagia Paraportiani". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Catholic Church". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Mykonos Airport Info Center, Mykonos Airport - Welcome
- "Travel To Mykonos".
- "Getting Around Mykonos". Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Article about Mykonos
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