Myrosinase

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Thioglucosidase (Myrosinase)
1e4m.png
Myrosinase from Sinapis alba. PDB 1e4m[1]
Identifiers
EC number 3.2.1.147
CAS number 9025-38-1
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

Myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147, thioglucoside glucohydrolase, sinigrinase, and sinigrase) is a family of enzymes involved in plant defense against herbivores. The three-dimensional structure has been elucidated and is available in the PDB (see links in the infobox).

A member of the glycoside hydrolase family, myrosinase possesses several similarities with the more ubiquitous O-glycosidases.[2] [3] However, myrosinase is the only known enzyme found in nature that can cleave a thio-linked glucose. Its known biological function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of a class of compounds called glucosinolates. [4]

Myrosinase activity[edit]

Myrosinase is regarded as a defence-related enzyme and is capable of hydrolyzing glucosinolates into various compounds, some of which are toxic.[5]

Mechanism[edit]

Myrosinase catalyzes the chemical reaction

a thioglucoside + H2O \rightleftharpoons a sugar + a thiol

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are thioglucoside and H2O, whereas its two products are sugar and thiol.

In the presence of water, myrosinase cleaves off the glucose group from a glucosinolate. The remaining molecule then quickly converts to a thiocyanate, an isothiocyanate, or a nitrile; these are the active substances that serve as defense for the plant. The hydrolysis of glucosinolates by myrosinase can yield a variety of products, depending on various physiological conditions such as pH and the presence of certain cofactors. All known reactions have been observed to share the same initial steps. (See Figure 2.) First, the β-thioglucoside linkage is cleaved by myrosinase, releasing D-glucose. The resulting aglycone undergoes a spontaneous Lossen-like rearrangement, releasing a sulfate. The last step in the mechanism is subject to the greatest variety depending on the physiological conditions under which the reaction takes place. At neutral pH, the primary product is the isothiocyanate. Under acidic conditions (pH < 3), and in the presence of ferrous ions or epithiospecifer proteins, the formation of nitriles is favored instead. [2][6]

Figure 2: Mechanism of glucosinolate hydrolysis by myrosinase.[2]

Cofactors and inhibitors[edit]

Ascorbate is a known cofactor of myrosinase, serving as a base catalyst in glucosinolate hydrolysis.[7] [8] For example, myrosinase isolated from daikon (Raphanus sativus) demonstrated an increase in V max from 2.06 µmol/min per mg of protein to 280 µmol/min per mg of protein on the substrate, allyl glucosinolate (sinigrin) when in the presence of 500 µM ascorbate.[4] Sulfate, a byproduct of glucosinolate hydrolysis, has been identified as a competitive inhibitor of myrosinase.[4] In addition, 2-F-2-deoxybenzylglucosinolate, which was synthesized specifically to study the mechanism of myrosinase, inhibits the enzyme by trapping one of the glutamic acid residues in the active site, Glu 409.[3][9]

Structure[edit]

Myrosinase exists as a dimer with subunits of 60-70 kDa each.[10] [11] X-ray crystallography of myrosinase isolated from Sinapis alba revealed the two subunits are linked by a zinc atom.[12] The prominence of salt bridges, disulfide bridges, hydrogen bonding, and glycosylation are thought to contribute to the enzyme’s stability, especially when the plant is under attack and experiences severe tissue damage.[2] A feature of many ß-glucosidases are catalytic glutamate residues at their active sites, but two of these have been replaced by a single glutamine residue in myrosinase.[3][13] Ascorbate has been shown to substitute for the activity of the glutamate residues.[14] (See Figure 3 for mechanism.)

Figure 3: Active site of myrosinase during the first step of glucosinolate hydrolysis. Here, ascorbate is used as a cofactor to substitute for the missing second catalytic glutamate in order to cleave the thio-linked glucose.[3]

Biological function[edit]

Myrosinase and its natural substrate, glucosinolate, are known to be part of the plant’s defense response. When the plant is attacked by pathogens, insects, or other herbivore, the plant uses myrosinase to convert glucosinolates, which are otherwise-benign, into toxic products like isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles.[2]

Compartmentalization in plants[edit]

The glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system is packaged in the plant in a unique manner. Plants store myrosinase glucosinolates by compartimentalization, such that the latter is released and activated only when the plant is under attack. Myrosinase is stored largely as myrosin grains in the vacuoles of particular idioblasts called myrosin cells, but have also been reported in protein bodies or vacuoles, and as cytosolic enzymes that tend to bind to membranes.[15][16] Glucosinolates are stored in adjacent but separate “S-cells.” [17] When the plant experiences tissue damage, the myrosinase comes into contact with glucosinolates, quickly activating them into their potent, antibacterial form.[2] The most potent of such products are isothiocyanates, followed by thiocyanates and nitriles.[18]

Evolution[edit]

Plants known to have evolved a myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system include: white mustard (Sinapis alba), [10] garden cress (Lepidium sativum),[19] wasabi (Wasabia japonica),[20] daikon (Raphanus sativus),[21][22] as well as several members of the Brassicaceae family, including yellow mustard (Brassica juncea),[23] rape seed (Brassica napus),[24] and common dietary brassicas like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, bok choy, and kale. [2] The bitter aftertaste of many of these vegetables can often be attributed to the hydrolysis of glucosinolates upon tissue damage during food preparation or when consuming these vegetables raw.[2]

Myrosinase has also been isolated from the cabbage aphid.[25] This suggests coevolution of the cabbage aphid with its main food source. The aphid employs a similar defense strategy to plants. Like its main food source, the cabbage aphid compartmentalizes its native myrosinase and the glucosinolates it ingests. When the cabbage aphid is attacked and its tissues are damaged, its stored glucosinolates are activated, producing isothiocyanates and deterring predators from attacking other aphids.[26]

Historical relevance and modern applications[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Historically, crops like rapeseed that contained the glucosinolate-myrosinase system were deliberately bred to minimize glucosinolate content, since rapeseed in animal feed was proving toxic to livestock.[27] The glucosinolate-myrosinase system has been investigated as a possible biofumigant to protect crops against pests. The potent glucosinolate hydrolysis products (GHPs) could be sprayed onto crops to deter herbivory. Another option would be to use techniques in genetic engineering to introduce the glucosinolate-myrosinase system in crops as a means of fortifying their resistance against pests.[18]

Human health[edit]

Isothiocyanates, the primary product of glucosinolate hydrolysis, has been known to prevent iodine uptake in the thyroid, causing goiters. [28] Isothiocyanates in high concentrations have also been known to cause hepatotoxicity, or liver damage.[4] However, more recent studies have shown that diets high in glucosinolate-containing vegetables such as dietary brassicas have been associated with lower risks of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.[2] [29] Isothiocyanates have been shown to induce phase II detoxification enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of carcinogens.[30] There has been increasing evidence to suggest that a myrosinase-like enzyme may also be present in members of the human gut microbiome. Although myrosinase, like many enzymes, will be denatured at high temperatures and thus lose its activity when cooked, a gut microbe capable of catalyzing the same hydrolysis of glucosinolates would therefore be able to activate ingested glucosinolates into their more potent forms, e.g. isothiocyanates. [31] [32]

According to one news report, a woman ate so much bok choy that she was driven into severe hypothyroidism by the excessive myrosinase.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burmeister, W. P.; Cottaz, S.; Rollin, P.; Vasella, A.; Henrissat, B. (2000). "High Resolution X-ray Crystallography Shows That Ascorbate is a Cofactor for Myrosinase and Substitutes for the Function of the Catalytic Base". Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (50): 39385–39393. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006796200. PMID 10978344.  edit
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Halkier, B. A. and Gershenzon, J. (2006). "Biology and Biochemistry of Glucosinolates". The Annual Review of Plant Biology 57: 303–333. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105228. 
  3. ^ a b c d Bones, A. M. and Rossiter, J. T. (2006). "The enzymic and chemically induced decomposition of glucosinolates". Phytochemistry 67: 1053–1067. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.02.024. 
  4. ^ a b c d Shikita, M., Fahey, J. W., Golden, T. R., Holtzclaw, D., and Talalay, P. (2000). "An unusual case of "uncompetitive activation" by ascorbic acid: Purification and kinetic properties of a myrosinase from Raphanus sativus seedlings". Journal of Biochemistry 341: 725–732. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3410725. PMC 1220411. PMID 10417337. 
  5. ^ A wound- and methyl jasmonate-inducible transcript coding for a myrosinase-associated protein with similarities to an early nodulin
  6. ^ Lambrix, V. et al. (2001). "The Arabidopsis Epithiospecifier Protein Promotes the Hydrolysis of Glucosinolates to Nitriles and Influences Trichoplusia ni Herbivory". The Plant Cell 13: 2793–2807. doi:10.1105/tpc.010261. 
  7. ^ Burmeister, W. P., Cottaz, S., Driguez, H., Iori, R., Palmieri, S. and Henrissat (1997). Structure 5: 663–675. 
  8. ^ Burmeister, W.P., Cottaz, S., Rollin, P., Vasella, A., Henrissat, B. (2000). "High resolution X-ray crystallography shows that ascorbate is a cofactor for myrosinase and substitutes for the function of the catalytic base.". Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 39385–39393. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006796200. PMID 9195886. 
  9. ^ Cottaz, S., Rollin, P., Driguez, H. (1997). "Synthesis of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucotropaeolin, a thioglucosidase inhibitor". Carbohydrate Research 298: 127–130. doi:10.1016/s0008-6215(96)00294-7. 
  10. ^ a b Björkman, R. and Janson, J.-C. (1972). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276: 508–518. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(72)91011-X http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-2744(72)91011-X |url= missing title (help). 
  11. ^ Pessina, A., Thomas, R. M., Palmieri, S. and Luisi, P. L. (1990). "An improved method for the purification of myrosinase and its physicochemical characterization". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 280: 383–389. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(90)90346-Z. 
  12. ^ Burmeister, W. P., Cottaz, S., Driguez, H., Iori, R., Palmieri, S. and Henrissat, B. (1997). Structure 5: 663–675. 
  13. ^ Henrissat, B. and Davies, J. G. (2000). "Glycoside Hydrolases and Glycosyltransferases: Families, Modules, and Implications for Genomics". Plant Physiology 124 (4): 1515–1519. doi:10.1104/pp.124.4.1515. 
  14. ^ Burmeister, W.P., Cottaz, S., Rollin, P., Vasella, A., Henrissat, B. (2000). "High resolution X-ray crystallography shows that ascorbate is a cofactor for myrosinase and substitutes for the function of the catalytic base.". Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 39385–39393. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006796200. PMID 9195886. 
  15. ^ Luthy B, Matile P. The mustard oil bomb - rectified analysis of the subcellular organization of the myrosinase system. Biochem Physiol Pfl 179 (1-2): 5-12 (1984).
  16. ^ Andréasson, E. ‘’et al.’’ (2001). "Different Myrosinase and Idioblast Distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus". Plant Physiology 127: 1750–1763. doi:10.1104/pp.010334. 
  17. ^ Koroleva, O. A. ‘’et al.’’ (2000). "Identification of a new glucosinolate-rich cell type in Arabidopsis flower stalk". 124: 599–608. doi:10.1104/pp.124.2.599. 
  18. ^ a b Gimsing, A. L. and Kirkegaard, J. A. (2009). "Glucosinolates and biofumigation: fate of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in soil". Phytochem Rev 8: 299–310. doi:10.1007/s11101-008-9105-5. 
  19. ^ Durham, P. and Poulton, J. E. (1989). Plant Physiol. 90: 48–52. 
  20. ^ Ohtsuru, M. and Kawatani, H. (1979). Agric. Biol. Chem. 43: 2249–2255. 
  21. ^ Iversen, T.-H. and Baggerud, C. (1980). Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 97: 399–407. 
  22. ^ El-Sayed, S. T., Jwanny, E. W., Rashad, M. M., Mahmoud, A. E. and Abdallah, N. M. (1995). Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 55: 219–230. 
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  24. ^ Lonnerdal, B. and Janson, J.-C. (1973). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 315: 421–429. 
  25. ^ Husebye, H. ‘’et al’’ (2005). "Crystal structure at 1.1 Å resolution of an insect myrosinase from Brevicoryne brassicae shows its close relationship to β-glucosidases". Insect Bochemistry and Molecular Biology 35 (12): 1311–1320. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2005.07.004. 
  26. ^ Bridges, M. “et al.” (2002). "Spatial organization of the glucosinolate–myrosinase system in brassica specialist aphids is similar to that of the host plant". Proceedings of the Royal Society 269 (1487): 187–191. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1861. 
  27. ^ Brabban, A. D. and Edwards, C. (1994). "Isolation of glucosinolate degrading microorganisms and their potential for reducing the glucosinolate content of rapemeal". FEMS Microbiology Letters 119 (1-2): 83–88. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06871.x. 
  28. ^ Bones, A. M. and Rossiter, J. T. (1996). "The myrosinase-glucosinolate system, its organisation and biochemistry". Physiologia Plantarum 97: 194–208. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00497.x. 
  29. ^ Hayes, J., Kelleher, M. O. and Eggleston, I. M. (2008). "The Cancer Chemopreventetive Actions of Phytochemicals Derived From Glucosinolates". European Journal of Nutrition 47: 73–88. doi:10.1007/s00394-008-2009-8. 
  30. ^ Ahn, Y.-H. ‘’et al.’’ (2010). "Electrophilic tuning of the chemoprotective natural product sulforaphane". PNAS 107 (21): 9590–9595. doi:10.1073/pnas.1004104107. 
  31. ^ Cheng, D.-L., Hashimoto, K. and Uda, Y. (2004). "In vitro digestion of sinigrin and glucotropaeolin by single strains of Bifidobacterium and identification of the digestive products". Food and Chemical Toxicology 42: 351–357. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2003.09.008. 
  32. ^ Elfoul, L. ‘’et al.’’ (2001). "Formation of allyl isothiocyanate from sinigrin in the digestive tract of rats monoassociated with a human colonic strain of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron". FEMS Microbiology Letters 197: 99–103. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2001.tb10589.x. 
  33. ^ Aleccia, JoNel (29 May 2010). "Back away from the bok choy, ma'am". NBC News Health`. Retrieved 2013-08-18.