Mythical national championship
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2010)|
A mythical national championship (sometimes abbreviated MNC) is national championship recognition that is not explicitly competitive. This is often invoked in reference to American college football because the NCAA does not sponsor a playoff-style tournament or recognize official national champions for the Football Bowl Subdivision. The relevant recognition comes from various entities, including coach polls and media ballots, which have attempted to recognize their own national champions.
|“||If there are any Big Ten teams that shoot for a national championship, they're damn fools...You play to win the Big Ten championship, and if you win it and go to the Rose Bowl and win it, then you've had a great season. If they choose to vote you number one, then you're the national champion. But a national champion is a mythical national champion, and I think you guys ought to know that. It's mythical.||”|
"Mythical national champion" is a term used since at least 1921 for a championship won by a NCAA Division I football team, especially for titles won before the current Bowl Championship Series (BCS) system began in 1998. Before the BCS, polls in which coaches and/or sportwriters voted, such as the AP, UPI, and USA Today polls, awarded championships. This led to seasons in which two or even more teams could claim to have won a national championship.
The BCS attempts to eliminate uncertainty by ranking college teams and inviting the top two teams at the end of the regular season to play in a championship game. These teams are determined by the BCS ranking formula, which itself uses a combination of human voter polls and computer rankings. The process of selecting the two best teams for the BCS championship game has, nonetheless, resulted in controversy almost every season of its existence.
Starting in 2014, the College Football Playoff—an association of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games—has arranged to place the top four teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that seeds and selects the teams similarly to the Final Four) into two semifinal bowl games and the winners go on to compete in the College Football Championship Game.
The national championship of collegiate basketball that is officially recognized by the main governing body for collegiate athletics in the United States, the NCAA, has been awarded to the champion of an annual national post-season tournament run by the NCAA since 1939. Prior to the advent of national post-season college basketball tournaments, beginning with the NAIA national men's basketball championship in 1937, the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 1938 and the NCAA Tournament in 1939, various third-party organizations selected basketball national champions in a manner similar to the selection of national champions for college football described above.
Notable among the pre-tournament era selections, and listed in the Official NCAA Men's Basketball Records Book, are those from the Helms Athletic Foundation. The Helms Foundation named a national champion from 1901 to 1982, with its selections from 1901-1941 being awarded retroactively. The Helms champion, for the years in which the NIT and NCAA post-season tournaments were played, matched the winners of the 1938 NIT and 1939 NIT, as well as the winners for all years of the NCAA Tournament except for 1939, 1940, 1944 and 1954.
|“||They [Red Cross Games] weren’t just benefit games... they were really the games for the national championship.||”|
During World War II, from 1943 to 1945, the NCAA, NIT and Madison Square Garden cooperated to host "mythical national championship games" between winners of each year's NCAA and NIT tournaments in order to benefit the American Red Cross' War Fund. The series was described Ray Meyer, coach of the losing 1945 DePaul team, as "the games for the national championship". The NCAA champion prevailed in all three games.
During the early years of the two tournaments, the NCAA and NIT competed against each other and the question of the superiority of one over the other was not settled. In 1939, the inaugural year of the NCAA tournament, the NIT was generally considered to be superior. During the 1940s, the tournaments' relative strengths became less clear and thus some years' national championship claims are disputed. Some sources claim superiority for the NIT during this time. However, in 1943, the NCAA tournament began sharing Madison Square Garden with the NIT making it difficult to determine which tournament was superior. By 1945, following victories by the NCAA champions over the NIT champions in the Red Cross games, The New York Times had described a prevailing opinion that many teams that could potentially get bids to enter either tournament would probably choose the NCAA tournament "because it involves stronger competition". In 1950, City College of New York won both the NIT and the NCAA tournaments in the same season, coincidentally defeating Bradley University in the championship game of both tournaments, and thus united the titles. Since at least 1951, the NCAA tournament, with conference champions and the majority of the top-ranked teams participating in it, has been popularly been regarded by most individuals as the major post season tourney and the sole determiner of the national championship, although the NIT was still considered a quality tournament for some time following that.
Schools that claim pre-NCAA Tournament basketball championships
Many schools claim or recognize pre-tournament era national college basketball championships by virtue of being selected by third-party selectors, such as the Helms Athletic Foundation, including the University of Kansas, Purdue University, Stanford University, the University of North Carolina, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Wisconsin, Syracuse University, and Washington State University. In addition, in some years teams won playoff series or tournaments played on the court for a national championship. For example, LSU claims the 1935 championship by virtue of winning the American Legion Bowl game against Pittsburgh in a match-up of regional powers.
Three schools claim a national championship based on their NIT championships: DePaul (1945), Utah (1947), and San Francisco (1949). Long Island also recognizes its selection as the 1939 national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation.
The following table is a partial list of schools that claim a national championship from the pre-NCAA Tournament era of college basketball. See also Helms Athletic Foundation Basketball National Champions. Not all schools recognize national championship honors bestowed by third-party selectors.
|1904||Hiram College||1904 Olympic Games college championship tournament|
|1908||Chicago ||National Championship Playoff|
|1912||Wisconsin||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1914||Wisconsin||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1915||Illinois||Helms Athletic Foundation|
Helms Athletic Foundation
|1917||Washington State||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1918||Syracuse||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1920||New York University 
National Championship Playoff
|First National Collegiate Championship Tournament
Helms Athletic Foundation
|1923||Kansas||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|Helms Athletic Foundation
|Helms Athletic Foundation
|1926||Syracuse||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1927||Notre Dame||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1928||Pittsburgh||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|Veteran Athletes of Philadelphia
Helms Athletic Foundation
|1930||Pittsburgh ||Naismith Basketball HOF Championship Game, Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1931||Northwestern||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1932||Purdue||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1934||Wyoming||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1935||LSU ||American Legion Bowl Game|
|1936||Notre Dame||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1937||Stanford||Helms Athletic Foundation|
|1938||Temple||Helms Athletic Foundation, NIT|
High school sports
Because high school sports in the United States such as football and basketball are state-centered sports involving thousands of schools, it would be almost impossible to have a national championship playoff. A single-game playoff for football, however, was attempted in 1938 and 1939, particularly difficult at that time due to many states' prohibition of postseason games. Nearly all states crown several champions in different classifications, which are not uniform from state to state, based upon school enrollments.
Some publications and internet sites release nationwide rankings for high school sports based on polls or mathematical formulas which take into account various factors like average margin of victory and strength of schedule. Schools that finish atop these rankings, particularly the USA Today poll, often claim to be national champions, and the press calls them "mythical national champions".
National Football League
In the earliest days of the National Football League, the NFL championship was determined by a formula and by the votes of the NFL owners. In three instances, 1920, 1921 and 1925, this led to disputed titles. In 1932, two teams tied atop the standings led to a one-game playoff for the championship, which was made permanent the next year. There has been some sort of NFL playoff ever since, and as the league grew, so too did the tournament, which eventually took form as the single-elimination tournament it is today.
- Moran, Malcolm (1989-08-27). "COLLEGE FOOTBALL '89; Defining the 80's? No Easy Task". The New York Times.
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- "Life." December 16, 1940. "Long Island University basketball team displays best scoring plays." p. 41. "Mecca for all college basketball teams is New York's Madison Square Garden. There each winter the leading teams in the U.S. play double-header games on 16 nights, [and invited teams later] wind up the season with the National Invitation Tournament sponsored by the Metropolitan colleges to decide the mythical title."
- Official 2009 NCAA Men's Basketball Records Book, The National Collegiate Athletic Association, pg. 82, date=2008-10, ISSN 1089-5280, accessdate=2009-03-05
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- "Tennessee Becomes Third Quintet to Enter National Invitational Tournament at Garden". The New York Times. March 4, 1945. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
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- Undisputed Champion (boxing)