Népomucène Lemercier

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Népomucène Lemercier
Lemercier, Népomucène.jpg
Born (1771-04-20)20 April 1771
Died 7 June 1840(1840-06-07) (aged 69)
Nationality French
Occupation Playwright, poet
Known for Agamemnon

Louis Jean Népomucène Lemercier (20 April 1771 – 7 June 1840) was a French poet and dramatist.


He was born in Paris. His father had been intendant successively to the duc de Penthièvre, the comte de Toulouse and the unfortunate princesse de Lamballe, who was the boy's godmother. Lemercier was a prodigy; before he was sixteen his tragedy of Méléagre was produced at the Théâtre Français. Clarisse Harlowe (1792) provoked the criticism that the author was "pas assez roué pour peindre les roueries" (not enough scamp to depict scamp tricks.) Le Tartufe révolutionnaire a parody full of bold political allusions, was suppressed after the fifth performance.

In 1795, Lemercier's masterpiece Agamemnon, called by Charles Lafitte the last great antique tragedy in French literature, was produced. It was a great success, but was violently attacked later by Julien Louis Geoffroy who stigmatized it as a bad caricature of Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon. Les quatre métamorphoses (1799) was written to prove that the most indecent subjects might be treated without offence. The Pinto (1800) was the result of a wager that no further dramatic innovations were possible after the comedies of Pierre Beaumarchais. It is a historical comedy on the subject of the Portuguese Revolution of 1640. This play was construed as casting reflections on the first consul Napoleon, who had hitherto been a firm friend of the avowed republican Lemercier. His extreme freedom of speech finally offended Napoleon, and the quarrel proved disastrous to Lemercier's fortune for the time. [1] In 1803, he earned a severe disappointment on the première of his tragedy Isule et Orovèse which was widely ridiculed and hooted by the public; consequently, at the beginning of the third act Lemercier withdrew his manuscript. He published his text with annoted “hootings” in order to pay deference to his public.[2]

None of his subsequent work fulfilled the expectations raised by Agamemnon, with the exception perhaps of Frédégonde et Brunehaut (1821). In 1810, he was elected to the Académie française, where he consistently opposed the romanticists, refusing to vote for Victor Hugo – who was to succeed him in the fauteuil 14.[3] In spite of this, he has some pretensions to be considered the earliest of the romantic school. His Christophe Colomb (1809), advertised on the play-bill as a comédie shakespérienne [sic], represented the interior of a ship, and showed no respect for the classical unities. Its numerous innovations provoked such violent disturbances in the audience that one person was killed and future representations had to be guarded by the police.

Lemercier wrote four long and ambitious epic poems: Homère, Alexandre (1801), L'Atlantiade ou la théogonie newtonienne (1812) and Moïse (1823), as well as an extraordinary Panhypocrisiade (1819–1832), a distinctly romantic production in sixteen cantos, which has the sub-title Spectacle infernal du XVIe siècle. In it 16th century history, with Charles V and Francis I as principal personages, is played out on an imaginary stage by demons in the intervals of their sufferings.

Lemercier died on the 7th of June 1840 in Paris.[1] He had composed his own epitaph as follows: « Il fut homme de bien et cultiva les lettres. » (“He was a gentleman and a man of letters.”)


  • 1786 Méléagre
  • 1795 Le Tartufe révolutionnaire. Agamemnon
  • 1796 Le Lévite d’Ephraïm
  • 1798 Ophis
  • 1799 Les quatre métamorphoses. Pinto
  • 1801 Homère et Alexandre. Les trois fanatiques. Un de mes songes. Ismaël au désert
  • 1803 Les âges français. Isule et Orovèse
  • 1804 Hérologues ou chants du poète-roi
  • 1807 Épître à Talma
  • 1808 Baudouin. Plaute
  • 1809 Christophe Colomb
  • 1810 Hymne à l’hymen
  • 1812 L’Atlantiade ou la théogonie newtonienne
  • 1813 Le bonheur de la vertu
  • 1814 Épître à Bonaparte
  • 1815 Réflexions d’un Français sur une partie factieuse de l’année française
  • 1816 Le frère et la sœur jumeaux. Charlemagne
  • 1817 Cours de littérature générale professé à l’Athénée de Paris, 4 voll. Le complot domestique. Le faux bonhomme
  • 1818 Du second Théâtre-Français. La Mérovéïde. Saint Louis
  • 1819 Panhypocrisiade, ou la comédie infernale du XVIe siècle
  • 1820 Clovis. La démence de Charles VI
  • 1821 Chant pythique sur l’alliance européenne universelle. Frédégonde et Brunehaut. Louis IX en Égypte
  • 1822 Le Corrupteur
  • 1823 Moïse
  • 1824 Le chant héroïque des matelots grecs. Richard III
  • 1825 Les martyrs de Souly. Remarques sur les bonnes et mauvaises innovations dramatiques
  • 1826 Camille. Dame censure. Principes et développements sur la nature de la propriété littéraire
  • 1827 Les deux filles spectres. Notice sur Talma
  • 1828 Comédies historiques
  • 1829 Caïn
  • 1830 M. Lemercier à ses concitoyens, sur la grande semaine. Les serfs polonais
  • 1831 Vœu d’un membre du comité polonais