|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||122.99 g mol−1|
|Density||1.354 g mL−1|
|Melting point||−110.5 °C; −166.8 °F; 162.7 K|
|Boiling point||70.3 to 71.3 °C; 158.4 to 160.2 °F; 343.4 to 344.4 K|
|Solubility in water||2.5 g L−1 (at 20 °C)|
|Solubility in ethanol||Miscible|
|Solubility in diethyl ether||Miscible|
|Vapor pressure||19.5 kPa (at 20 °C)|
|kH||1.4 μmol Pa−1 kg−1|
|Refractive index (nD)||1.43414|
|Viscosity||5.241 mPa s (at 20 °C)|
heat capacity C
|134.6 J K−1 mol−1|
|Std enthalpy of
|−125.8–−123.0 kJ mol−1|
|Std enthalpy of
|−2.0580–−2.0552 MJ mol−1|
|GHS signal word||DANGER|
|GHS hazard statements||H225, H315, H319, H335, H336, H360, H373|
|GHS precautionary statements||P201, P210, P261, P305+351+338, P308+313|
|EU classification||F T|
|R-phrases||R60, R11, R36/37/38, R48/20, R63, R67|
|Flash point||22 °C (72 °F; 295 K)|
|LD50||2.950 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneal, rat)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
n-Propyl bromide (NPB or 1-propylbromide) is an organobromine compound with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2Br. It is a colorless liquid that is used as an solvent. It has a characteristic hydrocarbon odor.
- CH3CH2CH2OH + HBr → CH3CH2CH2Br + H2O
Like other halocarbons, n-propyl bromide finds use as a solvent. It is used for the cleaning of metal surfaces, removal of soldering residues from electronic circuit boards. It is also a solvent for adhesives. It has been deployed as a replacement for perchloroethylene as a dry cleaning solvent. It is also used in the hole transport layer (HTL) of multi-layered OLEDs.
The chemical's increasing use in the 21st century resulted from need for a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons and perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene). It has been approved for use under the U.S. EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) as a suitable replacement for ozone depleting chemicals.
In 2013, a peer-review panel convened by the National Toxicology Program unanimously recommended that 1-bromopropane, be classified as reasonably anticipated human carcinogens. In 2003, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set the time-weighted average threshold limit value for an 8-hour exposure at 10 parts per million. In one case cited in the NY Times, long-term exposure resulted in neurological damage.
Extended occupational exposure to n-propyl bromide in higher concentrations than recommended has resulted in significant injury to workers in the United States. Its use as a solvent in aerosol glues used to glue foam cushions has been especially problematic. Reported symptoms to overexposure include confusion, dysarthria, dizziness, paresthesias, and ataxia; unusual fatigue and headaches, development of arthralgias, visual disturbances (difficulty focusing), paresthesias, and muscular twitching. Symptoms may persist over one year after termination of exposure. Loss of feeling in the feet, an example of paresthesia, is colloquially called "dead foot" by workers who suffer from it.
Use of DrySolv Dry Cleaning Solvent, which contains n-propyl bromide, as a replacement for perchloroethylene may require adjustment and modification of equipment, improved ventilation and use of personal protective equipment.
- "1-bromopropane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 27 March 2005. Identification. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- David Ioffe, Arieh Kampf “Bromine, Organic Compounds” in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2002 by John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/0471238961.0218151325150606.a01.
- Oliver Kamm and C. S. Marvel (1941), "Alkyl and alkylene bromides", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 1: 25
- "Technical Data Sheet". Enviro Tech International. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Neurologic Illness Associated with Occupational Exposure to the Solvent 1-Bromopropane --- New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2007--2008". Centers for Disease Control. December 5, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone- Depleting Substances-n-Propyl Bromide in Solvent Cleaning". Federal Register. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. May 30, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2013. "This final rule lists n-propyl bromide (nPB) as an acceptable substitute when used as a solvent in industrial equipment for metals cleaning, electronics cleaning, or precision cleaning. General metals, precision, and electronics cleaning includes cleaning with industrial cleaning equipment such as vapor degreasers, in-line cleaning systems, or automated equipment used for cleaning below the boiling point."
- Ian Urbina (March 30, 2013). "As OSHA Emphasizes Safety, Long-Term Health Risks Fester". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "1-BROMOPROPANE: Human Health Effects". Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. "List of Chemicals for Assessment". Retrieved 23 April 2013.