N. T. Rama Rao
|Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao
నందమూరి తారక రామా రావు
|10th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh|
9 January 1983 – 16 August 1984
|Governor||K. C. Abraham|
|Preceded by||Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy|
|Succeeded by||Nadendla Bhaskara Rao|
16 September 1984 – 2 December 1989
|Governor||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Preceded by||Nadendla Bhaskara Rao|
|Succeeded by||Marri Chenna Reddy|
12 December 1994 – 1 September 1995
|Preceded by||Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy|
|Succeeded by||Nara Chandrababu Naidu|
|Born||Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao
28 May 1923
Nimmakuru, Madras Presidency, British India
|Died||18 January 1996
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Political party||Telugu Desam Party
|National Front (1989-1995)|
|Spouse(s)||Adusumalli Basavatarakam (m. 1942–85) (deceased)
Lakshmi Parvathi (m. 1993–96)
|Children||Nandamuri Ramakrishna Sr. (deceased)
Nandamuri Saikrishna (deceased)
Nandamuri Ramakrishna Jr.
Nandamuri Jayashankar Krishna
Kantamaneni Uma Maheswari
|Alma mater||Andhra-Christian College, Guntur|
|Awards||Padma Shri (1968)
National Film Awards
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (Telugu:నందమూరి తారక రామా రావు)(28 May 1923 – 18 January 1996), popularly known as N. T. Rama Rao or by his initials NTR, was an Indian film actor, director, producer, and politician who also served as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for three terms. He received three National Film Awards for co-producing Thodu Dongalu (1954) and Seetharama Kalyanam (1960) under National Art Theater, Madras, and directing Varakatnam (1970), and He garnered the Inaugural Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu in 1972.
NTR made his debut as an actor in a Telugu social film Mana Desam, directed by L. V. Prasad in 1949. He gained popularity in the 1950s when he became well known for his portrayals of Hindu deities, especially Krishna and Rama, roles which have made him a "messiah of the masses". He later became known for portraying antagonistic characters and Robin Hood-esque hero characters in films. In total he starred in over 278 Telugu films, 20 Tamil films and 4 Hindi films, and has become one of the most prominent figures in the history of Telugu cinema.
Besides Telugu, he has also acted in a few Tamil films. Widely recognised for his portrayal of mythological characters, NTR was considered as one of the leading method actors of Indian cinema, He was referred to in the media as Viswa Vikhyatha Nata Sarvabhouma. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1968, recognizing his contribution to Telugu cinema.
After his career in films, NTR entered politics. He founded the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in 1982 and served three tumultuous terms as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh between 1983 and 1995. He was known as an advocate of Andhra Pradesh's distinct cultural identity, distinguishing it from the erstwhile Madras State with which it was often associated. At the national level, he was instrumental in the formation of the National Front, a coalition of non-Congress parties which governed India from 1989 until 1990.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Acting career
- 3 Political career
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Awards and honours
- 6 Awards instituted in the honor of NTR
- 7 Universities placed in the honor of NTR
- 8 Notable filmography
- 9 State Elections Contested
- 10 Death
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
N. T. Rama Rao (NTR) was born on 28 May 1923 in Nimmakuru, a small village in Gudivada taluk of Krishna District, which was a part of the erstwhile Madras Presidency of British India. His was a poor farming family. From a young age he showed an interest in singing and developed a baritone singing voice as a young man.
NTR passed the matriculation examination in 1940 and joined the SRR & CVR College in Vijayawada to pursue his Intermediate course. While doing this course, he supplemented the family income by supplying milk to hotels in Vijayawada on his bicycle, ran a small provision store and worked as a clerk. At the end of the first year of his Intermediate course, the students of the college decided to stage a play written by Viswanadha Satyanarayana, the well-known Telugu poet and writer and the head of the Telugu department of the college. NTR played a female role in that play.
NTR joined the Andhra-Christian College at Guntur for pursuing his Bachelor of Arts course in 1945. During this time, he started performing and directing many stage plays like Chesina Paapam along with Kongara Jaggayya, Mukkamala and K. V. S. Sarma. After his graduation, NTR passed the Madras Service Commission examination and settled down in a sub-registrar’s job at Mangalagiri. He later quit this job to pursue acting.
NTR started his film career playing a small role as a police sub-inspector in the movie Mana Desam (1949). The role was offered by director L. V. Prasad. Following this, he appeared in Palletoori Pilla, directed by B. A. Subba Rao. It marked the first occasion that Rama Rao and his contemporary Akkineni Nageswara Rao (ANR) acted together for the first time. The title role was played by Anjali Devi and the story was loosely based on the English play, Pizaro by Richard Sherton. The film was a commercial hit and ran for more than 100 days in six centres. He got his major breakthrough with the 1951 film Paathala Bhairavi, directed by K. V. Reddy, where he played the role of an adventurous gardener, who loves the princess and goes all out to protect her from a wizard. He soon became famous for his commercial film roles, usually depicting an adventurous prince saving a damsel in distress.
His first mythological film was in 1957, where he portrayed Krishna in the blockbuster film Maya Bazaar. He essayed the role of Krishna in 17 films, including some landmark films like Sri Krishnarjuna Yudham (1962), the Tamil film Karnan (1964) and Daana Veera Soora Karna (1977). He was also famous for his portrayal of Lord Rama, essaying that role in films like Lava Kusha (1963), Shri Ramanjaneya Yuddham (1974) and Shri Rama Pattabhishekham (1978) to name a few. He has also portrayed other characters from the Ramayana, such as Ravana in Bhookailas (1958) and Seetharama Kalyanam (1961) among others. He portrayed Lord Vishnu in films like Sri Venkateswara Mahatyam (1960) among others and Lord Shiva in Dakshayagnam (1962). He has also enacted the roles of Mahabharatha characters, such as Bheeshma, Arjuna, Karna and Duryodhana. These mythological roles catapulted him to the top of Telugu film stardom and he soon achieved a demigod status in Andhra Pradesh.
Later in his career, he stopped playing the role of a prince in his commercial films and began to play roles of a poor yet heroic young man fighting against the existing system. These films appealed to the sentiments of the common man. Some of these films are Devudu Chesina Manushulu (1973), Adavi Ramudu (1977), Driver Ramudu (1979), Sardar Paparayudu (1980), Justice Chowdhary (1982) and Bobbili Puli (1982). He also portrayed fantasy roles, his notable film in that genre being Yamagola (1977).
His film Lava Kusain which he starred as Lord Rama collected 10 million in 1963. Even after his entry into politics, NTR continued to act in films. He directed and acted in the hagiographical film Shrimad Virat Veerabrahmendra Swami Charitra (1984) while he was the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. He also acted in films like Brahmasri Viswamitra (1991) and Major Chandrakanth (1993) while he was the Leader of Opposition in the assembly. His last film was Srinadha Kavi Sarvabhowma, a biopic on the Telugu poet Srinatha which released in 1993.
In the later half of his career, NTR became a screenwriter. Despite having no formal training in scriptwriting, he authored several screenplays for his own movies as well as for other producers. He also produced many of his films as well as other actor's films through his film production house National Art Theater Private Limited in T. Nagar, Madras (now Chennai). He actively campaigned for the construction of a large number of cinemas through this production house. He was influential in designing and implementing a financial system that funded the production and distribution of movies. He was so dedicated to his profession that he would often learn new things in order to portray a particular character on-screen perfectly and realistically. At the age of 40, he learnt dance from the renowned Kuchipudi dancer Vempati Chinna Satyam for his role in the film Nartanasala (1963).
NTR's film career spanned about 44 years. During this period he acted in a total of 320 films, with 186 of them being commercial films, 55 of them being folklore films, 42 of them being mythological films and 13 of them being historical films. In the remaining 24 films he acted, he was uncredited. 140 of his films celebrated hundred days and 33 films celebrated silver Jubilees while six of his films ran more than 50 weeks. He received three National Film Awards and one Filmfare Award South. His achievements in films was honoured with the institution of the NTR National Award in 1996, which is awarded as part of the Nandi Awards ceremony to a prominent film personality for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
NTR entered politics when he founded the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) on 29 March 1982 in Hyderabad. He said that this decision was based on a historic need to rid Andhra Pradesh of the corrupt and inept rule of the Indian National Congress which had governed the state since its formation in 1956 and whose leadership had changed the Chief Minister five times in five years. The popularity of NTR was such among the people of Andhra Pradesh that a jittery Congress decided to hold early elections in January 1983 instead of August 1983 as scheduled.
In the elections, the TDP allied with the Sanjaya Vichara Manch party and decided to field educated candidates who had a good name in the society and were not indulging in corruption, which was an innovative political concept at the time. NTR himself decided to contest from two assembly constituencies, Gudivada and Tirupati. NTR used many innovative ways of campaigning, such as being the first politician in India to use rath yatras for campaigning. For this, he used a modified Chevrolet van which he named as Chaitanya Ratham. In this van, NTR travelled across the state of Andhra Pradesh, crisscrossing all the districts. With his son Nandamuri Harikrishna, also a film actor, driving the van, NTR notched up over 75,000 kilometres during his campaign, a distinctive sight with the van's yellow party flags and banners and NTR sitting on top of the vehicle hailing the crowds. NTR campaigned for restoring the dignity of the Telugu people and advocated the forming a closer bond between the government and the common people, going into the elections with the slogan, Telugu Vari Atma Gauravam (lit. Telugu people's self-respect).
In the elections, the TDP won by an absolute majority, winning 199 out of the 294 seats in the state assembly, with NTR himself winning both the seats he contested. Their alliance with the Sanjaya Vichara Manch fetched 202 seats. NTR was sworn in as the 10th and the first non-Congress Chief Minister of the state on 9 January 1983 with ten cabinet ministers and five ministers of State.
On 15 August 1984, NTR was removed from office by the then-governor Ramlal while he was in the USA to undergo open heart surgery. His finance minister, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, a former Congressman who joined the TDP during its inception, was made the Chief Minister by Ramlal. Bhaskar Rao purportedly had the support of majority of the TDP MLAs which was never the case. NTR returned to India immediately after his surgery, disputed the claims by Bhaskara Rao and demonstrated his strength by bringing all the MLAs supporting him, which was a majority in the 294 member assembly, to the Raj Bhavan (Governor's Office). Ramlal did not relent, as a result of which NTR relaunched his Chaitanya Ratham campaign, this time campaigning for the restoration of democracy by mobilizing the support of people and various anti-Congress political parties in the country including the Janata Party (JP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Left Front, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), and the National Conference (NC). During the one month crisis, the MLAs supporting NTR were secured in a secret place to avoid horse-trading. Due to mobilization of several political parties and the people and due to bad press, Indira Gandhi, unwillingly removed Governor Ramlal and appointed a Congress veteran, Shankar Dayal Sharma, as the governor of Andhra Pradesh to pave the way for restoring NTR. Shankar Dayal Sharma removed Bhaskara Rao from power and restored NTR as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh in September 1984.
A month later, Indira Gandhi (daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru) was assassinated and was succeeded as prime minister by her son, Rajiv Gandhi. In the ensuing national elections to the Lok Sabha, the Congress, riding on the sympathy wave caused by Gandhi's assassination, won convincingly all over the country except in Andhra Pradesh where the TDP secured a landslide victory. TDP achieved the rare distinction of becoming the first regional party to become the main opposition party in the Lok Sabha. Meanwhile in the state, NTR recommended dissolution of the Assembly and called for fresh elections the following year in the state the following year to ensure the people had a fresh choice to elect their representatives. The TDP again won with a massive majority in those elections, with NTR winning from 3 seats; Hindupur, Nalgonda and Gudivada, thus marking the beginning of his second term as Chief Minister. Senior Leaders of the Congress in the state including former Chief Ministers Kasu Brahmananda Reddy and Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy lost in their constituencies of Narasaraopet and Kurnool respectively to the TDP.
NTR completed his five-year term as Chief Minister. In the December 1989 assembly elections however, he was voted out of power due to a wave of anti-incumbency sweeping the state as a result of which the Congress returned to power. NTR himself lost from Kalwakurthy by a narrow margin to the Congress, but retained the Hindupur assembly seat. During this time, he suffered a mild stroke, as a result of which he was unable to campaign, which, according to some political analysts and TDP supporters, was the reason for the TDP's loss. However during this period, he established himself in national politics, forming a coalition of non-Congress parties opposed to the Congress known as the National Front. It included parties, besides the TDP, such as the Janata Dal, the DMK, the Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) and the Indian Congress (Socialist). This alliance governed India between 1989-1990 with support from the Left Front and the BJP. Meanwhile, NTR assumed the position as the Leader of Opposition in the state.
NTR returned to power for a third and final time in the December 1994 state assembly elections with his party in alliance with the Left Front. This alliance won 250 seats in the 294 seat Assembly, with the TDP alone winning 226. The Congress, which once again had multiple Chief Ministers in the state during its five year rule between 1989-1994, won only 26 seats. NTR contested again from Hindupur and won the seat for the third consecutive time, achieving a rare hat-trick of wins from the same assembly constituency. He also won from another assembly constituency, Tekkali.
NTR's third term only lasted nine months. On 23 August 1995, he was removed as Chief Minister and as the president of the TDP by his son-in-law, Nara Chandrababu Naidu, who engineered an internal party coup against him and took over the offices. Naidu claimed that the reason for overthrowing NTR was that the latter was planning to hand over the reins of the party to his second wife Lakshmi Parvathi and felt that the party was in danger of disintegrating under her rule. Most of the TDP MLA's sided with Naidu and camped at the Viceroy Hotel in Hyderabad, the centre of the revolt. NTR's sons Nandamuri Harikrishna, Nandamuri Balakrishna and his other son-in-law Daggubati Venkateswara Rao played a crucial role in the coup but all of them fell out with Naidu soon afterwards. The reason for this is that Naidu is said have promised to make Venkateswara Rao the Deputy Chief Minister and Harikrishna the party's general secretary, but he sidelined all of them soon after becoming the Chief Minister and Party President. In an emotional interview after the coup, NTR called the coup a planned treachery and lambasted Naidu for being power-hungry and untrustworthy, likening him to Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor who jailed his father and killed his siblings to become the King of the Mughal Empire.
Achievements as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
NTR reflected socialist and populist views in several of his policies and provided basic necessities such as home, clothes and food and subsidies on them for people below the poverty line. He was also an advocate of women's rights and worked on a bill to amend inheritance law to provide equal rights for women to inherit ancestral property, enacted in 1986. He introduced many populist schemes such as the Midday Meal Scheme for poor children, rice at 2/kg, subsidised electricity and prohibiting the selling of alcohol in the state among others. He started the EAMCET (Engineering, Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test) which allowed students to join a professional college on merit. He was also a champion of social justice and introduced various measures that broke the upper-caste hegemony in various areas. He passed legislations allowing private transport operators to compete with the government-owned APSRTC. He also pioneered the Telugu Ganga project with support from the Government of Tamil Nadu, which provides water from the Krishna river for drinking and irrigation purposes to Rayalaseema and Chennai. He was a fierce advocate of Telugu pride and was instrumental in shifting the Telugu Film Industry from Madras to Hyderabad. The Telugu newspaper Eenadu wholeheartedly supported NTR and the TDP and covered most of NTR's achievements.
Achievements at the National Level
NTR earned a seat for the poor in Andhra Pradesh at the centre via well-thought out political decisions. NTR extended un-qualified support (cleared an MP seat and did not field a TDP candidate) to Congress leader and former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh P. V. Narasimha Rao resulting in the latter winning from the state and entering Parliament for the first time in his long career with a record majority. While the Congress wanted Narasimha Rao to be a powerless un-elected (Rajya Sabha member) yes-man of the Nehru-Gandhi family, NTR actively made sure Narasimha Rao had independent power. This earned Telugu people some influence even when the Congress was in power at the centre. His National Front government at the centre led by V. P. Singh was at the forefront of social justice by implementing the provisions in the Mandal Commission for providing 27% reservation for Other Backward Classes (OBC's).
Campaigning in other states
NTR also campaigned in other states, besides Andhra Pradesh. In 1984, when the then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and fellow actor M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) was unable to campaign in the state elections due to his being hospitalised in the USA. NTR, who was a close friend of MGR, campaigned for his party, the 'All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), despite the fact that that party was an ally of the Congress at the time. As leader of the National Front, he campaigned extensively for the constituent parties when they faced elections, again using his Chaitanya Ratham campaigning concept.
In May 1942, at the age of 20, while still pursuing his Intermediate, NTR married Basava Tarakam, the daughter of his maternal uncle. The couple had twelve children- eight sons and four daughters. The sons were (Late) Nandamuri Ramakrishna Sr., Nandamuri Jayakrishna, (Late) Nandamuri Saikrishna, Nandamuri Harikrishna, Nandamuri Mohanakrishna, Nandamuri Balakrishna, Nandamuri Ramakrishna Jr. and Nandamuri Jayashankar Krishna. The daughters were Garapati Lokeswari, Daggubati Purandeswari, Nara Bhuvaneswari and Kantamaneni Uma Maheswari.
His eldest son Nandamuri Ramakrishna Sr. died in 1962, soon after NTR completed shooting of the film Dakshayagnam. NTR founded the film studio Ramakrishna Studios in Nacharam in his memory. His fourth son Nandamuri Harikrishna is a child actor-turned-politician elected to the Rajya Sabha, representing the TDP. Harikrishna's sons Nandamuri Kalyan Ram and Jr. NTR are also actors in the Telugu film industry (Tollywood), with the latter being one of the top actors in the industry today. Nandamuri Balakrishna is one of the leading actors in Tollywood from the mid-1980s. He also started his career as a child artist. Balakrishna has plans to contest the 2014 assembly elections as a TDP candidate. Nandamuri Ramakrishna Jr. is a film producer. Nandamuri Saikrishna, who was a theatre owner, died in 2004 following diabetic complications. The other sons Jayakrishna and Mohanakrishna are noted cinematographers. Mohanakrishna's son Taraka Ratna is also a Tollywood actor.
NTR's second daughter Purandeswari is the sitting MP from Visakhapatnam representing the Congress. She is also the incumbent Union Minister of State for Commerce and Industry. She is married to Daggubati Venkateswara Rao, who is also in the Congress and is distantly related to film producer D. Ramanaidu. His third daughter Bhuvaneswari is married to Nara Chandrababu Naidu.
Basava Tarakam died of cancer in 1985. In her memory, NTR established the Basavatarakam Indo-American Cancer Hospital in Hyderabad in 1986. In 1993, at the age of 70, NTR married again, this time to Lakshmi Parvathi, a Telugu writer. He became the stepfather to Lakshmi Parvathi's son from her first marriage, Koteshwara Prasad, as a result of the marriage. She was the author of his 2-volume biography, which was published after his death. However she was never accepted as a family member by NTR's family members, who kept a distance from her after NTR's death.
Awards and honours
- 1954 - Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film in Telugu (producer — National Art Theater) for Thodu Dongalu
- 1960 - Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film in Telugu (producer — National Art Theater) for Seetharama Kalyanam
- 1970 - National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu (director) for Varakatnam
- 1968 — Padma Shri award from the Government of India
- 1978 — Honorary Doctorate from Andhra University
Awards instituted in the honor of NTR
The NTR National Award is a national award in honour of NTR. It was instituted in 1996 by the Government of Andhra Pradesh to recognise notable film personalities for their lifetime achievements and contributions to the Indian film industry.
Universities placed in the honor of NTR
Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences was established as University of Health Sciences by the government of Andhra Pradesh and was inaugurated on 9 April by N. T. Rama Rao, the then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh in the city of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. It started functioning on 1 November 1986. After the death of Rama Rao, it was decided to rename the University after him, and this was carried out on 2 February 1998. The university celebrated its silver jubilee from 1–3 November 2011.
As an Actor, Director & Producer
As a Writer
- Bidaai (1974) (story)
- Daana Veera Soora Karna (1977) (story - with the support of Kondaveeti Venkatakavi)
State Elections Contested
As a Assembly member
|1983||Elected||7th Assembly||Gudivada||Telugu Desam Party|
|Elected||7th Assembly||Tirupati||Telugu Desam Party|
|1985||Re-elected||8th Assembly||Gudivada||Telugu Desam Party|
|Elected||8th Assembly||Hindupur||Telugu Desam Party|
|1989||Re-elected||9th Assembly||Hindupur||Telugu Desam Party|
|Defeated||9th Assembly||Kalwakurthy||Telugu Desam Party|
|1994||Re-elected||10th Assembly||Hindupur||Telugu Desam Party|
|Elected||10th Assembly||Tekkali||Telugu Desam Party|
As a Chief Minister
- 1983: Contested by Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh 7th assembly elections, he won 202 with 54.03% vote share. The party stormed to power within nine months of its formation in this assembly elections, thus forming the first non-Congress government in Andhra Pradesh..
- 1985: Contested by Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh 8th assembly elections, he won 202 with 46.21% vote share.
- 1994: Contested by Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh 10th assembly elections, he won 225 with 44.14% vote share.
Total number of day's he worked as Chief Minister is 2751 day's.
As an Opposition Leader in Assembly
- 1989: Contested by Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh 9th assembly elections, he won 74 with 36.54% vote share.
As a Leader of Lok Sabha Oppostion party
General elections were held in India in 1984 soon after the assassination of previous Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, though the vote in Assam and Punjab was delayed until 1985 due to ongoing fighting.
The election was won convincingly by the Indian National Congress of Rajiv Gandhi (son of Indira), who claimed 404 seats, and a majority of 295 in the 533-seat parliament. The Telugu Desam Party of N. T. Rama Rao, a regional political party from the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, was the second largest party, winning 30 seats, thus achieving the distinction of becoming the first regional party to become a national opposition party.
NTR died of a heart attack on 18 January 1996 at his residence in Hyderabad, aged 72. He was cremated and his ashes were immersed at Srirangapatna by his second wife eight years later, in 2004, after Chandrababu Naidu was ousted from power in the assembly elections in Andhra Pradesh of that year.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to N. T. Rama Rao.|
- List of Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh
- Government of Andhra Pradesh
- Elections in Andhra Pradesh
- Politics of Andhra Pradesh
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Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy
|Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
|Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
Marri Chenna Reddy
Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy
|Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
Nara Chandrababu Naidu