NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) or cryopyrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) gene. The gene is also called cold induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1 (CIAS1) and is located on the long arm of chromosome 1. Another name for the protein is caterpiller-like receptor 1.1 (CLR1.1).
This gene encodes a pyrin-like protein which contains a pyrin domain, a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain, and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif. This protein interacts with pyrin domain (PYD) of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). Proteins which contain the caspase recruitment domain, CARD, have been shown to be involved in inflammation and immune response. This protein may function as an activator of NF-κB signaling.
Deregulation of NLRP3 has been connected with cancer pathogenesis. For example, one study showed that all of the NLRP3 components are downregulated or completely lost in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Besides, there are evidences that NLRP3 is regulated by ROS, though the precise mechanisms of such regulation is largely elusive.
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