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NAMI-A and KP1019 are two ruthenium anticancer agents that have entered clinical trials. NAMI is an acronym for "New Anti-tumour Metastasis Inhibitor", while the -A suffix indicates that this is the first of a potential series.
NAMI-A and KP1019 are based primarily around the use of Ruthenium, a rare noble metal. Ruthenium is unknown to living systems, with a strong complex forming ability with numerous ligands. Its partially filled 4d sub-shell allows it to form complexes that are useful for a wide variety of applications including catalysis, electronics, photochemistry, biosensors and anticancer drugs. Ruthenium, unlike traditional platinum complexes, shows greater resistance to hydrolysis and more selective action on tumors.
- Kostova, I., Ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents. Current medicinal chemistry 2006, 13 (9), 1085-1107. doi:10.2174/092986706776360941
- Lentz, F.; Drescher, A.; Lindauer, A.; Henke, M.; Hilger, R. A.; Hartinger, C. G.; Scheulen, M. E.; Dittrich, C.; Keppler, B. K.; Jaehde, U.; Central European Society for Anticancer Drug Research-EWIV (2009). "Pharmacokinetics of a novel anticancer ruthenium complex (KP1019, FFC14A) in a phase I dose-escalation study". Anti-Cancer Drugs 20 (2): 97–103. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e328322fbc5. PMID 19209025.
- Gopal, Y.; Jayaraju, D.; Kondapi, A., Inhibition of Topoisomerase II Catalytic Activity by Two Ruthenium Compounds: A Ligand-Dependent Mode of Action†. Biochemistry 1999, 38 (14), 4382-4388. doi:10.1021/bi981990s
- Antonarakis, E.; Emadi, A., Ruthenium-based chemotherapeutics: are they ready for prime time? Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 2010, 66 (1), 1-9. 3. doi:10.1007/s00280-010-1293-1
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