NAT64

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

NAT64 is a mechanism to allow IPv6 hosts to communicate with IPv4 servers. The NAT64 server is the endpoint for at least one IPv4 address and an IPv6 network segment of 32-bits (for instance 64:ff9b::/96, see RFC 6052, RFC 6146). The IPv6 client embeds the IPv4 address it wishes to communicate with using these bits, and sends its packets to the resulting address. The NAT64 server then creates a NAT-mapping between the IPv6 and the IPv4 address, allowing them to communicate.[1]

Principle of operation[edit]

NAT64 and DNS64

A simple NAT64 installation may consist of a gateway with two interfaces connected to an IPv4 network and an IPv6 network, respectively. Traffic from the IPv6 network is routed via the gateway that performs all the necessary translations for transferring packets between the two networks. However, the translation is not symmetric,[2] as the IPv6 address space is much larger than the IPv4 address space; thus, one-to-one address mapping is not possible. The gateway maintains IPv6-to-IPv4 address mapping, which may be established manually (stateless mapping) or automatically (stateful mapping) when the first packet from the IPv6 network reaches the NAT64 gateway.

Stateless translation is appropriate when a NAT64 translator is used in front of IPv4-only servers to allow them to be reached by remote IPv6-only clients. Stateful translation is suitable for deployments at the client side or at the service provider, allowing IPv6-only client hosts to reach remote IPv4-only nodes.

In general, NAT64 is designed to be used when the communication is initiated by IPv6 hosts. Some mechanisms, including static address mapping, exist to allow the inverse scenario.[citation needed]

Not everything is accessible with NAT64, such as SIP, WebSocket, Skype, MSN, and sites with IPv4 literals.[a] However, 464XLAT RFC 6877,[3] which uses NAT64, allows use of such protocols over IPv6-only connections.

Implementations[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Using a dual-stacked web proxy allows IPv6-only clients to access even web pages with IPv4 literals in URLs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ RFC 6146 Stateful NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers
  2. ^ Mavrin, Alex. "NAT64 power and limitations". Blog article. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "RFC 6877 - 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation". Tools.ietf.org. Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
  4. ^ "[Ecdysis-discuss] NAT64 in OpenBSD". Viagenie.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
  5. ^ Worldwide. "Release Notes for the Cisco ASA Series, 9.0(x) [Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Next-Generation Firewalls] - Cisco Systems". Cisco.com. Retrieved 2014-01-31.