Hole punching

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Hole punching is a computer networking technique for establishing communications between two parties in separate organizations who are both behind restrictive firewalls. Used for applications such as online gaming, P2P and VoIP, both clients establish a connection with an unrestricted third-party server that uncovers external and internal address information for them. Since each client initiated the request to the server, the server knows their IP addresses and port numbers assigned for that session, which it shares one to the other. Having valid port numbers causes the firewalls to accept the incoming packets from each side. ICMP hole punching, UDP hole punching and TCP hole punching respectively use Internet Control Message, User Datagram and Transmission Control Protocols. Using TCP nefarious hole punching, it is possible to send compressed SYN packets through into a common ACK path.

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